The metropolisation (étymologiquement composed starting from the word metropolis, meter-polishes: city-mother) is a space dynamics contributing to organize the territory around the Métropole. She sees to extend the traditional form from the fabric périurbain by connecting the principal agglomerations and, especially, the urban ways of life. It is a phenomenon world and differentiated according to the continents. The metropolisation in its reorganization of space disputes the territorial duality rural/urban.
It is characterized especially by the concentration of the people and the activities in the big cities. " métropoles" the activities of command concentrate (economic, political, cultural…) and higher tertiary functions. For this reason they are strongly gravitational for the populations.
The metropolisation involves also a redefinition of spaces within the city. The large functions consuming space (leisures, trade, industries) are rejected into the peripheries whereas the downtown areas are reserved for the favoured habitat and the activities with strong added value.
There is a double dynamics in the phenomenon of metropolisation, it is at the same time a concentration of men, activities and values on an urban pole and a redistribution of these attributes by the same pole which restructures its territory of influence thus.
Factors of explanationThis organization accompanies the revolution by mechanized individual transport. For this reason, it takes initially form in the United States and extends uniformly in landscapes characterized by. Then it is in Europe and in Japan, as from the years 1970, qu ' it appears.
This Polarization around the big cities is the consequence of the concentration of employment, which is especially tertiary, and which involves pendular flows of Migration. The metropolized territory is thus strewn with fast tracks, by-passs, highways, exchangers.
The metropolisation thus implies the reinforcement of the big cities, primarily those located at the head Urban network, or the capital cities.
it is a new manner of treating the urban one or one observes the recourse to intensive town planning by opppostion with extensive town planning, thus each piece of the urban ground is built if not used.
An example: the case of Paris
In the French case, the Parisian Centralization dating from the the Middle Ages and the Old Mode, succeeded a phenomenon of metropolisation which always tends to the reinforcement of the capital. Indeed, the policies implemented since the years 1960 (policy of industrial looseness), and especially since the beginning of the years 1980 (law of Decentralization of 1982), did not involve a loss of Parisian influence on the national plan.
Whereas Jean-François Gravier titrated, in 1947, a French work pioneer Paris and desert , one notes after 20 years of implementation of a political decentralization (DATAR) that the weight of the area Île-de-France is always important: accounting for 2% of metropolitan surface, the area concentrates 18% of the population, and accounts for 25% of GDP.
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