The machicolation (étymologiquement " what makes it possible to run out all that écrase") are square openings or broad grooves practiced in the ground of the Covered way of a tower or a Courtine, and allowing to defend the foot of it while dropping from the stones, the pieces of wood or the extreme matters. The machicolations existed in the Hourd S of wood which one raised on the rampart S in the first times of the Moyen-âge and until the 13th century. But the Hourd S being often set fire to by besieging, one replaced them, towards the end of the 13th century, by covered ways of stone built in Encorbellement at the top of the walls and turns, and bored brought closer holes by which one dropped on the attacking one from materials from all nature as the stone, from ebullient water, heated pitch, extreme sand, etc
The machicolation represents a big change of defense since it makes it possible to cover the base even ramparts.
Two systems are used:
Machicolation on corbels , more the current which, via the corbel X, is pressed on the massive rampart.
Machicolation on arc , which defers the loads on the carrying points where it is pressed on the buttresses, walls having only one role of fence.
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