London counts: 7684700 inhabitants, called London , and is in the middle of a urban area of: 8278251 inhabitants and of a urban surface whose population varies from 12 to 14 million. The city produced 19 % of GDP of the country and is the seat many institutions, companies and international organizations. London is one of the principal world money markets and the Bourse of London is the third in term of capitalization after those of New York and Tokyo. It is also one of the principal platforms of transport in the world with five international airports and a port.
London is also one of the first world tourist destinations. The British capital accommodates approximately 27 million tourists per annum and counts four sites listed with the world heritage as well as many monuments emblematic symbolizing the city or the United Kingdom throughout the world: the Palate of Westminster, the Tower Bridge , the Turn of London, the Abbey of Westminster, the Palate of Buckingham but also of the institutions such as British Museum or the National Gallery.
Geography and climate
Definition of LondonThe current denomination London can indicate several geographical or administrative units different, sometimes being able to carry to confusion.
Employment more the current refers to the Large London ( Greater London ), one of the nine regional subdivisions of the England, formed of the territory under the authority of the Greater London Authority and of the Maire of London. It is this whole of approximately 1.600 km ² for 7,5 million inhabitants which are usually indicated when one speaks about the British capital. However, Large London is not officially a city, whose statute, strictly defined in the United Kingdom, is allotted to a city by the British monarch on precise criteria. Before its creation in 1965, the territory of Large London belonged to the counties Kent, Middlesex, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.
The City of London ( City off London , shortened in City , or Public garden Mile in reference to its surface of 1 square Mile), located in the middle of Large London, corresponds to the historical definition of London. It is there that the modern city was born and it is today the oldest district of the capital. It is also a district with whole share with a special statute. The City of London and the remainder of Large London form a county ceremonial. The vast London agglomeration can be described by the urban Région of London, which corresponds to the zone occupied by the suburbs, and which occupies a territory about similar to the area of Large London but with a slightly higher population. Beyond the urban area is the urban Aire of London ( London to commutate belt or London Metropolitain Area ) which gathers the territories inhabited by people moving daily ( commuters ) to go to work in London. The urban Région of London increased considerably during the time victorienne then again during the Entre-deux-guerres. Its expansion stopped in the Années 1940 because of the Second world war and of the policy known as of the girdles green and its surface did not evolve/move much since. The limits of the District of Metropolitan Organizes and of the zone served by the London transport evolved/moved with the wire of time but corresponds today roughly to that of the Large London.
Other terms such as Inner London , Outer London , Central London , North London , South London , East London , East End off London , West London or West End off London under sometimes used, not translated, to indicate statistical districts, units or districts of London,
Contrary to many other capitals, the statute of “capital of the United Kingdom” of London officially granted forever to the city by decree or written charter. Its current location was established by constitutional Convention, London being the seat of the British capacity. Its statute of capital De facto makes of it an element of the constitution not written of the United Kingdom. The capital of England was transferred from Winchester in London after the Conquête Norman.
It may be that the Romains marked the center of Londinium with the stone of London, always visible with Canon Street. The coordinates of the center of London (traditionally located at the Cross of Éléonore with Charing Cross-country race, close to the intersection of Trafalgar Public garden and Whitehall) are roughly. Trafalgar Square also became a place of exchange of celebration and demonstration.
GeographyThe Large London is located in the south-east of the England, to 45 km in the west of the estuary of the the Thames and extends on a surface from 1 579 km ², which places the city at the thirty-seventh of the great widest agglomerations. Altitude varies sea level up to 245 m with Biggin Hill, in the south of the agglomeration.
The river, which crosses the town of west in is, had a major influence on the urban development. London was founded in the beginning on northern bank of the river and laid out, during several centuries, only of one Pont, the Pont of London ( London Bridge ). The principal focus of the city was consequently confined on this bank of the Thames, until construction, at the 18th century, of a series of other bridges. The city then extended in all the directions, this expansion being obstructed by any natural obstacle, in a campaign almost deprived of reliefs, except for some hills ( Parliament Hill , Primrose Hill ).
The Thames was formerly broader and deeper than today. The banks of the river were massively arranged, the majority of the Affluent S were diverted and now underground, are sometimes transformed into sewers (thus, the river Fleet after which the Fleet Street is named, the old street of the journalists). The Thames is prone to the Marée and London is largely easily flooded. The threats of flood increase besides with time taking into account the regular rise in the level of water with high tide and the slow slope of Great Britain (raising in north, lowering in the south) caused by a phenomenon of isostatic Relèvement. A stopping, the Thames Barrier , was built through the Thames with Woolwich in the Années 1970, to mitigate this threat. In 2005 however, it was suggested the construction of a stopping of about fifteen kilometers length to low downstream avoid the future risks of flood.
See also: Central London, Inner London, Outer London
One often describes London by districts (Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Whitechapel for example). These names do not have an official use but often indicate parishes ( parishes ) or districts ( city wards ) and remained of use by tradition, each one referring to a distinct district with its own characteristics but without official delimitation.
There exists however a central zone of London which has a strict definition and a statute, the City of London ( City off London ). Often called simply the City , it is it larger financial district|March 24th, 2007 ( Central business district ) of Europe. The City has its own controlling body and its own borders, thus giving him a complete political autonomy and administrative. The new financial and commercial district of the Docklands is located at the east of the City and is dominated by Canary Wharf . The other district of businesses is in the Cité of Westminster which also shelters the British government and the Abbaye of Westminster.
West End is the principal shopping area and gathering principal attractions such as Oxford Street, Leicester Square, Covent Garden and Piccadilly Circus. West London gathers crested residential zones such as Notting Hill, Knightsbridge or the district of Kensington and Chelsea where the average costs of a house in certain districts are of approximately: 5500000 pounds and where a house was sold 60 million books. According to a classification 2007 carried out by the real group Knight Frank and ISIC Private Bank, subsidiary of Citigroup, London is the most expensive city of the world in the field of the residential real estate of luxury: : 36800 euros on average per square meter in this sector.
The zones located at the east of London gather the East End and the suburbs of the Essex. These zones, located closest to the original Wearing of London, are known to have a high proportion of immigrants and to be one of poorest capital . The zone called East London saw being born industrial development from London. The many abandoned grounds that one finds there today are into full redéveloppement, in particular thanks to the plan Thames Gateway , which includes London Riverside and the Lower Lea Valley , which will accommodate the Olympic park as well as the stage of the Olympic Games of summer of 2012. North London and South London is also terms used to indicate the two zones of London separated by the Thames.
UrbanizationThe population density varies considerably in London. The center gathers many employment while the periphery of the city gathers residential zones more or less densément populated, the density being higher in the outskirts of the city (Inner London) that in the more distant suburbs (Outer London). The zones densément populated gather mainly buildings great height and the Gratte-ciel of London are concentrated in the two districts of businesses, such as the 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42 and the Immeuble of Lloyd in the City of London, One Canada Square, 8 Canada Square and 25 Canada Square with Canary Wharf.
Recently, the construction of very large buildings was encouraged by the Plan Londoner and many tops buildings should be born, particularly in the City of London and Canary Wharf. The Shard London Bridge, of 310 m for 72 stages, close to London Bridge station, the tower Bishopsgate Tower of 288 m like 30 other projects of skyscraper of more than 150 m height suggested or construction could transform the appearance of the city. Other remarkable buildings of London include the town hall with Southwark, the British Library with Somers Town, the large court of the British Museum and the Millennium Dome close to the the Thames to Canary Wharf. The powerplant of Battersea, now unused but in the process of rehabilitation, is an outstanding symbol, while certain stations, in particular Saint-Pancras and Paddington, is good examples of the Architecture victorienne.
There does not exist a single architectural style making it possible to describe London. Various styles and influences accumulated and mixed with the passing of years. Many buildings are built in brick S traditional of color orange red, decorated with Ciselure S and Moulure S. Nombre of districts are characterized by buildings in Stuc or are bleached with lime. Few constructions are former to the large fire of 1666 except for some Roman remainders, of the Tour of London and some remainders of the time Tudor. The majority of constructions date from the Edwardian time or victorienne.
Many monuments celebrate personalities or events which marked the city. The Monument, located in the City of London, commemorates the large fire of 1666 in the City of London, offering a vast prospect on historical heart for the city, where the fire with begun. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch , respectively located at the northern and southern end of Park Lane , is related to British monarchy just as the Albert Memorial and the Royal Albert Hall with Kensington. The Colonne Nelson is a national monument located at Trafalgar Square and is generally used to mark the center of London.
ClimateClimate of London east of the moderate type with regular Precipitation S all the year but, contrary to the west of the United Kingdom, rather light intensity. The annual average of precipitations is established to 583,6 mm, February being the driest month of the year. This level is lower than Rome or Sydney. London is in fact one of the European capitals driest, having water resources per anybody lower than those of Israel for example. The summers are hot but without strong heats and the cold but seldom icy winters. The hottest month is July with an average temperature with Greenwich of 13,7 °C with 22,3 °C exceeding only seldom the 33 °, though higher levels became more frequent recently. The temperature highest ever recorded in London reached 38,1 °, measured in the royal Botanical gardens of Kew, on August 10th, 2003, during the Canicule of 2003. The coldest month is January with average temperatures of 2,4 °C with 7,9 °C. The coldest temperature was recorded on January 1st, 1962 with -16,1 C with Northolt.
The abundant falls of Neige are almost unknown. During the most recent winters, snow seldom exceeded the level of 25 mm . This is in particular due to the fact that the vast London agglomeration created a microclimate, with a heat locked up by the buildings of the city. The night, the temperature is there sometimes from 5 to 9 ℃ higher than the surrounding zones. Famous the London Smog, mixture of fog and smoke, became extremely rare nowadays in the streets of the English capital.
See also: History of London, Chronology of London
London RomanThe areas in the neighborhoods of London (located today inside the borders of the Large London) seem to be inhabited by Bretons islanders since prehistoric times but no archaeological trace was updated at north Pont of London, place where the city is truly born and from where it developed. The oldest unquestionable traces of durable installations go up with the year 43 and are due to the Romains which, following the Conquête of Great Britain by the Romans, built a first city there. This first camping was called Londinium . The bridge of London was in the center of the very new network of roads created by the Romans and was a crossing point privileged to cross the the Thames, which attracted the many ones and there thus contributed to the growth of the city. London quickly became an important center of exchange and trade, the Thames making it possible to easily convey goods to the heart of the city.
Only 18 years after the foundation of the city by the Romans, the queen Boadicée, with the head of the Celtic tribe Iceni, protested against the Roman invasion and took London for target. The governor Suetonius Paulinus, then occupied exterminating the druids on the island of Anglesey, could not constitute in time an army to counter the Celtic invasion. The city was partially evacuated but out of the thousands of tradesmen were however killed. London then was completely plundered and destroyed. Archaeological excavations made it possible to update the presence of remains flarings recovering of the parts and the potteries going back to 60, inside the limits of the Roman city.
The city was quickly rebuilt and again thrived quickly, with the image of the trade in Great Britain, and replaced Colchester as a capital of the Roman province of Brittany. There do not exist however information to date and explain the transfer of the capital. About the 2nd century, the city was surrounded by walls. During more than one millenium, the borders of the city were marked by this wall which delimited a zone called today City . With her apogee at the 3rd century, the population of Londinium reached: 45000 with: 60000 people according to the sources. When the Roman Empire started to decline, the troops protecting the city were recalled on the continent and London also started with péricliter and its population to be decreased. There exists little of information over this period called Dark Ages off London , but the Romans leave the Brittany in 410 and it is largely established that at the 5th century, London was in ruin and practically abandoned.
Anglo-Saxon occupationHowever the privileged position of the city on the Thames in always a strategic place and towards the year 600, the Anglo-Saxon established a new city Lundenwic to approximately 1 km upstream of the Roman city, at the place where Covent Garden is today. There is probably had a port of p^che and trade to the mouth of the river Fleet. Lundenwic thrived until into 851 when the city was invaded and completely shaven by the Vikings. After this occupation Viking, new the King d' Angleterre Alfred Large the restored peace and makes move the city in the walls of the old Roman city (then called Lundenburgh ). The original city became Ealdwic (" old woman ville"), whose name survived until giving Aldwych today •
Then, under the control of several English kings, London thrived again and became a place to be able as well as a center of exchange and trade. However, the raids Vikings began again at the 10th century and reached their apogee in 1013 when the city was besieged by the king Knut II of Denmark and that Ethelred II of England was constrained to flee. At the time of a counter-attack, the army of king Ethelred gained a victory by destroying the bridge of London whereas the Danish garrison was above. The control of the English was thus restored.
Knut took the control of the English throne in 1017, thus reigning on the city and the country until 1042. With its death, the Anglo-Saxons took again to control under the authority of Edouard the Confessor, who refondé the Abbaye of Westminster as well as the Palais of Westminster. At that time, London had become the largest city and most prosperous of England although the seat of the government was always with Winchester.
Medieval LondonAfter the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror, then duke of Normandy was crowned king d' Angleterre in the any news Abbaye of Westminster, the Christmas Day 1066. It granted certain privileges to the inhabitants of London while building a castle in the south-east of the city to maintain control on the population. This castle, increased by the following kings, was used as royal residence then of prison and is known today under the name of Tour of London.
In 1097, Guillaume II began the construction of the Hall of Westminster, close to the abbey of the same name. This hall was used as a basis for new the Palais of Westminster, the royal residence throughout the Middle Ages. Westminster became the seat of the royal court and the government while the close City of London was a center of exchange and trade and thrived under the authority of its own administration, the Corporation off London . Finally, the cities in the neighborhoods developed together and formed the base of the modern heart of London, substitute Winchester as a capital of England at the 12th century. After the defeat of the Invincible Armada Spanish in 1588, a certain political stability in England made it possible London to more develop. In 1603, Jacques VI of Scotland is assembled on the throne of England and mainly tried to unify the two countries. Its anticatholic laws however made it very unpopular and it was victim of an attempted murder on November 6th, 1605, famous the Conspiration of the powders.
Epidemics of Black Death, with many recoveries, touched London at the beginning of the 17th century, the culminating episode being the Grande plague of London of 1665-1666 which killed approximately 20 % of the population. The large fire of 1666 was born in the original city and was quickly spread through the houses out of wooden of London, destroying most of the city. The rebuilding which was followed from there to lasted more than 10 years.
After the growth of the 18th century, London became, of 1825 with 1925, the city most populated in the world. This growth was accelerated by the construction of the first railway lines in London, which brought closer the neighbouring cities considerably. The railway network quickly extended and made it possible these towns of grow while making it possible London to extend and include the villages in the neighborhoods (example of Kensington). The appearance of the first congestion S in downtown area led to creation, in 1863, of the first underground transport system in the world, the Métro of London, which still accelerated the development of the urbanization. Thanks to this rapid growth, London became one of the first cities to exceed the million inhabitants and the first to exceed the five million.
The local government of London had difficulties in manage the fast expansion of the city, especially on the level of the infrastructures. Between 1855 and 1889, the Metropolitan Board off Works supervised the growth of the infrastructures. It was then replaced by the Comté of London, then replaced by the London County Council , the first assembly elected on the level of the city.
The Blitz and the German bombardments of the Luftwaffe during the Second world war killed approximately 30.000 people and destroyed many dwellings and buildings in the city. The rebuilding in the the Fifties, 60 and 70 was characterized by absence of an architectural, typical unit of modern London. In 1965, the limits of London were modified to take account of the expansion of the city apart from the Comté of London. The new increased territory was named Large London and was managed by the Greater London Council .
In the decades which followed the Second world war, a broad immigration coming from the Commonwealth Country did of London one of the European cities ethniquement cosmopolitan. The integration of the new immigrants was not always done carefully with for example the riots of Brixton in the Années 1980 but all the same proceeded better than in other British areas.
The economic revival of the Années 1980 restored London on the front of the international scene. However, as a seat of the government and principal agglomeration of the United Kingdom, the city knew many terrorist episodes. The Irish Republican Army tried to put the British government under pressure about the negotiations in Northern Ireland, frequently stopping the activities of the city with bomb scares or attacks until the cease-fire of 1997. July 5th, 2005, a series of attacks was perpetrated in public transport London by islamist kamikazes, 24 hours only after the organization of the Olympic Games of 2012 had been entrusted to the city.
Policy and administration
Local governmentThe management of London is carried out on two levels: on the level of the city, under the authority of the Greater London Authority (GLA) and on a more local level within the 33 London districts.
The Greater London Authority is responsible for the Plan Londoner defining the development strategy of London, of the police services ( Metropolitan Police Authority ), of fire control ( London Fire Brigade ), of the majority of transport ( Transport for London ) and of economic development ( London Development Agency ). The GLA is composed of the Maire of London, which has the executive powers, and of the London Assembly which examines the proposals of the mayor and vote or disallows his proposals for a budget each year. The GLA is a relatively recent administration (2000) created in order to replace the Greater London Council (GLC) abolished in 1986. The seat of the Greater London Authority and the mayor of London (City Hall) are at the edge of the the Thames, close to the Tower Bridge.
Since May 4th, 2000, the post of mayor of London is occupied by Ken Livingstone, elected first once in 2000 as an independent candidate then re-elected in 2004 as a candidate of the Workers party. It was also with the head of the GLC when this one was abolished in 1986.
The 33 districts are formed of the 32 boroughs and the City of London and are responsible for the local services not dealt with by the GLA such as local installation, the local schools, social services, roads and the garbage collection. Each district has at its head a council ( council ) elected every four years. The City of London is not directed by a traditional local authority but by the Corporation off London elected by the residents and the companies and which practically did not change form since the Moyen-âge. The Corporation off London has off at its head the Lord Mayor London , which is a station different from that of the Mayor of London.
The City of London has its own police force, the City off London Police independent of the Metropolitan Police Service which is in load of the remainder of the Large London.
The departments of health are managed by the national government thanks to the National Health Service , under the responsibility, in London, of only one NHS Strategic Health Authority .
National administrationLondon is the seat of the Gouvernement of the United Kingdom located at the Palais of Westminster to Westminster. Several appendices of the government are located at the neighborhoods of the Parliament, particularly along Whitehall where the residence of the is Prime Minister with the 10 Downing Street .
Although used for the first time at the 19th century by John Bright to describe England itself, the expression Mother off the Parliament (mother of the Parliaments) is often used to refer to the British Parliament because it is often regarded as the first to have to found a system made up of a Upper House and a Lower House elected and was followed per many of other political systems, in particular in Europe and in the countries of the the Commonwealth.
London is represented with the House of Commons by 74 Député S ( Members off Parliament , MPs) which correspond to cutting in districts of the city. On these 74 members, 44 result from the Workers party, 21 of the Conservative party, 8 of the Démocrates liberals and one of the left RESPECT.
TwinningsLondon established relations between partnership and 7 cities:
- (since 2000)
- (since 2002)
- (since 2001)
- (since 2001)
- (since 2006)
- (since 2006)
DemographyLondon was always an important hearth of population. At the same time, city, urban surface and the most populated urban area the United Kingdom, it also was populated Europe and world before knowing a light decline.
PopulationThe population of the Large London was estimated at: 7684700 in the first quarter 2007 while the urban Aire, whose borders are more difficult to define, has a population ranging between 12.
The structure of the population of London is slightly different from that of England or the United Kingdom. The attractivity of London involved an immigration towards the capital of people in age to work since the remainder of the country or the foreigner. The proportion of people between 20 and 44 years represents 42,8 % compared with 35,1 with the national scales. N the other hand, the proportion of 60 year old elderly and more (14,4 %) is lower than the national average (18,4 %).
Demographic trendsWith the development of the Industrialization, the population of London quickly increased throughout the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. At the time of the first census of 1801, the city counted: 959300 inhabitants and was then most important of Europe. In 1831, with: 1655000 inhabitants. The population of London culminated with: 8615245 |- | ||5 230.155 |- | ||172 162 |- | ||157 285 |- | ||84 565 |- | ||80 319 |- | ||68 907 |- | ||66 658 |- | ||66 311 |- | ||49 932 |- | ||46 513 |- | ||45 888 |- | ||45 506 |- | ||44 622 |- | ||41 488 |- | Germany ||39 818 |- | ||39 128 |- | Italy ||38 694 |- | France ||38 130 |- | ||33 831 |- | ||32 082 |- | ||27 494 |}
London is one of the cities of the Pays developed S having greatest ethnic diversity. According to the British demographic census of 2001, 71,15 % of the 7,5 million Londoners are regarded as pertaining to the ethnicity " blanc" and 29 % are classified like not-white. 12,09 % of the inhabitants are considered Indian, Pakistan boards, Bangladesh is or originating in another country of Asia (mainly of the Sri Lanka or the Indian Sous-continent). 10,91 % are considered black (approximately 7 % black African and 4,79 % black of the the Caribbean). 3,15 % are considered resulting from several ethnos groups, 1,12 % are said Chinese and 1,58 % are classified in another category (mainly Filipino, Japanese and Vietnamese).
27 % of the Londoners were born apart from the the United Kingdom and 21,8 % out of the European Union. The Irishmen (of the Irish Republic and the Northern Ireland) are approximately 200.000, just like the Scot and the Welsh.
London is also one of the most active cities of the world in the linguistic plan. A study undertaken in 2005 to shown that more than three hundred different languages are spoken there that one can find there 50 communities ethnic more than cash 10.000 members.
Residents born abroadThe figures of the Office for National Statistics show that the number of Londoners born abroad reached: 2288000 in 2006 against: 1630000 in 1997.
The table opposite gives the country of birth of the residents of London in 2001, date of the last British census.
ReligionFrom the point of view of the Religion, London was, throughout its history, dominated by the Christianisme and counts a big number of churches, in particular in the City. The cathedral Saint-Paul as well as the Cathédrale of Southwark are with the head of the Église Anglican while the official ceremonies and royal proceed either in Saint-Paul or with the Abbaye of Westminster (not to be confused with the Cathédrale of Westminster which is a relatively recent building as well as the largest cathedral Roman catholic of England and of the Wales). In spite of this, the percentage of Anglicans practitioners is very low. On the other hand, this rate is much higher in the communities Roman Christian catholics and orthodoxe. .
London also shelters important communities Moslem, Hindu, sikhe and Jewish. Many Moslems live with Tower Hamlets and with Newham and the most important Moslem building is the Grande mosque of London close to Regent' S Park. One estimates at: 600000 the number of Moslems living in the British capital.
The Hindu community of London lies in the north-western districts of Harrow and Brent, where one of largest the Hindu temples is of Europe, the Neasden temple. The community sikhe is it in the east and the west of London, which also shelters one of the largest temples sikhs located out of India. The majority of the British of Jewish confession is in London, particularly with Stamford Hill and Golders Green in the Northern of London.
EconomyLondon is an important center of trade and international exchange, particularly symbolized by the Gratte-ciel of the districts of businesses of the City and of Canary Wharf . It is, with New York and Tokyo, one of the three more important decision-making centres in the world but it is also a town of contrast. If the city produces approximately 20 % of the Gross domestic product of the United Kingdom (1/3 of the GNP by taking account of the metropolitan Surface of London) and exceeds even that of country like the Finland, the Portugal or the Ireland, it counts nevertheless many pockets of poverty. Unemployment rate in London is higher than the national average (5,5 % in the United Kingdom at the second quarters 2006 against 7,7 % in London and until more 10 % in certain central districts of the Inner London ) and 53 % of the children of these districts live in a state of poverty. It also shelters the seat of 50 of the first 100 British companies like that of 100 of the first 500 european companies.
The rents are most expensive of the world.
AttractivityThe saving in London was directed towards the services much earlier than of other European cities, especially after the Second world war. The success of London in the Tertiary sector is explained by several factors:
- English is a language of international communication,
- its position of capital of the British Empire,
- its relations particular with the United States and several countries of Asia,
- its position geographical which makes it possible its schedules of office to correspond to those of other countries which count for 99 % of the world GNP,
- the English Droit is the Contract law more used in International business,
- the multicultural infrastructures (schools, places of worship, cultural and social organizations),
- a level of tax relatively relatively low especially for the foreigners (the residents not domiciled in the United Kingdom do not pay a tax on the profits carried out abroad),
- of good transport infrastructures, especially in aviation and
- an economy dérégulée with little intervention of the government.
Services and financeApproximately 85 % of the population of the Large London (that is to say 3,2 million people) work in the service sector. 500.000 people work in industry and the construction industry (in equal proportions).
London has 5 centers principal districts business: City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark.
The principal industry of London remains the financial sector of which largely contribute them to the Balance of the payments of the United Kingdom. Approximately 300.000 people work in the sector of the finance of London which shelters more than 480 banks, that is to say more than any other city in the world. Each year, it invests more money in London than in the 10 joined together following European cities. The City is the greatest business district of Europe and competes with moreover in New York, in particular because of the laws Sarbanes-Oxley which increase the countable requirements for the companies with dimensions the purse of Wall Street. At the time of a recent study published by Mastercard, London exceeds New York in four of the six fields of the study of which economic stability, facility to make businesses and the volume of financial flows. The mayor of New York Michael Bloomberg declared that New York was likely to lose its statute of financial capital of the world to the profit of London because of the right and the systems of less strict regulation and immigration of the United Kingdom.
A second financial center is developing with Canary Wharf, the east of the City , and counts the general headquarter of the banks HSBC and Barclays, of the agency Reuters as well as number of the largest law firms in the world. In 2005, London treated 31 % of the transactions on the foreign exchange market and treats daily approximately 753 billion dollars, that is to say more than in New York.
More half of the first 100 British companies (FTSE 100) and more than 100 of the 500 plus European large companies have their seat in London. More 70 % of the companies of the FTSE 100 have their seat in the urban surface of London and 75 % of the companies of the `' Fortune 500'' have an office in London.
The media are particularly concentrated in London and the industry of the distribution of the media is the second most competitive sector. BBC is a key employer of the city while many other media have their seat in London. Of many national newspapers are published in the city and were associated a long time with Fleet Street in the City . Soho is the heart of the industry of the Postproduction.
The Port of London was most important of the world but arrives today only in third position at the United Kingdom. 50 million tons of goods forwards each year there. The majority of these goods forward however by Tilbury which is apart from the limits of the Large London.
TourismLondon is one of the principal tourist destinations in the world. This sector generates between 280.000 and 350000 employment according to the sources. 27 million people visits the city each year although its financial control is limited enough and that it does not have any capacity on the rail network (but the North London Railway will be under its responsibility as from November 2007). The public grid system, managed by Transport for London (TfL), one of is extended to the world but undergoes the every day of the congestions, delays and problems of maintenance. A programme of 7 billion books was set up to try to improve the network at the horizon of 2012, for the inauguration of Olympic Games. The whole of the London network was however declared better grid system in the world (in front of New York and Paris) by 25 % of the 2.000 people questioned at the time of a survey carried out by TripAdvisor.
Rail-bound transportThe central element of the grid system of the British capital is the Métro of London, Underground or London Tube familiarly called The Tube , made up of 274 stations and 16 lines inter-connected for an overall length of 408 km. There exists of many projects of extensions, in particular in the south of the city, and even the construction of a new line. Inaugurated in 1863, it is the oldest network in the world. Three million ways per days, is approximately a billion per annum, are carried out each year on the whole of the network of the subway which serves mainly the historical center of London as well as the suburbs of the city located at the north of the the Thames but extends until - beyond borders from the Large London. Because of nature of the grounds, the southern and south-eastern suburbs are served by the subway but profit from important a network of suburban trains. The Docklands Light Railway , inaugurated in 1987, serves is of London and Greenwich on two banks of the the Thames. The suburban trains generally do not cross the city but stop in one of the 14 stations of the city located around the historical center. Crossrail is a project of Réseau regional express which should take up duty in 2015 and which will make it possible to connect the suburbs is and western while crossing London in an underground, an urban train, the Overground should enter in service in November 2007. The service of train Eurostar connects the Gare of Waterloo to Lille and Paris in France, and Brussels in Belgium. As from mid-November 2007, the trains Eurostar will not arrive any more in station of Waterloo but at the new station St Pancras International what will bring back the time of way to only 2:15 (in normal weather) between Paris and London and 1:50 between Brussels and London. There are also projects of reintegration of the Tramway in the center of London
Road transportAlthough the vast majority of transport of the heart of London is carried out in public transport, the use of the car dominates in suburbs. The London Inner Boxing ring Road (peripheral located around the center of London), the roads A406 and A205 (in the suburbs) as well as the highway M25 (more distant) circumvent the city and connect the many ways going towards the downtown area of London (Inner London). A project of highways furrowing the agglomeration (called London Ringways) had been launched in the years 1960 but was mainly abandoned with the beginning of the year 1970 because of the objections of the residents and the high costs. In 2003, a urban toll was introduced in order to reduce the traffic in downtown area. With some exceptions, the motorists must pay 8 books per day to penetrate inside a zone corresponding to the center of Londres.les motorists residing within the paying zone pay 10% is payable for 4 day with the tariff of £3.20 or £12 for four weeks. The network of drunk of London is a service which functions 24 hours a day, which is mainly used for local displacements and which transports more passengers than the subway. Each day of the week, the London buses transport 6 million passengers on more than 700 different routes. The number of voyages reached 1,8 billion into 2005/2006. The Bus with imperial are one of the symbols of London, just as the black taxis and the subway.
London, to support its policy of eradication of the car, very heavily invests in individual transport cyclist. Thus in 2006 London has invests 38 million euros in the cycle ways and the carparks with bicycle.
Air transportLondon is also a Plate-forme of world correspondence air. Not less than 150 million passengers forward in one of the 8 airports which contain " London Airport " in their name but practically all the international traffic forwards by the 5 principal airports (Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted, Luton and London City). The airport of Heathrow is most important in the world in term of international passengers and proposes a complete range of domestic, European or intercontinental flights. A big part of the international traffic as many flights of airline companies at low prices is dealt with by the airport of Gatwick. The airports of Stansted and Luton are specialized in the short-distance flights of the companies at low prices. The airport of London City, smallest and nearest to London, rather, from its proximity with the financial centers of the capital, is specialized in the private flights and accommodates short-distance flights as well as an important traffic of private jets.
EducationAccommodating many universities and other establishment of higher education, London counts approximately 378.000 students and is an important center of Research and development. The majority of the elementary schools and secondaries of London follow the English education system.
With 125.000 students, the Université of London is the largest university of the United Kingdom and Europe. It is made up of 20 colleges as well as many institutes, each one having a broad autonomy in the delivery of the diplomas. The colleges constituents, such as UCL, King' S and Royal Holloway or of the institutes more specialized such as Imperial College, the London School off Economics, SOAS, the Royal Academy off Music and the Institute off Education, have their own procedure of admission and constitute universities with whole share although the diplomas are delivered by the university of London.
The other universities based in London, such as the City University , the University Brunel, the London Metropolitan University, the University of Middlesex, UEL, the University of Westminster and the London South Bank University, do not form part of the university of London. Some were institutes of technology which were seen granting the statute of university by the Further and Higher Education Act in 1992. London is also famous for its training in trade and business with the London Business School or the Case Business School .
London also accommodates many museums which are one of attractions of the city but which also take part research. The natural history museum of natural history, the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum are all three gathered in the " district of the musées" with South Kensington while the British Museum gather historical collections of the whole world. The British Library , located in the district of St Pancras is the National library of the United Kingdom, lodging more than 150 million works. The city also shelters many collections of art, mainly in the National Gallery, with the Tate Britain or the Tate Modern.
EntertainmentWithin the Quoted of Westminster, the district of West End gathers a great number of attractions around Leicester Square, where many films are played in British and world preview, and Piccadilly Circus and its electronic publicities covering with many buildings. In this zone are also the district of the theaters of London which gathers many cinemas, bars, pubs, nightclubs, restaurants also that the Chinese district of London. A little more in the east is Covent Garden where the Avenue is located stars, inspired by the Walk off Famed of Hollywood. Shoreditch and Hoxton, located at Hackney in the East End also gathers many bars, restaurants, night clubs and galleries. Upper Street , a 2 km length street of the district of Islington, account more bars than any other street in the United Kingdom. It is also the first street to propose an access Internet without wire in its coffees.
Oxford Street, often quoted as being the longest commercial street in the world, gathers more than 300 trade out of approximately 2 km, since Marble Arch, and accommodates nearly 200 million customers per annum. Bond Street with Mayfair shelters many shops of luxury, just as the district of Knightsbridge where Harrods is located. The districts of Knightsbridge (Sloane Street), Mayfair (Street Jump, Brook Street) and Chelsea (King' S Road) gather many creators and shops of mode of which Vivienne Westwood, John Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik and Jimmy Choo. London also shelters many markets, of which Camden Market for the fashion, Portobello Road for antiquities and Borough Market for the products bios.
Film and literature
London inspired by many authors and be the subject many works of literature. William Shakespeare passed most of its life and also worked in London. Its contemporary Ben Jonson also lived in London and some of its writings, in particular the Alchemist , are held in the city. Two writers are closely associated with the city: Samuel Pepys (1633 - 1703) which in particular reported great events like the epidemic of plague of London and the large fire of 1666 like Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) of which the description of London embrumé, snow-covered and crasseux with the streets filled with sweeping and pickpockets had a major influence on the perception of the city to the time victorienne. Many major works have the city for decoration. Life off Johnson , the biography of James Boswell is held mainly in London and is at the origin of the famous quotation of Samuel Johnson: " When a man has enough London of it, it has enough the life of it because there is in London all that the life can apporter" ( When has off man is tired London, He is tired off life; for there is in London all that life edge afford ). The Journal of the year of the plague of Daniel Defoe is a work of fiction based on the great plague of 1665. London of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century is described in the already quoted novels of Dickens and in the adventures of Sherlock Holmes of Arthur Conan Doyle. The novel of 1933 of George Orwell In the dèche in Paris and London describes the life of the poor in the two capitals British and Frenchwoman. Peter Ackroyd is a modern writer who was also influenced by the city, in particular in London: The Biography , The Lambs off London and Hawksmoor . Bloomsbury and the district of Hampstead traditionally was in the middle of the current of literature libertarienne of London.
London also plays a big role in cinema industry. Four large studios are located in the city: Pinewood, Shepperton, Elstree and Leavesden, as well as many specialized companies in the Post-production and the special Effects. Many films were made to London even: Peter Pan (1953), 101 Dalmatiens (1961), Mary Poppins (1964), Love at first sight in Notting Hill (1999) and 28 Days later (2002) for example.
London also shelters many schools of the performing arts like the Central School off Speech and Drama , from where left Judi Dench and Laurence Olivier, the London Academy off Music and Dramatic Art , where were formed Jim Broadbent and Donald Sutherland inter alia, as well as the Royal Academy off Dramatic Art , which counts Joan Collins and Roger Moore among his former students. The Festival of film of London, organized by the British Film Institute , is held in the city the every years in October.
London has a panel of museums among most important in the world. It is in addition the city in the world which has the greatest number of galleries and museums of art per capita. One finds museums on about all: art, sciences, history, leisures, etc…
For more information, to see List of the museums of London.
MusicLondon is one of the world of classical music and pop capitals/rock'n'roll. The city shelters the seat of the one of the four majors of the disc, EMI as well as innumerable musicians, groups, orchestras and professionals of the music.
Classical musicFive professional orchestras are based in London: the Symphony orchestra of London, the Philharmonic orchestra of London, the royal Philharmonic orchestra, the Orchestra Philharmonia and the Symphony orchestra of the BBC. Many other orchestras are also located in the city: the Orchestra of the age of the Lights, the London Sinfonietta and the units London Mozart Players and English Chamber Orchestrated . The culminating point of the traditional season occurs every year in summer with The Proms , a series in approximately 70 concerts of classical music to the Royal Albert Hall.
Opera and balletsLondon has two principal operas: the Royal Opera House and the Coliseum Theater . The ballets Royal Ballet and the English National Ballet occur with the Royal Opera House , the Sadler' S Wells and with the Royal Albert Hall .
Pop music/rock'n'rollLondon shelters many pop concert halls/rock'n'roll such Earls Court and Wembley Arena but also rooms plus intimists like the Carling Brixton Academy and Hammersmith Apollo. Many artists resident in London and in the Home surrounding Counties . The city saw to open very first the Hard rock Coffee as well as famous the Studios Abbey Road.
As a principal agglomeration of the United Kingdom, London played an important role in the birth of the various currents of urban musics and electronic, such as the Drum and low , Garage , Grime and Dubstep . Many artists of hip-hop British also live in London.
In 2006, DJ Magazine published an investigation carried out at 600 international DJ which established that London sheltered three of the best night clubs in the world: the Fabric , The End and the Turnmills . In 2007, at the time of a new survey, the Fabric was classified in second position and The End in fourth position; six London clubs are in the first fifty places.
SportAt the 20th century, London accommodated on many occasions of the sports events of world scale, like the Olympic Games of summer twice, in 1908 and 1948. In July 2005, London was indicated again by the International Olympic committee like city-host of the Olympic Games of 2012, which will make the first city of it receive the OJ with three recoveries. In 1934, the Jeux of the Commonwealth were also held in the British capital.
The Football is the most popular sport in London (as well for the number of players as for the number of spectators). The city has 12 football clubs including 5 which evolves/moves in '' First League '' (Arsenal, Chelsea, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United). The 7 other clubs evolve/move in 3 other lower divisions (Barnet, Brentford, Charlton Athletic, Crystal De luxe hotel, Leyton Orient, Millwall and Queens Park Rangers). There also exists of many clubs non-league S or amateurs.
New the stage of Wembley can accommodate from now on to 90.000 spectators for the team of England of football like for the finales of the Coupe of England of football, the Coupe of the English league of football and Rugby.
The other principal football stadiums are:
Craven Cottage for Fulham
- Emirates Stadium for Arsenal
- Stamford Bridge (stage) for Chelsea
- White Binder Lane for Tottenham Hotspur
The town of London counts four clubs of Rugby evolving/moving in the championship of England (London Irish, Saracens, London Wasps and Harlequins) although only Harlequins really play London (the other clubs play apart from the Large London). The club of the Harlequins Rugby League evolves/moves him in Super League. The other London clubs of Rugby are Richmond F.C, Blackheath R.C, Rosslyn Park F.C and Barnes R.F.C.
Twickenham, in the west of London, is the national stage of Rugby and can accommodate 82.000 spectators.
The Cricket is played mainly London on two grounds of Test cricket , the Lord' S Cricket Ground (which accommodate the Middlesex DC) with St John' S Wood and the Oval (which accommodates the Surrey DC) with Kennington.
One of the sporting annual appointments in London is the Tournoi of Wimbledon which is held with the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club with Wimbledon. The other sports events of width are the Marathon of London which accommodates 35.000 participants and the Boat Race who, for 153 years, has seen to clash on the Thames, between Putney and Mortlake, the clubs of Aviron of the Université of Cambridge and Oxford.
MediaLondon is one of the first centers of communication in the world with the presence of a great number of companies of communication. Majority of large the media British and all the great national television networks, of which BBC News, the most important service of information in the world, have their seat in London. Approximately 53% of British employment dependant on television and with the radion are concentrated in London. This concentration often led certain commentators to criticize the centering of the United Kingdom on London. The other networks installed in London count among them ITV , Chanel 4 , Five and BSkyB . Just like the BBC, these media produce sometimes their programs elsewhere in the United Kingdom but London remains all the same the principal place of production. The local programs are proposed by the regional services of the principal networks: BBC London on BBC One and ITV London on ITV1 .
There exist many radio stations available to London. The local radios include/understand Capital Radio operator , Heart 106.2 , KIS 100 and Xfm . The radios of information and debates include/understand BBC London , LBC 97.3 and LBC News 1152 .
The walk of the newspapers in London is dominated by the national editions of the large British newspapers, all published in the capitals. Until in the years 1970, the majority of the national newspapers were concentrated on Fleet Street but in the Eighties, they were delocalized in warehouses more roomy, likely to accommodate automatic printing works. The majority are today in the east of London. In Wapping, in 1986, SOGAT 82, the trade union of the printers strongly opposed these delocalizations, driving with many confrontations with the police force. The last great news agency of Fleet Street , Reuters, moved with Canary Wharf in 2005 but Fleet Street remains a term always strongly associated with the national press.
There exist four local newspapers in London, the free Evening Standard and three titles, Metro , London Lite (published by the Evening Standard ) and Thelondonpaper . All are available in the street like in the subway and the stations. Time Out Magazine , a weekly independent guide provides the list in the concerts, films, plays and other cultural activities since 1968. There exist many other local newspapers in the London agglomeration, bringing back very local information.
London is in the center of televisual and cinematographic industry British, with principal the studio in the west of the city and an important sector of Post-production based with Soho. London is, with New York, one of the two principal ones centers edition of English language.
London in the popular cultureAugust 1st The characters of Sherlock Holmes and Jack the eventror known and are attached to the cultural history of London.
- '' Mayor off London, the London Assembly and the Greater London Authority '', official site of London.
- '' Transport for London '', public agency responsible for public transport of London.
- '' Focus one London '', official statistics of London, Office for National Statistics .
History of London
- ''London History: From the Romance Period to the 20th Century '', Britannia.com, America' S gateway to the British Isles since 1996 .
- '' London History '', The U.K. Travel and heritage guides .
- London: a little history, page of the Guide of routard devoted to the history of London.
- '' The Status off Romance London '', article of the magazine Current Archeology .
Beats-smg: Londons Be-X-old: Лёндан Fiu-vro: London Roa-rup: Londra Simple: London Zh-classical: 倫敦 Zh-min-nan: London Zh-yue: 倫敦
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