See also: Room
The Lower House is one of the two assemblies composing the Parlement and exerting the Legislative power jointly with the Upper House.
Origin of the term
The origin of this designation remains obscure (and also exists in English, where one speaks about lower house for the Lower House and about upper house for the Upper House), but one can suppose that, in France particularly, the opposition between Lower House and Upper House are due to the mode of election and the term of the office of the one and the other:
- the Lower House, indicated until in 1848 with the vote censitaire then, since 1875, with the Vote for all direct, with a mandate of which duration forever exceeded seven years, and who is 5 years to the maximum since 1875
- the Upper House, made up until in 1848 of irremovable pars, and 1875 with 1940 senators elected for 9 years with the Vote for all indirect (with addition of irremovable senators elected by the House of Commons), of 1946 with 1958 advisers of the Republic elected officials for 9 years by the indirect vote for all, and since 1958 senators elected for 9 years by the indirect vote for all (term of the office of those having to be gradually shortened to six years, all the senators in function in 2013 being elected for 6 years).
Use of the term in French
The terms of Lower House and Upper House are mainly used to avoid a repetition, in an press article for example.
The current use of these terms was very widespread until the end of the Third Republic.
In France, this designation applied:
- of 1814 with 1830: with the House of Commons, during the Restoration
- of 1830 with 1848: with the House of Commons, during the Monarchy of July
- of 1852 with 1870: with the legislative Body, during the Second Empire
- of 1875 with 1940: with the House of Commons, during the Third Republic
- of 1946 at 1958: with the National Assembly, during the Fourth Republic
- since 1958: with the National Assembly, during the Fifth Republic
- national Lower Houses
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