Mac OS X
Mac OS X is a line of operating systems graphic owner developed and marketed by Apple, of which the most recent version is installed on the sold Macintosh. Mac OS X is the successor of the system Mac OS, which had been the principal operating system of Apple since 1984. Contrary to its predecessors, Mac OS X fact part of the family of the operating systems Unix, based on the technologies developed by NeXT since the middle of the years 1980 until the repurchase of the company by Apple in 1997. The first version of the system was Mac OS X Server 1.0, marketed in 1999, followed by a version directed for the general public in May 2001.
The version waiter of Mac OS X is architecturalement identical to the version general public, but incorporates Logiciel S facilitating the installation and the administration of Data-processing network, electronic mail server and waiter SAMBA, inter alia.
In spite of its name suggesting that it is the " version 10" of Mac OS, Mac OS X has a history almost completely independent of the preceding versions of Mac OS. Mac OS X is based on the core Mach and the implementation BSD of Unix, which were incorporated in NEXTSTEP, the operating system directed object developed by the company founded by Steve Jobs after her departure of Apple in 1985, NeXT. During the absence of Jobs, Apple also tried to constitute the operating system " news génération" with the project Copland, without much success.
Finally, the operating system of NeXT, up to that point called OPENSTEP, was chosen by Apple to form the base of their next system, from where its purchase of NeXT, hoping to convince their developers of applications by his wealth of terms of functions to pass to this new platform. Jobs was re-enlisted, and later found the head of the company, directing the transformation of the easy system of access to the developers which was OPENSTEP towards what was going to be accommodated later by the users of Apple, a project raising at this time the name of Rhapsody. Rhapsody evolved/moved later in Mac OS X.
Mac OS X evolved during its various versions, by stressing not towards the compatibility with the previous models, but rather to a " digital" lifestyle; , as presented with the continuation ILife, the work station IWork and the integration of a multi-media module (Face Row).
Evolution compared to Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9, multitask co-operative and heir to all the history of the previous models, was in fact considered by much as being a very limited system. The “ base ” was replaced by a Unix, more precisely a micronucleus enriched XNU (Darwin and BSD).
The Graphical interface (from now on called Aqua) was enriched and re-examined; it keeps certain principle-key like the single menu, and in additions of others like Exposé, while preserving to it principle-key of Ergonomie which made the success of the Macintosh. Moreover, the appearance of a Dock, the reaction of the interface to the actions of the user by animations, the use of the transparency, colors plus brushed metal sharp even marked considerably the passage between Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X . It is also with this transition that three new types of interfaces to create applications appeared: Classic, an environment recreating that of Mac OS 9 in order to make there function the applications which are dependant there; Carbon, an interface C allowing a simple bearing of Mac OS 9 to OS X and finally Cocoa, an Objective-C interface allowing the development of new applications entirely integrated into the OS X aspect (to be noted that Cocoa can also be used in Java, in Python, and surely of other languages).
According to Apple, the number of users of Mac OS X in the world rose to 19 million, in August 2006 (figure given at the time of the WWDC 2006 of the 8/7/2006). The share of users of Mac OS X remains nevertheless tiny compared with the share of users of Windows.
With regard to the share of users of Macintosh (Mac OS 9 confused and Mac OS X), it would rise with 3,6 % according to the majority of the statistics. It is advisable nevertheless to take these figures with precaution, because they result generally from reports/ratios of frequentation of Web sites, and thus take into account only the users Net surfers.
In spite of its low number of users, Mac OS X does not remain about it less very mediatized, and this thanks to a communication very organized on behalf of Apple. The principle of the Teasing and a policy of secrecy feeds considerably all the discussions which refer to Mac OS X or the Macintosh. Discussions which generally revolve around an opposition Mac/PC Windows, where “ affrontent ” (most of the time very vigorously) partisans of each “ camp ” (often of the trolls, but not always). Since the adoption by Apple of processors Intel for its Macintosh, it is possible to install there any operating system X86 (for example Windows XP thanks to Bootcamp, Windows Vista as well as the majority of the Linux), which did not fail to increase these same discussions, thus supporting the popularity of the system.
The Interface reiterates the essence of the environment of the operating systems of Macintosh: the Slip-to deposit is deeply integrated there, the files with automatic opening are preserved, the single menu and in this one the “ small Pomme ” also. It integrates certain taken again elements of NeXT, like the Dock and navigation in the files by columns.
At the exit of Mac OS X, various user groups as certain historical figures of Macintosh emitted criticisms on the new interface, which according to them had too important differences with that of the preceding versions of the operating system.
Applications provided with the system
- Automator , makes it possible to combine a certain number of preset actions to carry out repetitive tasks. The parameter setting of these automations is carried out in a graphic way , which makes the it available to greatest number, but at the price according to some of a loss of functionalities. The tasks are carried out by AppleScript or Perl, in a transparent way.
- Safari , Navigator Web based on a derivative of the engine of returned KHTML.
- Email , Customer email.
- QuickTime Player , multimedia player.
- Reader DVD , reader of DVD.
- Seen , viewer of images and documents pdf.
- IChat , multiprotocol customer of Instant messaging.
- ITunes , reader and manager of music, videos clip and podcasts.
- Transfer of images , makes it possible to recover images since a numerical Camera, a scanner or any other material of acquisition.
- ICal , Diary and Calendar.
- Livre of the police forces makes it possible to manage font faces.
- Face Row , interface “ media center ” controlled by the Infra-red Remote control Apple Remote, giving access the discotheque of ITunes, the photographic library of IPhoto, the video sequences of the user, the trailer of Cinema on line and DVD.
- Cocoa , libraries of programming Directed object (languages Objective-C and Java).
- Carbon , libraries of programming Directed object (languages C, C++).
- QuickTime , a whole of libraries allowing to handle in reading and writing of the video contents. There exists a multimedia player of the same name which is pressed on these libraries.
- Spotlight (since Mac OS X 10.4) is an search engine of Métadonnée S integrated nativement into the system. This technology makes it possible to find the contents of the files in an almost instantaneous way, with the manner of Beagle, Kat or Google Desktop Search. This technology allowed the appearance of functionalities such as the “ files dynamiques ” (files whose contents are constantly brought up to date by Spotlight on the basis of evolutionary criterion of research). One of the advantages of this new technology is its modularity (the search criteria specific to an application or a type of file can be added by plug-in). In short, Spotlight brings to the user an instantaneous research on the contents of the files, the files themselves and construction in the form of lists or of groups known as " intelligents" pointed requests of research. A concurrent technology was integrated by Microsoft in Windows Vista in 2007.
Statistics obtained thanks to the Hitup software show (on a reduced sample) the great stability of the système : up to 1679 days (more than 4 years) without starting again on simple work stations of private individuals (see here). These figures “ of uptime ” are with relativiser ; load and conditions of use, the material and the applications used being indeed unknown.
NSA (National Security Agency) published a guide of safety where it estimates that the operating system Mac OS X, in its version 10.3, is not only surest of the operating systems “ clients ”, but that its simple configuration by defect (that found with the purchase of the Ordinateur) is surest.
There exists only little of virus to date under Mac OS X. Only of the malevolent programs such Opener (also named Renepo ), which is not propagated by itself and must be installed by the user to function could defray the chronicle. It is thus neither about a virus, nor of a Trojan . One of the rare announced viruses, Hacktool Underhand , was in fact an error in the update of a commercial antivirus. In February 2006, one discovered Trojan the Leap-A (or Oompa-A ) ; it is propagated via the Instant messaging IChat.
On the other hand, according to the census of Secunia of February 2004 to 2006, the system of Apple was touched by more faults, all categories confused (critical, important or weak), that Windows XP, to which one often opposes it. These faults nevertheless all are corrected (whereas three are not it for Windows XP), more quickly and more ouvertement : the updates clearly and are more largely announced. Moreover, the updates of safety, fewer at Apple, are more largely applied by the users of Mac, which limits the propagation of the faults.
The obvious safety of the system can also come from the low number of Apple machines in the information technology infrastructure mondial ; the exit of a virus exploiting a possible fault being made useless because it would be impossible to diffuse efficiently.
supported Filesystem local, network and protocols
Mac OS X makes it possible to format the hard drives in five different filesystems:
- HFS : the original version of filesystem of Mac OS (sometimes still used in some CD-ROM)
- HFS+: a modified version of the HFS (introduced with Mac OS 8 .1) which allows the management of larger discs (most widespread currently).
- HFSX: a new variation of the HFS (introduced with Mac OS X 10.4), the difference being the support of the sensitivity to breakage (capital/tiny difference) in a file name.
- NTFS (in reading only, or read/write with NTFS-3G)
- ftp (in reading only)
- WebDAV via the order mount_webdav. It is also the protocol used to reach on an account . Mac.
Its core Open Source XNU , is a hybrid core based on the micronucleus Mach and a version of Unix resulting from BSD 4.4 ensuring compatibility POSIX to him. With the top of this unit, Apple grafted other strategic technologies of which some are inherited the late system NeXTSTEP. Apple joined to Mac OS X its multi-media technology QuickTime.
Environments of programming
Posting 2D (CoreGraphics) gathers QuickDraw and Quartz. This last is the ultramodern engine of posting which manages nativement the format pdf, the transparency and the transition by-point towards the vectorial one.
Mac OS X has an interface called Aqua, different from those of the old systems Macintosh (Platinium, whose dream is available on certain distributions Linux), whose programs run on the new system thanks to a version improved of Mac OS 9, version 9.2.2, perfectly integrated into the system, baptized Classic .
The bearing of the applications is simplified thanks to the environment of programming Carbon which is a rewriting for Mac OS X of the API of Mac OS. Carbon is used for the multiplates-forms applications because of its resemblance to the API Win32 of Windows.
Lastly, the environment Cocoa , evolution of the API of OpenStep, is the native environment of the system. Cocoa is conceived and programmable in Objective C or Java (the Cocoa support for Java was recently abandoned but is always present) and is directed object. The applications programmed in Cocoa can benefit from certain contributions of system X (10, and not X Window), such as the services, unified, available for all the applications supporting them (unified dictionary, research Internet, etc). Moreover, Cocoa uses resources of the CoreFoundation, unified system making it possible to the programmers to have to deal only of the interface (and still, its management is simplified by Interface Builder ) and with the essential functions of the software, without having to deal with the remainder. CoreFoundation contains, particularly CoreImage and CoreData since Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger. Cocoa is not used for the software multiplates-forms, because there does not exist any equivalent in the others operating systems, and Objective C is a language little used in addition.
Based on an environment NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD, it allows with Apple X11, based on XFree86, the simple bearing of the applications developed for other Unix systems like GNU-Linux or BSD. X11 uses by defect the Graphical interface Quartz Window Manager, unless installing X11 environments related to Mac OS X, such as GNOME, KDE, Oroborus or Xfce.
Several projects are dedicated to the simple bearing of the applications Linux or UNIX, such as Fink (directed Debian GNU/Linux) or Darwinports (directed *BSD). Moreover, the use without bearing of application Windows will be perhaps natural in very little time, thanks to the project Darwine (bearing of the project Wine, for UNIX with architecture X86). The libraries are under development. The integration and the fluidity of the applications using X11 in Mac OS X however leave something to be desired compared so that achieved Apple for the Classic environment and compared to the experiment which one can nativement have under Linux. Many users of Mac OS X reject for this reason the applications using X11.
http://fink.sourceforge.net (project Fink)
- http://darwinports.opendarwin.org (project Darwinports)
- http://darwine.opendarwin.org (project Darwine)
- Mac OS X Server 1.0. Exit: Public March 16th, 1999
- Mac OS X Beta. Exit: September 13rd, 2000
- Mac OS X 10.0 “ Cheetah ” (French cheetah), marketed on March 24th, 2001
- Mac OS X 10.1 “ Puma ”, marketed on September 25th, 2001
- Mac OS X 10.2 “ Jaguar ”, marketed on August 24th, 2002
- Mac OS X 10.3 “ Panther ”, marketed on October 24th, 2003
- Mac OS X 10.4 “ Tiger ”, marketed on April 29th, 2005
- Mac OS X 10.5 “ Leopard ”, marketed on October 26th, 2007
To each version of Mac OS X corresponds a version of Mac OS X Server, the number of the version having been synchronized starting from Mac OS X 10.0. Indeed, Mac OS X Server 1.0 was only one fast bearing of OpenStep, while versions 10 are, they, based on Mac OS X.
Moreover, Mac OS X was programmed in order to be able to be (very) easily adapted to another architecture processor. It is the order which Steve Jobs acknowledges (the June 6th 2005 at the time of WWDC 2005) to have given to its teams at the beginning of the design of Mac OS X, while adding " Just in box… " (if…) with an amused air. The first version of Mac OS X for Intel is diffused with the general public since the January 10th 2006 at the same time as the exit of the new ranges MacBook Pro and IMac ; it is one 10.4.4 in version Universal Binaries (compatible at the same time Intel and PowerPC).
- Operating system
- Comparison of the operating systems
- Mac OS, Mac OS X 10.3, Mac OS X 10.4
- Ipfirewall (or Ipfw) the software module which provides functions of fire wall for Mac OS X .
- Innovations of Mac OS X 10.5 - Leopard (official site)
- Test of Mac OS X 10.5 - Leopard (nonofficial site)
- Another test of Mac OS X 10.5 - Leopard
- Re-examined and analyzes complete of Mac OS X 10.4
- Guide of introduction to Mac OS X with format pdf
- Liste of Open Source software for Mac OS X
Beats-smg: Mac OS X Be-X-old: Mac OS X Simple: Mac OS X Zh-min-nan: Mac OS X
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