The Lorraine is a area the North-East of the France whose name is inherited the duchy of the same name. Lorraine gathers four departments: the Meuse, the Meurthe-et-Moselle, the the Moselle and the the Vosges.
Its inhabitants are called the Lorraine ones and were 2.339.000 at the first January 2006.
surface of Lorraine east of 23.547 km ², each department having roughly the same surface (≈ 6.000 km ²).
Its culminating point is the Hohneck to 1.364 m; its point low is of 115m on the level of the river Saulx.
the regional headquarters is Metz. Lorraine counts 2337 communes. The area was formed inter alia starting from the old duchies of Lorraine and Bar, of the " Three bishoprices " of Metz, Toul, Verdun, counties of Vaudémont and Créhange, principalities of Salm and Commercy and part southern of the duchy of Luxembourg (area of Thionville). The county of Sarrewerden, because its population was in Protestant majority, was attached to the department of the low-Rhine (Alsace) as of 1790.
See also: Geography of Lorraine
Lorraine is the only French area to divide its borders with three other countries: the Belgium, the Luxembourg and the Germany (länder of the the Saar and the Rhineland-Palatinat). It is also close to three French areas: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté.
This situation is a strategic asset for this area located of this fact near the center of the blue Banane, this Conurbation which crosses the Europe of the Lancashire (England) to the Toscane (Italy), while passing by the Rhenish corridor .
Its code ISO 3166-2 is FR-M.
Lorraine is made of several geological entities:
the Massive of the Vosges date of the primary era: it is part of crumplings hercyniens which was raised at the time of the formation of the Alps. They constitute the edge is area.
the Lorraine Plate which constitutes practically the remainder of the area. It is as a whole attached to the Paris basin of which it trains the oriental party. Its geological formation goes back to more than 250 million years. It is intersected with lines of successive coasts: the Argonne, the Coasts of Meuse and the Coasts of the Moselle
At the north of the area the fields of iron and coal are located. Of Sarralbe until in the Lunévillois are the salt layers.
See also: Carboniferous of Lorraine
HydrographyThe Lorraine hydrographic network is primarily tributary of the the North Sea, being articulated around the the Moselle and of its affluents, Madon, Meurthe, Seille, the Saar, and of the Meuse. The the Saone makes exception (Rhone-native basin), like a little western less than half of the department of the Meuse which belongs to the catchment area of the the Seine (Aire, Ornain, Saulx…)
The natural lakes most important are the Lac of Gérardmer, the Lac of Longemer and the Lac of the Corbels. They are less wide than three utility reserves, the Réservoir of Bouzey, the Lac of Madine and the Lac of Pierre-Opening.
Lorraine is also crossed by many channels. The Channel of the Marne in the Rhine, created in 1853, connects important towns of Lorraine like Bar-le-Duc, Toul and Nancy, and makes it possible to rejoin the Paris region at an end and Alsace and the Rhine by the other. The Canal of the East includes/understands two branches: one called connects Northern makes it possible to rejoin the Benelux countries and the seaports of North, while the Southern branch allows the communication with the the Saone and the the Rhone. Lastly, by the channel of the Collieries of the Saar which drains is native of the Moselle region, one can carry out the junction Saarbrucken. All these channels are, contrary to the channeled Moselle, the gauge Freycinet (barge of 38,5 m charging to the maximum 250 tons with 1m80 of depression).
ClimateThe Lorraine climate is described as oceanic range with continental influence. The seasons are contrasted and marked well but, according to the dominant winds, can follow one another of the day the shortly after the periods of precipitations (oceanic influence) or strong thermal amplitude (continental influence).
For example for the town of Nancy: the average temperature in January is of 1,2 °C (Nice: 12,5 °C, Brest: 6,3 °C) while it reaches 18,3 °C in July (Nice: 26,6 °C, Brest: 16,2 °C).
precipitations are in the national average: 740 mm/an over 163 days, Nice: 767 mm in 88 days, Brest: 1.178 mm in 211 days).
The Massif of the Vosges is much wetter (1 780 mm/an with Gérardmer), which causes a strong snowing up in winter. It happens regularly that this snowing up extends to all the area for one more or less long period from the winter.
See also: History of Lorraine
The first traces of civilization go back to Ve century before Jesus-Christ. Lorraine is not whereas a not very livable zone, occupied by four Gallic tribes, the Trévires in north, the Médiomatriques in the Low-Moselle, the Leuques in the High-Moselle and Verdunois in the area of the Meuse. At the time of the Roman conquest of the Gaulle, Lorraine is included in the province called Gaulle Belgium. At the time of Gallo-Roman peace the principal cities are: Metz ( Divodurum Mediomatricorum ), Verdun ( Verodunum ), Toul ( Tullum ). After the surge of Huns of Attila, the Francs conquer Gaulle Belgium. They create in particular a kingdom whose capital is Metz (1st king: Thierry, wire of Clovis) and which will become shortly after the Austrasie.
Lorraine such as we know it today, is a vestige of the kingdom created for the Carolingien Lothaire Ier, the Lotharingie , whereas his/her brothers received the Francies Western (France) and Eastern (Germanie). Kings de Francie Eastern and of Francie Western league against Lotharingie (Serments of Strasbourg, (842) and do not delay to dismember it with their profit.
With the Middle Ages, the Dukes of Lorraine settled in Nancy and on several occasions tried to take Metz by the force, without success. Metz remained during centuries an impregnable city up to 1870 or the treachery of Bazaine made it fall between the hands from the Prussians.
In XVe century the Duchy was coveted by France but also by the Bourguignons, mainly under Charles Bold the because it was the missing link of territorial continuity between Burgundy and Flanders. Charles Bold the found death during a battle whose stake was Lorraine with the Bataille of Nancy in 1477. But Lorraine is also influenced culturally by France (the linguistic Frontière crossing the Duchy of Lorraine which is of this partially French-speaking fact. With the wire of the centuries, the kingdom of France will not have of cease to take the control of the Lorraine territories, by beginning with the Three bishoprices (Metz, Toul, Verdun) acquired by Henri II at the time of the " voyage from Germany " (1552). The Three bishoprices are officially joined together in France in 1648 by the Traités of Westphalia which put an end to the Guerre Thirty Year old, very hard lived by the Lorraine ones. The Duché of Lorraine is occupied by France under Louis XIV but finds his independence (supervised) with the duke Léopold who undertakes to restore his states courageously. For showing its determination well, it makes build the castle-resistance of Lunéville that Stanislas Leszczyński will be adapted a few years later.
In 1738 the emperor Charles VI obtained acceptance by France of the Pragmatic Sanction in exchange of the Duché of Lorraine. This one would be given to the deposed king of Poland, Stanislas Leszczyński, father-in-law of Louis XV who had married his daughter Marie Lesczynska. With died from Stanislas, France would receive the Duché of Lorraine, which arrived in 1766. Stanislas Leszczyński was a very important actor of the Lumières to Nancy. After the destruction having followed the wars of Louis XIII and Louis XIV, it equipped the town of an exceptional architectural unit (Place Stanislas) conceived with the glory of his son-in-law Louis XV. It was characterized by social initiatives in advance over its time: collective schools, hospitals, public libraries, attics, the most stripped helps with, etc… But its assessment is mitigated because it was set up only to ensure the transition from Lorraine towards France. Its intendant Chaumont of Galaizière replaced the Lorraine administrators by French, imposed the French language in the acts of justice (whereas part of Lorraine was of language Germanic) and sent the recalcitrant ones to the royal galères.
In 1871, the Traité of Frankfurt allots to the German Empire the Lorraine territories corresponding to part of the department of the Moselle and department of Meurthe: geographically that recovers the the current Moselle which will form with the Alsace the Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen until in 1918. The choice is offered to the inhabitants to choose in which country they wish to live, thus doubling the population of Nancy compared to Metz. From this time there remain however characteristics suitable for the the Moselle such as the local right, and the certificated Régime.
The First World War will touch Lorraine hard. One of the longest battles and most fatal was held there, in 1916 around Verdun. Several villages were entirely destroyed, ever rebuilt since. One calls this devastated area the Red zone. Important memorials were set up there, like that of the Ossuaire of Douaumont. The Traité of Versailles of 1919 will restore the portion annexed in 1871 with the France.
During the interval wars, Lorraine will see the construction of the Ligne Maginot, which will appear insufficient. The the Moselle will again be annexed in 1940 until its release by the Général Patton in 1944 - 1945.
The post-war period will appear one prosperous period for the area having quasi intact raw material reserve. Many immigrants mainly of Italy and Poland will come to settle there. This will result in to create an overpopulation, but making progress Lorraine to the row of 3rd French economic pole.
See also: District council of Lorraine
The seat of the District council is with Metz. The history made that Metz and Nancy assumed prevalent roles in Lorraine in turn, sometimes complementary or sometimes contradictory roles especially with regard to the influence of France in Lorraine. It resulted from it a certain competition which the area tries today to make disappear with harmonious development from the " furrow lorrain" (known as also " furrow mosellan" because developing around this river Bi-main road).
In addition, the Regional court of the accounts of Lorraine is with Épinal.
The weight of the history is also felt, the the current Moselle (obtained by dismembering the old departments of the Moselle and Meurthe), having been annexed between 1871 and 1918 and again of 1940 with 1944 even 1945 for certain villages, the Meurthe absorbing then the near total of the Country-High (started from l" the old Moselle not annexed) to become the Meurthe-et-Moselle. Many a Mosellans had thus the choice at the time resisting while remaining in the Moselle and becoming German (to maintain a presence French in this annexed department) or leaving in another French department to mark their opposition to the annexation and to remain French. There remains about it of the characteristics, like the local right, in the mode of the worships or the operation of the Social security.
In the field of education, the the Moselle, formerly attached to the academy of Strasbourg, is integrated today into the academy of Nancy-Metz. It is the same for the universities, joined together in European university Pôle.
The Lorraine area is also member of the transborder interregional co-operation “Saar-Lor-Lux” which gathers in addition to Lorraine, the Luxembourg, the German Land of the the Saar with which are associated within the Grande Area, the the Rhineland-Palatinat and the Walloon region in Belgium.
TransportThe major axis of transport in Lorraine is the Lorraine furrow (Épinal, Nancy, Metz, Thionville) which crosses the area in its center, of the south in north, and opens on the Luxembourg and the Netherlands. On the major part of this axis cotoient highway (A31: Dijon - Luxembourg), channels with large gauge and railways).
The transverse axes are in particular the fast tracks A4 connecting Paris to Strasbourg while passing by Metz and the Nationale 4 which connects Paris to Strasbourg via Nancy. A4 allows a connection with the Germany by Saarbrucken or the Alsace. The RN4 is the shortest axis between Paris and Strasbourg; it is however twice has two ways over all its length and thus allows a Paris-Strabourg connection less direct than via Metz by A4.
the connections with the Alsace are less easy in the south of the area, in spite of the Col of Bussang and the reopening of the Tunnel Maurice-Lemaire which will improve the traffic.
the connections with the Franche-Comté and the Territoire of Belfort are relatively good via main roads currently put at 2×2 ways.
The railway ways are in full expansion with in particular the construction (thanks to the decisions and with a broad financial assumption of responsibility by Lorraine themselves) of LGV Is European as of June 2007 connecting Paris to Strasbourg. The area also lays out of good connections by the train via the FOR THE THIRD TIME Lorraine (Métrolor). However it quasi absence of rail links towards Belfort is to be regretted, this connection will be essential for Lorraine in preparation for a TGV the Rhine-Rhone.
The river transport is also very present at the same time by the the channeled Moselle and with a relatively dense network of channels.
Lorraine is indeed crossed by many channels. The Channel of the Marne in the Rhine, created in 1853, connects important towns of Lorraine like Bar-le-Duc, Toul and Nancy, and makes it possible to rejoin the Paris region at an end and Alsace and the Rhine by the other. The Channel of the East includes/understands two branches: one called connects Northern makes it possible to rejoin the Benelux countries and the seaports of North, while the Southern branch allows the communication with the Saone and the Rhone. Lastly, by the channel of the Collieries of the Saar which drains is native of the Moselle region, one can carry out the junction with Saarbrucken. All these channels are, contrary to the channeled Moselle, the gauge Freycinet (barge of 38,5 m charging to the maximum 250 tons with 1m80 of depression).
See also: Tourism in Lorraine
Tourism in Lorraine is a rather recent activity. Lorraine is only the 15th French Région as regards tourism. However the area knew to emphasize a rich, but also various and varied inheritance. The principal tourist centers are the museums, the monuments (castles and historic sites), the Gastronomie and the Métiers of art.
The area thanks to the Massif of the Vosges also profits from winter tourist visit, the summer being rather devoted to the visit of the religious buildings of the main cities and the development of the craft industry in particular in Meurthe-et-Moselle. The Country of Glass and the Crystal gathers several communes which accommodated glass art. One can note the villages of Meisenthal (which shelters today still the Musée of glass and the crystal), Goetzenbruck (where the art of the stained glasses and the industry of the spectacle lens are still present), Lemberg or Saint-Louis-the-Bitche and Baccarat (where the famous crystals are always manufactured).
Of another prestigious manufactures continue to exert. All belong to date to a French group pertaining to Jean and Marc Jacquet and whose artistic director and marketing were entrusted to Jean-Louis Janin Daviet. These secular manufactures work for the world of the luxury and manufacture for textile Pierre Frey, Kenzo, Sir Elton John, Tiffany of New York, The Américan Friends off Versailles,… and produce clean collections which one finds with the four corners of the world. All these companies are accessible to the visitors on return, and one of them, the Faience manufacture of Niderviller is classified with the additional inventory of the historic buildings. You can thus discover, the founded Crystal manufacture of Portieux in 1705 in the Vosges (88), the founded Crystal manufacture of Vallerysthal in 1707 in the Moselle (57), the founded Faience manufacture of Niderviller in 1735 in the Moselle (57), founded Earthenware Royales manufactures of Lunéville Saint Clement in 1748 in Meurthe and the Moselle (54) At the time of your visits you will discover 166 Lorraine Masters glass cutters and faience manufacturers, French and, partners of your emotions and your desires.
The museum of the mine with Neufchef represents a source of knowledge disappeared with the passing of years, in this single site since established in the cave of the square of mine the various installations of the beginning until the closing of the Mines de Fer de Lorraine can be discovered.
See also: Demography of Lorraine
See also: Culture of Lorraine
Lorraine cultureFrom its geographical position , and from its bilingualism - one spoke there the Lorrain novel and the Lorraine Francique - Lorraine was a place of exchanges privileged between the Romance culture then French and the Germanic cultures. Thus of many innovations made their entry in Lorraine before spreading itself in the remainder of the France (music, gastronomy, etc) or conversely towards the Germany and the Central Europe.
At the time mérovingienne Lorraine was a political center but also an important cultural hearth. Its many monasteries and their Scriptorium S played a great part in the conservation of the knowledge and the development of the illuminations (Ecole of Metz). Lorraine was also one of the centers of the Carolingian Renaissance with major personalities as Chrodegang which introduced the Gregorian chant amongst other things via the monks of the abbey of Gorze.
After one darker period, the Lorraine cultural radiation reappeared with the Rebirth with major artists like Ligier Richier for the sculpture, Georges of the Tower in painting, Jacques Callot for engraving. It became remarkable extensive at the traditional period, before being the cradle of original cultural currents whose most famous Art nouveau is undoubtedly the , carried to France by the École of Nancy .
Emblems of Lorraine
- the Cross of Lorraine is the most known emblem of the area. Symbol of the free France of de Gaulle, it is initially the heritage of the dynasty of the dukes of Anjou which were kings de Hongrie (it is also the cross of Hungary), and thereafter dukes of Lorraine. It appeared during the Bataille of Nancy (January 5th, 1477)|date= . Its 2 perpendicular branches symbolize the 2 arms of Christ (in bottom, longest) and the inscription INRI (in top, shortest). One says that the cross of Lorraine was chosen, at the time of the Second world war, by Emile Muselier (in remembering his/her Lorraine father) in opposition to the Croix-gammée of the Nazi S. According to other sources, the Général de Gaulle would have chosen it to him even for his value highly symbolic system.
the Blason of Lorraine is gold , with the band of mouths, charged with three alérions of money . In the beginning it is that of the house of Alsace, the counts of Low-Alsace carry of mouths to the money band côtoyée of two blossomed cotices of same and that those of High-Alsace carry of mouths to the gold band accompanied by six crowns by same, three as a chief and three reversed at a peak, the dukes of Lorraine chose gold to the band of mouths . Because of their bonds with the Saint Worsens Germanic and the house of Hohenstaufen, they placed small eaglets on the tape, which ended up being stylized alérions some. The 3 birds present themselves out of skewer because the Dukes of Lorraine claim to go down from Godefroy de Bouillon. Godefroy, in crusade in front of Jerusalem, transpierces, says one, 3 pigeons of only one blow of arrow. As the pigeon is not a rather prestigious symbol, the Lorraine ones replace it by an eagle.
the Lorraine Chardon is of origin angevine. Rene Ier of Naples introduced it in Lorraine and it was adopted thereafter. Rene II of Lorraine added the legend to it: “ Semi hats, I poins ” (Does not touch me, I prick) who became: “Gather thistles, expect prickles”.
The majority of these symbols are represented opposite on the arrow of the Ducal Palais of Nancy.
See also: Lorraine Kitchen
See also: Lorraine Vineyard
As in much of areas of France, the Gastronomie holds an important place. Considered for its Quiche , famous the Lorraine Quiche, Lorraine also has a kitchen rich in traditional dishes.
She proposes culinary specialities of high reputation. The Moselle, the Bayonne and Xaintois are known for their receipts containing Mirabelle (tart, brandy…). Nancy is famous for its Macaron S and its bergamots, Lunévillois for the Lorraine Pâté, Boulay (the Moselle), also for its Macaron S, Verdun for its dragees, Commercy for its madeleines, Rambervillers for its calf's head, and Vittel (normal for a town of water…) for its frogs! The Lorraine Potée is a country dish containing potatoes, of cabbage and pigmeat (porks) coming from the agricultural mediums of the area….
Fauna and floraLorraine is one of the most wooded areas of Metropolitan France and has the effect of being mainly made up of public national forests. Variety of the Lorraine forests in fact also its richness: dense forests of plains or forests of mountain, presence of many lakes and water levels are as many various and varied ecosystems.
FaunaThe forests of plain shelter stag S, Chevreuil S and Sanglier S, sometimes in too great number. The agricultural medium sees a smaller fauna: Hare S, Fox S, Partridge, corbel X… and the villages accommodates Hirondelle S and trip hammer S.
The ponds of the Moselle and Meuse are a crossing point for the migrating animals and the refuge of many species: Duck S, Héron S, Cinclus S, Clamping plate S; the Cormoran takes an excessive place there. The beaver, reintroduced in 1983, adapts well.
The Vosgean mountain is traditionally associated with large the Tétras, threatened by the tourist activities. One meets there also deer tribe and wild boars. The Chamois, introduced in 1956, conquered thatches whereas the lynx, reintroduced in 1983, remains discrete.
FloraThe flora in Lorraine is characteristic according to the three distinct landscapes in the area which are the " Coasts of Meuse and Moselle" , the Lorraine plate and Vosgean solid mass.
- Mirabelle plum tree
- Lily of the valley of May
Only the personalities impossible to circumvent and whose fame largely exceeds the area are quoted in this article, for the others
See also: Lorraine famous
Many personalities are originating in Lorraine or marked Lorraine of their print:
- the popes Leon IX originating in Dabo and Etienne IX
- Saint Nicolas, bishop of Myre (Turkey), owner of Lorraine, of Russia, of the schoolboys (inter alia) who brings gifts to the wise children the day of his festival (December 6th)
- Sainte Jeanne d' Arc (regarded as Lorraine although " née" on left bank of the Meuse)
- Holy Pierre Fourier, priest and patriot, founder of a teaching congregation
- Happy Alix the Clerk, collaborator of the precedent
- Louise of Lorraine-Vaudémont, niece of the duke François Ier, wife of the king de France Henri III
- Rene Ier of Anjou duke of Bar and Anjou, King de Naples, of Sicily, count de Provence husband of the duchess of Lorraine Isabelle. Their descendants will be dukes of Lorraine and of Bar
- Léopold Ier duke of Lorraine and Bar, which made build the Château of Lunéville
- François III duke of Lorraine and Bar, Empereur, ancestor of all the current Habsbourg-Lorraine, he is in particular the father of the queen Marie Antoinette
- the presidents of the republic Raymond Poincaré and Albert Lebrun
- the presidents of the Council Maurice Gerard, Louis Buffet, Jules Méline, Jules Ferry, and Robert Schuman
- a Prime Minister Pierre Messmer and a president of the senate Christian Poncelet
- the poets Nicolas Gilbert, Paul Verlaine, Charles Guerin, Yvan Goll and Jacques Réda
- writers and novelists François Nourissier, Maurice Bars, Edmond Butt, Charles Villers, Bernard-Marie Koltès, Johann Fischart, Pierre Pelot, Jean Vautrin, Philippe Claudel and Roger Bichelberger.
- the abbot Holy Jean de Gorze
- the philosopher Raymond Ruyer
- the founder of sociology Emile Durkheim
- the director Charles Tordjman
- the historians Dom Calmet, Dom Nicolas Tabouillot, Jean-Baptiste Durival, Claude Philippe Viville, Emile Bégin, Charles Abel
- the physicist Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the astronomer Charles Messier, the chemist Rene Nicklès, the geologist Gabriel Daubrée, the mineralogist Achilles Delesse, the botanists Joseph-Pierre Buchoz, Dominique-Alexandre Godron and Henri Braconnot and the mathematicians Charles Hermite, Jean-Victor Poncelet, Henri Poincaré and Emile Mathieu
- the sculptor Ligier Richier
- painters and engravers: Emile Friant, Claude Gellée said " Lorrain", Jacques Stone-block, Georges Of the Tower, Jules Bastien-Lepage, Nicolas Untersteller, Victor Guillaume, Andre Jacquemin
- glassmakers of art: Emile Galle, the brothers Daum
- the musicians Claude Petit Jean, Nicolas Signac, Charles Bocquet, Jean-Baptiste Ours, Louis Theodore Gouvy,
- the singers Patricia Kaas, Charlélie Seams, Tom Novembre, comic the Darry Cowl
- the footballer and chair UEFA Michel Platini.
- the president of the French federation of football and the UEFA Jacques Georges
Lorraine regional languages
Romance speech Lorraine
- the Lorraine Francique
- Great Area
- French Areas
- After-effect of war
- Duty to remember
- not exploded Ammunition
- Red zone
Communes of Lorraine:
- Common of Meurthe-et-Moselle
- Common of the Meuse
- Common of the Moselle
- Common of the Vosges
- the Lorraine Habitat
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