The romanche ( Rumantsch in romanche) is recognized like one of the four national languages of the Suisse since the February 20th 1938, and he is regarded with certain restrictions as Official language on a federal scale since the popular Votation of the March 10th 1996. He is spoken only in the canton about the Grisons where he has an official statute since the 19th century. Its use being in slow regression (- 15% since ten years, less than forty thousand speakers), of fears go on the future of this language. The new school handbooks published by the canton as well as the administrative documents are from now on only in the unified form of the language entitled “Rumantsch grischun”, however the great majority of the schools and of the municipal authorities still use the five infra-regional written languages.
HistoryIn 1527, Juan Through, war and statesman, wrote a kind of Chanson de geste (Chanzun of Guarra). Two other founders of the written language are the reformer Philippe Saluz and Giachem Bifrun.
If the Protestants often resort for fine polemics to the language romanche, the catholic abbey of Disentis is the hearth at the 17th century of a new literature.
During the modern time, it is necessary to quote national poets like Peider Lansel, Gion Fontana or Maurus Carnot, as well as scholars like Planto or Andréa Schorta, authors of a Grison toponymic Dictionnaire .
ClassificationIt is a Romance Langue, group Rhéto-roman, and thus near to the Ladin and Frioulan.
Official statuteThe romanche is “official language for the reports/ratios which the Confederation maintains with the people language romanche.” The romanche is very only seldom used at the time of the debates at the federal Parliament. It is sometimes used in the road signs of the Canton of the Grisons.
Different the romanchesThe romanche is not only one and single language, but five different natural languages, having each one its own standardized written form:
- the sursilvan , or sursylvain , for 13 ' 879 native speakers in the area of the the Former Rhine,
- the sutsilvan , or subsylvain , for 571 native speakers in the valley of the the Posterior Rhine,
- the surmiran , or sourmiran , for 2 ' 085 native speakers in the valleys of the Albula and the Julier,
- the puter for 2 ' 343 native speakers in High-Engadine,
- the vallader for 5 ' 138 native speakers in Low-Engadine.
Alphabetical order and value of the graphèmes
Alphabetical order: as in French. The letters W, are not employed there (except in foreign words).
Contrary to current French, the vowels romanches can be long or short. (To simplify, it is not held by it account in the indications below.)
has, I: as in French.
E, E, E = E, E (in final syllable to avoid the pronunciation " E muet" or to distinguish from the homographs); in vallader, E does not get busy and E is a closed sound.
E = (1) E, E; (2) in the finales - el, - EM, - er (excluded monosyllables): E dumb as in German.
ö (engadinois) = have French.
U (engadinois) = U French.
Many diphthongs, deciding in general as they are written.
The tonic accent is clearly pronounced, on one of the two last syllables. To compare the difference between happy and hour in southernmost French. Examples in vallader: sandà "santé" , but probed " samedi" ; pajan (final accent as in French: " païen"), but pajan (accent on the first syllable as in French: " they paient").
The tonic accent is indicated by a point under the vowel in the dictionaries and grammars.
B, D, F, K, L, m, N, R, T, v: as in French.
C: (1) in front of has, O, U = K as in French; (2) in front of E, I = ts.
(1) in engadinois = tch palatal (see below the explanation of tg); a French-speaking person is likely to confuse this sound with tsch, but in romanche it is about a definitely different phoneme: engadinois tschinch " cinq" ;
(2) in sursilvan, sutsilvan, surmiran (in front of E, I) = K.
dsch (engadinois): in theory = French dj; often marked tsch under the influence of German.
G: (1) in front of has, O, U: as in French; (2) in front of E, I, ö, U: dj palatal (wet), a little as in a popular pronunciation of " good dieu" (good djieu); it is the sound phoneme corresponding to tg (below); in vallader, at the beginning of word, this sound is tiny room to the semivowel J (below).
gl (in front of I, U and at the end of the word), gli (in front of has, E, O, U) = L wet (like Li in allied French , but in only one sound). Examples: glima "lime" , egl (engadinois ögl ) " oeil".
Note: (1) what is called traditionally " L mouillé" in French, as in he worked , is not any more one L wet itself, but a simple semivowel, as in Maya ; (2) the letters G and L decide separately (as in French) in front of has, E, O, U and sometimes exceptionally even in front of I, U. Examples: glatsch "glace" ; sursilvan gliergia , putèr glüergia , alternatives of gloria " gloire".
gn = N wet, as in French (romanche muntogna , French mountain ). Note: sometimes, G and N decide separately, as in French in stagnation, agnostic: romanche magnet (of German) " aimant".
H: (1) at the beginning of word: in general nonmarked, except in the words of Germanic origin; (2) between vowels (sursilvan) or at the end of the word (putèr): aspired.
J: semivowel, like there French in yacht, to test.
qu = (as in Italian).
(1) S deaf (French S, S), sometimes even between vowels: vallader its " six" , sesanta " soixante" (sursilvan located, sissonta , rumantsch grischun located, sessanta .
(2) S sound (French Z, S), sometimes even at the beginning of word: rosa (engadinois rösa ) " rose" , knew (engadinois suot ) " sous".
(3) in front of deaf consonant (even inside word) = French CH: festa (sursilvan fiasta ) " fête" (to pronounce feschta, fiaschta); sco (putèr scu ) " comme" (to pronounce schkô, schkou).
(4) in front of sound consonant = J French: engadinois sdun "cuillère" (sursilvan and rumantsch grischun " tschadun").
(1) sch deaf = French CH: schanza "chance" , sche (engadinois scha ) " si" (expressing a condition); nascher (sursilvan nescher ; accent on the first syllable) " naître" (cf imperfect naschaiva , nascheva , " naissait").
(2) sch sound = J French: Grischun (name: canton of the Grisons; inhabitant of this canton), grischun (adjectival: canton of the Grisons); schanugl (engadinois " schnuogl") " genou".
Note: if the word romanche has a French correspondent, the pronunciation of the sch is foreseeable. As one sees it on the examples above, if the word corresponding in French has S deaf, S or CH , the romanche has a deaf sch ; if the word corresponding in French has S sound or G , the romanche has a sound sch .
S-CH (engadinois) = sch + tch platal (cf rules above for S in front of deaf consonant and CH in engadinois); this group of sounds is written stg in the remainder of the romanche and in rumantsch grischun.
tg (sursilvan, sutsilvan, surmiran and rumantsch grischun): left tch palatal (wet); cf German Plättchen , but as romanche it is acted of a single sound; French cf T in front of I or U in the pronunciation of the young people: the language is largely applied to the palate as for the semivowel (French there); imagine somebody which would pronounce " entier" and " inquiet" same French manner.
Note: in rumantsch grischun, this sound is written tg in general, but CH in front of has at the beginning of word; it is a consequence of the will to remain as close as possible to the C-W communication of the preexistent languages romanches: cf vallader chüna, surmiran tgegna, sursilvan tgina " berceau": rumantsch grischun tgina; but vallader drove out, surmiran tgesa, sursivan put " maison": rumantsch grischun drove out.
tsch: as in French " match" ; to distinguish from the written palatal CH or tg.
Z: (1) ts, (2) dz.
Examples of comparative sentencesThe beginning, simplified, of the corbel and the fox, in different the romanches, in Italian and French
SursilvanThe uolp will era puspei inagada fomentada. Cheu ha elected viu sin in pegn in tgaper che teneva in fake caschiel in siu nozzle. Quei gustass has semi, ha elected tertgau, ED ha clamau Al tgaper: “Tgei Bi che Ti eis! Sche tiu cant I.E.(internal excitation) aschi bials sco tia cumparsa, read eis Ti it fold Bi utschi da tuts”.
SutsilvanThe vualp will eara puspe egn' eada fumantada. Qua â elected vieu SEN egn pegn egn corv Ca taneva egn fake caschiel ainten sieus pecel. Quegl gustass has mei, â elected tartgieu, ED â clamo agli corv: “Tge beal Ca tei be! Scha tieus tgànt E aschi beal sco tia pareta, will alura are tei igl ple beal utschi da tuts”.
SurmiranThe golp will era puspe eneda famantada. Cò ò elected via SEN in pegn in corv tgi tigniva in fake caschiel year SIES pecal. Chegl amndt gustess, ò elected panso, ED ò clamo CASE corv: “Beautiful Tge tgi you STI! Schi ties cant beautiful E schi scu tia parentscha, will alloura STI you igl beautiful fold utschel da tots”.
PutérThe vuolp of will eira darcho üna arched famanteda. Cò ho' the screw sün a pine a corv chi tgnaiva a töch chaschöl in sieu pical. That amndt gustess, ho' the penso, ED Ho clamo Al corv: “Beautiful Che cha you is! Scha tieu chaunt beautiful scu tia apparentscha, will alura is you are uschè it beautiful Pu utschè da tuots”.
ValladerThe vuolp of will eira darcheu üna jada fomantada. Qua ha' the screw sün a pine a corv chi tgnaiva a fake chaschöl in seis pical. Quay amndt gustess, ha' the pensà, ED ha clomà Al corv: “Beautiful Che cha you is! Scha teis song beautiful sco tia apparentscha, will lura is you are uschè it plü beautiful utschè da tuots”.
Rumantsch GrischunThe vulp will era puspè ina giada fomentada. Qua ha elected screw sin in pign in corv che tegneva in fake chaschiel in its pichel. Quay my gustass, ha elected pensà, ED ha clamà Al corv: “Beautiful Tge che Ti be! Sche your song beautiful E uschè sco tia parita, will lura are Ti it beautiful fold utschè da tuts”.
Swiss Canticle in romanche: psalm svizzer
In will aurora the damaun your salida it carstgaun, spiert etern dominatur, Tutpussent! Cur ch' they munts straglischan will sura, will ura Svizzer liber, will ura. Mia olma senta ferm, Mia olma senta ferm God in tschiel, it bab etern, God in tschiel, it bab etern.
Er will saira it in splendur da tired stailas in the azure tai chattain naked, creatur, Tutpussent! Cur ch' it firmament sclerescha in our horns fidanza crescha. Mia olma senta ferm, Mia olma senta ferm God in tschiel, it bab etern, God in tschiel, it bab etern.
Ti has naked are er preschent in it stgir dal firmament, Ti inperscrutabel spiert, Tutpussent! Tschiel E will terra to you obedeschan winds E nivels secundeschan. Mia olma senta ferm, Mia olma senta ferm God in tschiel, it bab etern, God in tschiel, it bab etern.
Cur the furia da the orcan F tremblar it horn uman alur das Ti has naked vigur, Tutpussent! ED into temporal sgarschaivel stas frank Ti has naked fidaivel. Mia olma senta ferm, Mia olma senta ferm God in tschiel, It bab etern, God in tschiel, it bab etern.
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