See also: Aragon

Louis Aragon (October 3rd 1897, Neuilly-sur-Seine - December 24th 1982, Paris) is a Poète and a Romancier French.

Biography

Wire naturalness of Louis Andrieux (former senator of Forcalquier) and of Marguerite Toucas. After having taken part in the Dadaism, it is one of the creators in 1924 of the movement Surréaliste with André Breton and Philippe Soupault. It joined with certain members of the surrealist group the French Communist party, to which there will remain faithful until the end of its life. It becomes critical with regard to the the USSR after the death of Stalin, following the revelations by Khrouchtchev of the crimes of the Stalinisme, until its death. Its Poésie is largely inspired since the years 1940 by the love which it carried to his wife, Elsa Triolet, writer it also and sister-in-law of Vladimir Maïakovski, that he had met in 1928. Its work as carries makes in filigree the secret wound of it not to be recognized by his/her father, Louis Andrieux, diplomat and 30 year old prefect older as his/her mother, Marguerite Toucas. This one, in order to preserve the honor of its family and her lover, made it pass for the adoptive son of its mother and Andrieux, her godfather. He evokes what was the secret drama of its life in a small collection of poems entitled Private Domaine . He was also, with Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jean Prévost, Jean-Pierre Rosnay and some others, among the poets who took party resolutely, during the Second world war, for the resistance against the Nazi EMS. It is there the subject of another deep wound: rupture with his/her friend Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, who after having “ hesitated between Communism and Fascism ” (see a woman with its window ), turned to the Nazism. Left suicide, which will push it with really giving itself death to the release. There exist also the “works crossed” between these two geniuses: Gilles and Aurélien . After the death of his wife in 1970, Aragon posts its homosexual preferences in particular, that Drieu La Rochelle had evoked as of the years 1930, in Gilles . Roger Nimier said besides, in this connection: “It is the only man able to attend a meeting of the Central committee of PCF out of pink smoking. ” He dies on December 24th, 1982, taken care by his friend Jean Ristat. He is buried in the park of the Moulin of Villeneuve, in his property of Saint-Arnoult-in-Yvelines, at the sides of his partner Elsa Triolet.

Aragon, the policy

The publicity agent

With Humanity

Louis Aragon adheres to the French Communist party in January 1927. Contrary to the majority of his surrealist friends who are detached some the following years (some to return there later, such Paul Éluard), there will remain faithful to this engagement until his death. Among its militant activities, the journalism and the direction of newspapers place Aragon in the reality of its century. He works with Humanity in 1933, for the heading of the various facts.

The Common review (1933-1939)

The same year, in July 1933, it is with Paul Nizan, sub-editor of the review Commune, published by the Association of the writers and revolutionary artists. This Association is fixed for goal to gather the most largely possible world of the culture in the fight against Fascism and the Nazism. As from January 1937, Aragon is member of the management Committee of Commune , at the sides of André Gide, Romain Roland, Paul Valiant-Dressmaker. The review consequently announces “re-examined literary Frenchwoman for the defense of the culture. ” Gide withdraws from it in August 1937, Valiant-Dressmaker dies in the autumn 1937. Romain Roland is not any more the first youth, it is thus Louis Aragon who is the effective director. It accommodates there in December 1938, as editor association, a young writer, Jacques Decour. Commune held under the aegis of Aragon an important role in the mobilization of the intellectuals for the defense of the Spanish Republic.

Director of This evening (1937-1953)

In March 1937, Aragon is called by its Party, to direct the new daily newspaper of the evening, This evening , which it launches. It shares the direction of the newspaper, which tries to compete with Paris-Evening , with the writer Jean-Richard Bloch. Its activity is intense, because it carries out face this task with the romantic writing and its participation in Commune . This evening, prohibited in August 1939, reappears with the Release. Aragon takes again the direction of the daily newspaper, in duet with Jean Richard Bloch, then only after the death of this last in 1947. The newspaper, which counts Emile Danoën among his collaborators, disappears in March 1953.

French Letters (1953-1972)

Aragon becomes director of the literary press agency the French Letters in the days which follow the stop of This evening . Shouldered by Pierre Daix, editor association, it carries out as from the Sixties an increasingly open combat against Stalinism and its after-effects in the Eastern bloc. It makes known writers such Alexandre Soljenitsyne or Milan Kundera. the French, overdrawn Letters, lose the financial support of the Communist party and must cease their publication in 1972.

The editor

Parallel to his journalistic tasks, Louis Aragon has a means to make known the writers. He is indeed general president-director of a publisher, pertaining to the communist leading orbit, the brought together French Editors (EFR). Heiresses of two houses founded in Resistance, the French Library and Yesterday and Today , the EFR which it directs with Madeleine Braun, publish in the years the 1950 French writers attached commonly to the current “realistic-Socialist”. It is with the EFR that is published First shock , the novel who is worth with André Stil, future academician Goncourt, the Prix Stalin 1953. They publish the writers “realistic Socialists” Soviet. But their role is not limited to the diffusion of these works. They make known the Czech writings Julius Fučík or Vítězslav Nezval, the poems of Rafael Alberti, Yánnis Rítsos or the work of Vladimir Maïakovski. Starting from the beginning of the year 1960, it allows the knowledge of the nonRussian Soviet literatures the such novels of the writer Kirgiz Tchinguiz Aïtmatov, but also of the Russian writers being located in the post-Stalinist “thaw”: the engineer Bakhirev , of Galina Nicolaëva, published in 1960, Babi Iar of Anatoli Kouznetsov, published in 1967. In the same way in 1964, the EFR publish the first novel of the East-German écrivaine Christa Wolf, the Sky divided . Finally in the field of poetry, Aragon launches the collection Petite siren , which makes it possible to make love with the public not only devoted authors, like Pablo Neruda, Eugene Guillevic, or Nicolas Guillen but also of young French poets, such Dominique Grandmont, Alain Lance or Jean Ristat.

The committed intellectual

As of its surrealist beginnings

“No one will not have been skilful any more detector of strange in all its forms; no one will not have been carried to daydreams if graying on a kind of catch life of the city (I see only him which could blow with Jules Romains the prestigious fable of the 365 apartments with clandestine communication which would exist in Paris). Aragon was in this direction dazing - including for itself. Extremely cordial and delivering itself without reserve in the friendship. The only danger which it runs is its too great desire to like It always loved the acrobats; no one is not intended like him to take the wind; you did not decide, even against its opinion, to climb a hill which it is already at the top… The general feeling, among [[surrealism|surrealist]], is that there remain very " littérateur" : even walking on with you by the streets, it is rare that it saves to you the reading of a text completed or not. Fatally these texts come from there to be more and more for purposes; just like he likes, while speaking in the coffees, nothing to lose his attitudes in the mirrors. ” André Breton, “ Talks ”, 1952.

Having lived the horrors of the war, the engagement of Aragon is quite former to its militant communist period. Its adhesion with the Surréalisme can be included/understood like the expression of its revolt in front of a company whose them through and the injustices insupportent it. Among his friends of the Twenties, which adhere to Communism at the same time as him, it is only which is implied quickly and entirely in the defense of the Soviet Union the, even if it means one to use for that its literary weapons: Hourrah the Ural is an example. The sectarianism which touches the Communist party in France between 1929 and 1933 does not seem to move the former follower by the surrealist provocation. The political turning of 1934, the policy of alliance, the popular front, the defense of the French culture give access to him responsibilities where it opens out. Intellectual magistère that it starts to hold is not however without shades. In 1935, at the time of the World congress of the writers for the defense of the culture, it is not those which question the socialism of the Soviet mode, in spite of information on the terror which settles, under revolutionary folding screen, in the USSR. He is opposed to his former friend André Breton, who would like to use the platform of the congress to defend Victor Serge, imprisoned there low.

Resistance

Mobilized in 1939, Aragon finds military medicine. Undergoing in May 1940 the rout of the French Armies, it shown there a courage which is worth to him to be decorated with the Military Cross and the Military decoration. Taken refuge in southern Zone, it will engage as much by the feather that as a clandestine organizer, with Resistance in the intellectual mediums. Its poetic work is put at the service of the patriotic mobilization, celebrating its Patrie of the hundred villages , the Rose and the Reseda , Gabriel Péri, that which sang in the torments , and Honore d' Estienne d' Orves, offering to the men of the maquis the Song of the franc-tireur. It also takes part, with Elsa Triolet with the setting-up of the Front National of the writers in southern zone.

Cantor of Resistance to dangerous times, it is post-war period, with Paul Éluard, Pierre Seghers, Rene Char, the poetic witness, the watcher of a memory. Thus it composes, in 1954, Strophes to remember , poem with the glory of the role from abroad in Resistance, celebrating in the Franc-tireurs and in favor of the ME of the Manouchian group whose judgment had been published on the red poster: the whole of Our brothers, however . Put in music by Léo Shoed, it became one of the most poignant songs of the French repertory.

The communist intellectual

With the Release, extremely of the influence which it gained in Resistance, Louis Aragon acquires the statute of the communist intellectual, defender of a political line. Thus, with the National committee of the writers, he assumes purification in the literary circles, his needs and his excesses. It is brought to defend the judgment by Russian of the mode of Tito in Yugoslavia, like celebrating the leaders of the time, Maurice Thorez in particular.

In 1950, Louis Aragon, at the request of Thorez, is elected at the Central committee of the French Communist party. He takes share with the authority which this function with the various ideological debates confers to him which shake its party after the death of Stalin, and more still after the XXe Congress of the PC of the USSR of 1956. Within PCF, its eminent position does not place it at the shelter of the attacks. Thus, when in 1953, the French Letters publishes a drawing of Picasso, at the time of the death of Stalin, it is constrained to make amend in front of the critics who judge the portrait iconoclast. , Put with the passing of years at the current of Stalinist repression via Elsa Triplet, its positions evolve/move. Support for the repression of risen of Budapest in 1956, support which causes the bursting of the National committee of the writers, which leaves Vercors, it leads to a very sharp judgment of the authoritative practices of Soviet Communism. It opens its newspaper with the dissidents, it rejects the lawsuits against the intellectuals, in particular in 1966 at the time of the lawsuit of the writers Siniavsky and Daniel. In May 1968, he testifies to a strong sympathy to the student movement. Then occurs, in August of the same year the intervention of the Soviet troops which puts an end to the Printemps of Prague. Aragon prefaces at this time there the French translation of the book of Milan Kundera, the Joke . Its anger makes him write a strong text: “And here is that an end of night, with the transistor, we However heard the judgment of our perpetual illusions…”, when it in 1982, it dies is always “officially” member of the Central committee of PCF.

Aragon is prize winner of the Prix Lénine for peace in 1956.

The romantic author and the poet

It signs a plural poetic work, where prose disputes it with poetry with fixed form, which it renews. After a first very free period marked by the surrealism and its plays of language, it turns over to the more traditional shape of poetry (towards measured and rhymes), very inspired by Guillaume Apollinaire, for better giving an account of France (and resistance) per hour of the second world war. After war, the political aspect of its poetry is erased more and more in front of its lyric aspect. Without never disavowing this return to the classicism, it integrates freer forms more and more there, approaching the Surréalisme of its beginnings which it always affirmed never not to have disavowed.

Its novel marries contours of the production of its century (which he invents partly), novel surrealist, realistic, then new novel. Its desire of novel was never contradicted, in spite of the mistrust of his/her surrealist friends (for which to write to a romantic sentence of the type the marchioness left at five hours was the negation even of their literary ideal by his flatness), then that of Communists which would have liked to see it exalter more the Party (he acknowledged to have stopped the drafting of its novel the Communists when many militants informed him of their satisfaction to see it finally doing what they awaited from him), without speaking about that of the critics (in particular of right-hand side) who saw in him the Communist before seeing the writer, thing which upset it.

Works

Novels and news

  • Anicet or the Panorama , 1921
  • Adventures of Télémaque , 1922
  • Libertinage , 1924
  • the Peasant of Paris , 1926
  • the Idiot of Irene , 1927 (under the name of Albert de Routisie)
  • Bells of Basle , 1934 (" Le Monde réel")
  • the Beautiful quarters , 1936 (" Le Monde réel"), Price Renaudot
  • Travellers of Imperial the , 1942 (" Le Monde réel")
  • Aurélien , 1944 (" Le Monde réel")
  • Constraint and Grandeur of the French. Scenes of the terrible years , 1945
  • the Communists (6 volumes), 1949-1951 and rewritten in 1966-1967 (" Le Monde réel")
  • the Nephew of Mr Paul , 1953
  • the Holy Week , 1958
  • the Setting with dead , 1965
  • White or the lapse of memory , 1967
  • Henri Matisse, novel , 1971
  • Theater/Romance , 1974
  • Lie-truth , 1980
  • the Defense of infinite the , 1986
  • Adventures of Unreliable fellow the Cock , 1986

Poetry

  • C , 1942
  • the Museum Grévin , published under the pseudonym of François Anger
  • Bonfire , 1919
  • the Perpetual motion , 1926
  • Large Gaîté , 1929 persecuting
  • Persecuted , 1930-1931
  • Hurrah the Ural , 1934
  • the Bad cold-Heart , 1941
  • Canticle in Elsa , 1942
  • Eyes of Elsa , 1942
  • Brocéliande , 1942
  • the Museum Grevin , 1943
  • the Rose and the Reseda , March 11th, 1943
  • the French Diane , December 1944
  • In strange country in my country itself , 1945
  • the New Bad cold-Heart , 1948
  • the unfinished Novel , 1956
  • Elsa , 1959
  • the Poets , 1960
  • the Insane one of Elsa , 1963
  • It is to me Paris only of Elsa , 1964
  • Rooms, poem of the time which does not pass , 1969

Several poems of Aragon were put in music by Lino Léonardi, Helene Martin, Léo Ferré, Jean Ferrat and Georges Brassens and sung by them same like by Yves Montand, Alain Barrière, Isabelle Aubret, Nicole Rieu, Monique Morelli or Marc Ogeret.

Complete works

  • "Poetic works complètes" , 2 flight, Gallimard the Pleiad, 2007, ISBN 2070118908

Tests

  • a wave of dreams , 1924

  • Treated style , 1928
  • For a socialist realism , 1935
  • the communist Man , 1953

Quotation

Aragon is the author of the famous maxim the woman is the future of the man : she comes from the stringcourse of the first edition of Insane of Elsa, which it posted like a watchword. One also finds in the Insane one of Elsa the worms according to:
the future of the man is the woman (in the " Zadjal of the avenir") made famous for Jean Ferrat in the form the woman is the future of the man .

In its article " To take its good where it is found or ennemis" , the French Letters , No 956, dated from December 14th to 20th 1962, it declares, referring to the writing of the " Insane of Elsa" and in the world of today:

in a world from where the idea even of God is absent, I allow myself to transcribe with my manner the formula of Marx: " The man is the future of the homme" , in this form which does not contradict it: " The woman is the future of the homme".

In a discussion with Therese de Saint-Phalle, published by " Monde" of November 9th, 1963 under the title " Louis Aragon comments on the Insane one of Elsa an epopee of four hundred pages" , he says:

I am the enemy of this reign of the man who is not finished yet. For me, the woman is the future of the man, with the direction where Marx said that the man is the future of the man.

Source Internet: Louis Aragon Online

See too

  • Pierre Daix Aragon ”, Taillandier editions, 2005.

  • Pierre Daix French Letters: stakes for the history of a newspaper - 1941-1972 ”, Taillandier editions, 2004.
  • Jean-Louis Loubet del Bayle the political illusion at the XXe century. Pilot writers of their time ”, Economica, Paris 1999.
  • Jean Malaquais Named the Louis Aragon, professional patriot ”, editions Spartacus.
  • Helene Martin Louis Aragon: the way of the birds ”, Series Lime pit song: 22 emissions for television on the poets and writers.
  • Nicole Root “ Aragon Louis ”, note for the " Biographical dictionary of the labor movement français" , version paper, volume 17, version altered in cédérom, with the 1st volume of the " Dictionary Labor movement, Movement social" , editions of the workshop, Paris, 2006.
  • Jean Ristat “ Aragon: " Start with me to read! " ”, Gallimard, collection Discovered, 1997.
  • Georges Sadoul Aragon ”, collection " Poets of aujourd'hui" , Seghers, 1967.
  • Annals of the Company of the friends of Louis Aragon and Elsa Triplet: eight annual numbers published since 1999. Number 2: Aragon and the central committee of Argenteuil. Number 4: Speech of Aragon at the central committee in 1958. Number 6: Louis Aragon and Elsa Triplet in Resistance, 1942-1944. (See site Ci below)

External bonds

  • the site of the French academics of the Interdisciplinary Research team on Elsa Triplet and Louis Aragon: ERITA.
  • site SALAET of the Company of the Friends of Aragon and Elsa Triplet. Regular publications.
  • the site House Elsa Aragon Triplet of the House Elsa Triplet and Aragon with Saint-Arnoult in Yvelines: visits, exposures, works.
  • a biography, a bibliography as well as the summary of some works on the Biblioweb site.
  • a site on Louis Aragon and Elsa Triplet, with one of the largest collections of referred quotations of the Web and two new analyzes their faces
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