Liu EIB (v. 161 - June 21st 223) or Lieou Pei in transcription EFEO (in traditional Chinese: zh-Hant 劉備, simplified: Zh-Hans 刘备, Pinyin: Liú EIB) was a powerful lord Chinese end of the Dynastie Han and beginning of the period of the Three Kingdoms. Its social Prénom was Xuande (zh-Hant 玄德, Xuándé ). It founded with the assistance of the strategist Zhuge Liang the Royaume of Shu of which it proclaimed emperor in 221, establishing the transitory dynasty of Shu-Han. After its death, it accepted the posthumous name of emperor Zhaolie (zh-Hant 昭烈帝, Zhāolìe dì). Liu EIB was immortalisé in the novel Histoire of the Three Kingdoms where it east depicts like a virtuous monarch, filled up values confucéennes.
Liu EIB is known in Japan under the name of Ryūbi Gentoku and in Korea under that of Yubi Hyeondeog .
Genealogy, childhood and youthLiu EIB is native district of Zhuo (zh-Hant 涿) in the area of Zhuo (zh-Hant 涿) in the province of You (today Zhuozhou in the Hebei). It is a downward distance of Liu Zhen, which was the son of Liu Sheng, one of wire of the emperor Jingdi of Han (156 - 141 av. J. - C.). According to the Dianlüe of Yu Huan, Liu EIB also goes down from the same branch as the marquis de Linyi.
Although of imperial descent, Liu EIB had been member of a branch fallen into poverty for three centuries: its ancestor Liu Zhen, towards 117 av. J. - C. (6th year of Yuanshou ), receives the title of marquis de Lucheng and is sent in the district of Zhou. Unfortunately it cannot pay the annual tribute in time and is dislocated of its functions and its title.
Liu EIB is the grandson of Liu Xiong, and the son of Liu Hong, who were each mandarins with Zhuo. Liu Xiong managed to be made name for its filial devotion and its incorruptibility ( Xiaolian ). Liu EIB loses his/her father very early and lives with his mother of the weaving and the sale of mattress and sandals of straw.
According to its biography in the Chronic of the Three Kingdoms , in the south-east of the house where Liu EIB lives pushes a large mulberry tree, high of five zhang (approximately sixteen meters) whose form points out that of a carriage. According to the Yearly of the Han dynasties and Jin of Xi Zaochi, Li Ding, a man of the area would have exclaimed: “From this place will be born certainly a great man! ” When he is child, Liu EIB plays with the other children of its family under this mulberry tree and announces: “Certainly, a day I will lead this celestial carriage! ” but his/her paternal uncle sermonizes it: “Do not say silly things! You will bring misfortune on the family! ”.
To fifteen years, the mother of Liu EIB sends this one to far to study under the supervision of Lu Zhi, then large administrator of Jiujiang and native of the same district as Liu EIB. Liu EIB has as fellow students Liu Deran - a member of his family - like Gongsun Zan, with which it weaves deep bonds of friendship. The father of Liu Deran, Liu Yuanqi, provides not only for the needs for his son, but also for those of Liu EIB. When his wife asks him “We are of two different households, why do you help? ”, he answers: “This child of our clan is exceptional. ”
Physical appearance and characterThe chronicle describes Liu EIB like not being very carried on its studies but appreciating the dogs, the horses, the music and beautiful clothing. Once adult, it is high of seven chi and five cun (1,72 m being given the value of these units at the time of Han), its arms falling to him in lower part from the knees. It is also able to see its own ears. The chronicle also describes it like a man of few words, but good towards people, and knowing to mask its emotions with a peaceful appearance. He likes to bind bonds with the gentlemen and of many young people idolâtrent it.
Revolt of the Yellow Turbans - warlike BeginningsZhang Shiping and Su Shuang, two rich person commercial of Zhongshan stop in Zhuo to sell horses to with it and make the meeting of Liu EIB. Impressed, they offer gold to him and Liu EIB starts to gather troops under its orders. According to the popular tradition, it is at this time that it takes with its service Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.
Towards 184, the revolt of the Yellow Turbans bursts and a call to the population to enlist and fight the rebels is sent in all the provinces. Liu EIB decides to answer it and leaves with its partisans in company colonel Zou Jing. According to the Dianlüe , Liu EIB is sent to face Zhang Zhun in Pingyuan. Liu EIB is seriously wounded in the battle but the rebels are put in rout and Liu EIB could be brought back to the camp to be neat there. After its successes against the Yellow Turbans, Liu EIB receives in reward of its services a Mandarin station in Anxi.
Later, an inspector arrives at Anxi and Liu EIB comes to its meeting, but is seen refusing an interview. Furious, it attaches the inspector and gives him two hundred blows of riding crop. It then suspends with its neck its Mandarin seal by announcing its resignation, then flees. The Dianlüe tells this anecdote by adding more details: an imperial edict had been emitted the purpose of which was to raise of their functions all the mandarins of low importance which had had their station thanks to their military merits and Liu EIB expected to be the target of this one. When the inspector arrived at Anxi, Liu EIB, having learned where it resided, went to require an audience of him. Under pretext of disease, the inspector refused to receive it and Liu EIB, having understood that it would have to give up his station, conceived rancour of it. It went with its men to the residence of the inspector and says to him: “Me, EIB, received the secret order of my suzerain to come to seek you. ” It attached it to a fence then took its seal of Mandarin and put it around the neck of the inspector before giving him hundred blows of riding crop by expressing the desire to kill it. As the inspector begged that him the safe life is left, Liu EIB let it leave.
Service under Gongsun ZanLittle before, the marshal He Jin had charged the commander Guan Qiu with raising troops to face the Yellow Turbans. Liu EIB decides to join Guan Qiu and share with Xiapi where he faces and overcomes the Yellow Turbans. In reward of its services, it is made appointed of Xiami. It gives up later this station to take the magistrature of Gaotang.
According to the Chronic of the heroes of Wang Edge, in 189, when the emperor Lingdi dies, Liu EIB belonged to the troops present at Luoyang, the capital. Following the death of the emperor and many disorders relating to the succession, the general Dong Zhuo deposits and makes assassinate Bian, the new emperor, to establish in his place Xie, the emperor Xiandi, and makes use of it to control the empire. However, of many war leaders are opposed to this situation. CAD CAD and Liu EIB sets out again each one in their respective areas in order to raise troops to face Dong Zhuo.
Overcome, Liu EIB takes refuge at Gongsun Zan which offers a station in its army to him, then sends it with Tian Kai to face Yuan Shao, the guard of the province of Ji. Liu EIB manages to defend Pingyuan and receives its magistrature in reward. Later, it is named governor of Pingyuan.
Liu Ping, a man of the area, then tests much jealousy for Liu EIB and sends assassins to him. However, Liu EIB was made popular in the area and the assassins decide not to conclude their mission. According to the Book of Wei , Liu EIB, receives at his place the assassins without suspecting their intentions and the draft with such a generosity that those, ashamed, leave. Always according to the Book of Wei , the people are then in the food shortage and Liu EIB protects them from the gangsters and divides the richnesses between them equitably. He eats sitted in company of the peasants as if he were one of them.
Governorship of XuTowards 194, Yuan Shao is caught some again in Gongsun Zan and Liu EIB is sent in garrison to IQ under the orders of Tian Kai. Meanwhile, CAD CAD, wishing to avenge death for his/her father, attacks the province of Xu directed by CAT Qian and this one requires of Tian Kai its assistance. Liu EIB and Tian Kai go then to Xu. The army of Liu EIB then comprises approximately a thousand of soldiers, riders of the tribes Wuwan of the province of You, like a few thousands of peasants. CAT Qian entrusts four thousand additional soldiers to him and Liu EIB leaves Tian Kai and Gongsun Zan to join CAT Qian. This last recommends it to the post of inspector of the province of Yu and poster sends it to Xiaopi.
A little later CAT Qian fall seriously sick. On its bed of death, when it considers the succession, it says to its adviser Mi Zhu: “Only Liu EIB can ensure the safety of this province. ” Consequently, Mi Zhu offers to Liu EIB the province of Xu, however this one does not dare to accept. Chen Deng emps chaotic. Monseigneur, I wish that you take under your orders our hundreds of thousands of soldiers and riders. At best, you will be able to rectify the disorders of Empire, to help the people and to become one of the five let us hégémons. In the worst case you will be able to take a territory and to defend the borders and to enter the History of them. I request so that Monseigneur considers my opinion. ” Kong Rong, the governor of Beihai also gives its opinion: “How Yuan Gonglu can it worry about the country when it forgets its inhabitants? It is not that a skeleton drying in its tomb and does not deserve that one is interested in him. Today, all the people wish that you accept this load and if you refuse it, you will end up regretting it. ” Convinced by Chen Deng and Kong Rong, Liu EIB agrees to direct the province of Xu. According to the Yearly of the emperor Xiandi , Chen Deng sends a message to Yuan Shao to inform him of the news. This one answers: “Liu Xuande de Liu EIB '' is extremely refined and by a great uprightness and all Xu is certainly delighted by its nomination. ”
In 196 (1 year of Jian' year ), CAD CAD recommends Liu EIB to the row of “general who conquers is” (zh-Hant 鎮東將軍, zhèn dōng jiāngjūn ) and under marquis de Yicheng (zh-Hant 宜城亭侯, Yíchéng tínghóu ). Yuan Shu attacks Liu EIB and this one goes to Xuyi and Huaiyin to defend the province. Both clash for one month, then the general CAD Bao who kept Xiapi, betrays Liu EIB and delivers the city to Lu Drunk, which captures at the same time the women of Liu EIB. Liu EIB beats a retreat with Haixi.
According to the Chronique of the heroes , when Liu EIB had left in Huaiyin to face Yuan Shu, he entrusted Xiapi to Zhang Fei. This one wanted to kill CAD Bao, a general of late the CAT Qian. Fearing for its life, CAD Bao went near Lu Drunk to seek of the assistance. Lu Drunk attacked Xiapi, captured the city and Zhang Fei flees. By learning the news, Liu EIB tried to take again Xiapi but without success. It went to Guangling to face Yuan Shu and lost the battle.
Liu EIB faces Yang Feng and Han Xian, two gangsters who sow the disorder in the province. It overcomes them and the fact of decapitating. It makes then peace with Drunk Lu and this last returns his wives to him. Liu EIB then entrusts Xiapi to Guan Yu then share with Xiaopei where it assembles an army of approximately ten thousand men.
With the service of CAD CADLu Drunk decides to attack again Liu EIB and overcomes it, forcing this one to go to take refuge at CAD CAD. This last accommodates it liberally and the station of guard of Yu offers to him (zh-Hant 豫州牧, Yùzhōu mù ). Of return to Xiaopei, Liu EIB undertakes to join together its troops previously dispersed.
To the Spring 198 (3rd year of Jian' year ), Drunk Lu sends Gao Shun and Zhang Liao to attack Xiaopei (according to the Chronique of the heroes , Drunk Lu had sent somebody to Henei to buy horses and those had been concealed by the soldiers of Liu EIB). CAD CAD sends Xiahou Dun to Xiaopei in reinforcement but towards October - November, Liu EIB and Xiahou Dun is both beaten and must flee. The women of Liu EIB are again captured and Gao Shun brings them back to Drunk Lu. Towards November - December, CAD CAD decides to personally carry out a forwarding against Drunk Lu. Liu EIB goes to the border where it joint with CAD CAD. CAD CAD besieges Xiapi and Drunk Lu finally is captured and carried out while Liu EIB recovers its wives.
CAD CAD returns to Xuchang, where it recommends Liu EIB for the load of general of the left (zh-Hant 左將軍, zuǒ jiāngjūn ). According to the Chronic of the Three Kingdoms , CAD CAD has enormously respect for Liu EIB and both go often together in the same carriage or sit together at the banquets. In north, Yuan Shu threatens to join its forces to those of his/her brother Yuan Shao and CAD CAD sends Liu EIB to attack Yuan Shu, but this last dies of disease before the arrival of Liu EIB.
Before its departure, Liu EIB had received from the imperial uncle Dong Cheng a belt where a secret edict of the Xiandi emperor was written ordering the assassination of CAD CAD and Liu EIB waited its hour to act.
One day that they are eating, CAD CAD called to Liu EIB: “In all the Empire, the only heroes of today are only you and myself. Benchu de Yuan Shao '' and its partisans do not have what it is necessary. ” Of surprise, Liu EIB releases its rods. According to the Chronic of the sun of China of Chang qu, there was then a violent one storm with much of flashes and thunder. To mask the true reason for its surprise, Liu EIB known as: “Like the wise one, “When the thunder thundered or that the wind broke out, it turned pale.”. This clap of thunder was so powerful that one could have even believed it fallen here! ”
The plot of Dong Cheng, to which had joined Zhong Ji and Wang Zifu is discovered and those are carried out, like their clans. According to the Yearly of the emperor Xiandi , at the time of their capture, Liu EIB is absent from capital and its implication in the plot is not discovered. However, according to the Chronicles of Wu de Hu Chong, CAD CAD is shown being wary and made espionner Liu EIB. This last had started to cultivate vegetables in its garden to mean that it was not interested the policy. He says to his companions Guan Yu and Zhang Fei: “But why board I thus undertaken vegetable culture? I will end up waking up suspicions at lord CAD. We should not remain here a long time. ” This night, Liu EIB gives up all the gifts which had made him CAD CAD and share by a door of service with Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. Of return to Xiaopei, he undertakes to gather his troops. However, Pei Songzhi, the traditional commentator of the Chroniques of the Three Kingdoms qualifies the very strange one and drawn by the hair the account from Hu Chong and it appears improbable to him that the vegetable culture had though is to be seen with the escape of Liu EIB: in spite of the reserves of its advisers like Guo Jia, CAD CAD sends Liu EIB to face Yuan Shao. It is the opportunity which Liu EIB seizes to leave CAD CAD.
Dong Hai and Chang Ba rebel against CAD CAD and unite in Liu EIB, forming an army of several tens of thousands of people. Liu EIB sends Sun Qian at Yuan Shao in order to negotiate a non-aggression pact with him. CAD CAD dispatches Liu Dai and Wang Zhong against Liu EIB but those is beaten.
In 200 (5th year of Jian' year ), CAD CAD, taken tortures some between Yuan Shao and Liu EIB, personally directs a forwarding to come to end from Liu EIB. According to the Book of Wei , in north, it leaves its generals to Guandu, in order to contain a possible aggression of Yuan Shao. Liu EIB does not expect that CAD CAD comes to attack it in person and believes in the beginning to deal with its subordinates. When he learns the truth, he takes fear but decides to check information and goes close to the enemy camp. Seeing the personal banners of CAD CAD, it panics and decides to flee.
At the conclusion of this conflict, CAD CAD captures the women of Liu EIB, as well as the general Guan Yu whom it temporarily takes with his service.
Short service under Yuan ShaoLiu EIB goes in the province of Qing, where Yuan Tan, the governor of the area, having had wind of its reputation, comes to its meeting. Liu EIB follows Yuan Tan until Pingyuan and Yuan Tan sent a messenger to warn his father, Yuan Shao, arrival of Liu EIB. Yuan Shao sent its generals to accommodate Liu EIB to some two hundred Li of the city (approximately 83 km).
After one month with the camping of Yuan Shao, the majority of the troops dispersed of Liu EIB come to join it. Yuan Shao and CAD CAD lead a war of attrition to Guandu (Bataille of Guandu), and Liu pi, a former chief of the Yellow Turbans, are raised against CAD CAD and are combined in Yuan Shao. This last sends Liu EIB to join Liu pi in order to attack Xuchang, the capital, left without defense and to thus take CAD CAD with reverse, but CAD CAD sends CAD Ren to intercept it. Guan Yu having returned to its sides, Liu EIB thinks of leaving Yuan Shao. It returns its soldiers to him, and proposes to go to the province of Jing to propose in Liu Biao an alliance. Yuan Shao consequently sends it to join together its troops with Ru' nan, a few thousands of men. CAD CAD sent Cai Yang to attack it, but this one is beaten and killed during the battle.
Stay in JingCAD CAD leaves victorious the battle of Guandu, and, Yuan Shao not offering more threat to north, it turns to the south to attack Liu EIB in Ru' nan. Meanwhile, Liu EIB sends Mi Zhu and Sun Qian for parlementer with Liu Biao. This last offers to Liu EIB men and vivres and lets it be put in garrison at Xinye. Many men of talent of the area come to place themselves under the orders of Liu EIB, and Liu Biao, suspicieux, takes guard not to offer to him of too vital station.
According to the Yearly of the nine provinces , Liu EIB is established in Jing during a few years. One day, while rising seat of the toilets, it realizes that its thighs enlarged and seized of sadness, starts to cry. Liu Biao requires of Liu EIB what does not go and this one answers him: “Formerly, I never left my horse and my thighs were firm. Today, I do not assemble any more a horse, and my thighs grew bigger. The months passed to the gallop and here me is already in my old days, soon able to achieve large things. Here is the cause of my sadness. ” Liu EIB has forty then.
According to the History of the dynasties Wei and Jin , Liu EIB is established in garrison with Fancheng and Liu Biao is assembled attentive towards him. Liu Biao is shown however extremely being wary towards him and no confidence grants to him. It invites Liu EIB to a banquet and Kuai Yue and Cai Mao advises to him to benefit from this occasion to capture Liu EIB. Liu EIB discovers the plot, is excused to go to the toilets and flees. However, in the west of Xiangyang, the Tan brook blocks the passage to him. He howls then with his horse: “Dilu! Us here is in the adversity. Can you make an exploit! ” Dilu makes a jump of three then zhang (approximately 15 m) over the brook. Whereas its prosecutors arrive and are blocked by the brook, he asks them to transmit his thanks to Liu Biao. Whereas it leaves to far, those shout to him: “But why are you party with such an amount of eagerness? ” The well-read man Sun Cheng questions this anecdote of the Histoire of the dynasties Wei and Jin : “This history does not hold upright. If the things had been held thus, in its capacity as guest, how Liu EIB could it have dared party without being itself excused before at Liu Biao itself? This history is absurd and does not reflect any reality. ”
CAD CAD sends Xiahou Dun to attack Liu EIB and both meet in Bowang. Liu EIB prepares a ambush, pares fire with its own camping and made mine flees to cram Xiahou Dun. Xiahou Dun gives hunting and fall into the ambush from Liu EIB.
In 207 (12th year of Jian' year ), CAD CAD leaves to shift to north against the Wuwan tribes. Liu EIB advises in Liu Biao to benefit from the occasion to attack the capital, but Liu Biao does not dare to intervene. According to the Yearly of the dynasties Han and Jin , when CAD CAD returns, Liu Biao called to Liu EIB: “I did not listen to you, and I lost this special occasions. ” Rétorque Liu EIB: “The Empire is now divided, lances and shields cross, the occasions arrive. How could this one be the last? But when the next occasion arrives, be sure to take it for fear you do not regret it. ”
CAD CAD is caught some in Liu Biao, but this one dies of disease shortly after. His/her son Him Zong succeeds to him, but the chronicles are not clear on the circumstances of the succession. Thus, according to the Chronic of the heroes , Liu Biao requires of Liu EIB to become governor of Jing in his place. According to the Book of Wei , Liu Biao makes the demand for these terms: “My sons do not have a talent and my generals are dispersed. After my death, I would wish that you assist Jing. ” However, Liu EIB declines the offer: “Your sons are able. Monseigneur, it is not necessary to worry you. ” Of other people has a presentiment of Liu EIB to control Jing, but each time he refuses: “This man Biao '' was generous towards me. If I reached his request, it would be certainly people to say that I took his province by ambitiousness, and that, I then to support it. ” Lastly, according to Pei Songzhi, the commentator of the chronicles has a different opinion on the question: “Liu Biao and his wife loved their Zong son and had provided for a long time that would succeed to him. There were thus no reasons which it makes such an offer with Liu EIB. ”
Battle of ChangbanLiu Zong sends an emissary to offer his rendering to CAD CAD. Liu EIB is then posted in garrison with Fan and is unaware of still the arrival of CAD CAD and the rendering of Liu Zong. It gets under way for Xiangyang. Zhuge Liang tries to convince it to attack Liu Zong to seize Jing, but Liu EIB answers him: “I could not support such an action. ”
According to the Yearly of the Han dynasties and Wei of Kong Yan, Liu Zong goes to CAD CAD, but does not dare to announce news with Liu EIB. A long time after, Liu EIB ends up learning it and sends a messenger to Liu Zong to have confirmation. Liu Zong sends Song Zhong in order to confirm well that it was subjected. CAD CAD had then already reached Wan, and Liu EIB, had panicked, said to Song Zhong: “It is now that the disaster is close that you come to inform me, what a drama! ” It then leaves its saber and points it on Zhong while saying: “If I take your head to you, that will not calm my fury, but the shame of a great man which kills a minister before his departure would remain registered in annals. ” Consequently, it lets Song Zhong leave and organizes a meeting between its generals. During this one, some suggest the idea taking Liu Zong as an hostage, leaving Jing, and leaving in direction the south for Jiangling. Liu EIB answers: “Liu de Jing Biao, on its bed of death, required of me to come to assistance of his/her son. I then to betray his confidence, if not, with my death, how could I never face him? ”
While arriving at the camping of Liu Zong, Liu EIB the hèle, but this one does not dare to rise to answer him. Many men leave Liu Zong then to join Liu EIB. According to the Dianlüe , before leaving the area, Liu EIB goes on the tomb of Liu Biao to cry.
While arriving at Dangyang, Liu EIB recruits some a hundred and thousand men and buys vivres and equipment for a few thousands of taels. As its army traverses only one ten Li per day (approximately 4 km), Liu EIB sends Guan Yu with a few hundreds of ships in direction of Jiangling. Liu EIB receives criticisms for its management of logistics: “We must hasten to arrive at Jiangling. We have many men, but little are suitably equipped. When lord CAD and his men, how will we be able will be there to face him? ” But Liu EIB answers: “A man wanting to achieve large things must consider before all the people. The men of the people followed me, how could I give up them? ”
Knowing that Jiangling included/understood veterans, and fearing that Liu EIB does not take possession of it, CAD CAD gives up its logistic carriages and part of its army with Xiangyang, keeping only five thousand light riders, and gives hunting to Liu EIB day and night, traversing three hundred Li per day (approximately 125 km). Finally, CAD CAD catches up with Liu EIB with Changban. Liu EIB is forced to give up his wives again while Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun are beaten by CAD CAD. This last seizes their equipment and fact of many prisoners. While arriving at Hanjin, Liu EIB finds Guan Yu and meets Liu IQ, the large guard of Jiangxia and wire of Liu Biao, in company of several tens of thousands of men. All go to then in Xiakou.
Alliance with Sun Quan - Battle of Red CliffLiu EIB sends Zhuge Liang to negotiate an alliance with Sun Quan. According to the Memories of the river Jiang , Sun Quan sends Lu Known at Liu EIB to discuss an alliance with Liu EIB under cover to go to the funeral of Liu Biao and to present its regards to its sons, but meanwhile, CAD CAD had already captured Hanlin. Lu Known thus meets Liu EIB in Dangyang and asks him: “Where think you of going? ” and Liu EIB answers him: “The large guard of Cangwu, Wu Ju, is one of my knowledge. I think of going to see it. ” Known Lu says to him then: “The Sun lord is intelligent, virtuous and generous. He respects the men of merit and is itself a true hero of the Jiang river. He captured already six districts and has many soldiers and many provisions, which it is necessary to achieve of large things. My lord gave me has task to convince you to forge an alliance with him. Together, you will be able to come to assistance of the dynasty. Forget Wu Ju. This one is ordinary, and its district is too distant. How could you count on him? ” Convinced, Liu EIB leaves for Fankou in the Hebei, and charges Zhuge Liang with accompanying Lu Known at Sun Quan in order to negotiate alliance.
Sun Quan dispatches Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu at Liu EIB. According to the Memories of the river Jiang , Liu EIB learns the intention from CAD CAD to lead a forwarding to the south and, extremely anxious, awaits the reinforcements of Sun Quan impatiently. When those arrive, directed by Zhou Yu, this last sends a message to him: “I received a task to be achieved and I then to come to present my regards to you to your camp If that were possible, I would thus wish that you be able to come to see me. ” Liu EIB says then to Guan Yu and Zhang Fei: “That does not disturb me: if I want to forge an alliance with the east, it is necessary for me to go there. ” Liu EIB thus goes at Zhou Yu and asks him: “It is the lord CAD whom we must face and we need a major strategy. How much men did you bring? ” Zhou Yu answers: “Thirty thousand men. ” Liu EIB is astonished: “If little? ” Zhou Yu says to him then: “That will be enough amply! Thus look at how me, Yu, will pulverize CAD CAD. ” Liu EIB expresses the desire to meet Known Lu so that all can discuss together the strategy, but Zhou Yu known as: “I received my orders and I then to reach such a ridiculous request. If you want absolutely to see Zijing social first name of Known Lu, thus will see it. Kongming nickname of Zhuge Liang should arrive soon, from here perhaps three days. ” Although Liu EIB feels extremely insulted by Zhou Yu, it cannot believe that this one can come to end from the troops from CAD CAD and consequently does not give him men, preferring to give two thousand men to Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. When Zhou Yu is victorious, Liu EIB will regret not having given him men to receive merit in the battle.
Liu EIB and Sun Quan leave victorious the battle of Red Cliff by setting fire to the ships of CAD CAD. Liu EIB continues CAD CAD until Nanjun without managing to capture it. As its troops suffered from epidemics, CAD CAD gives up the area.
According to the Memories of the river Jiang , after the rout of CAD CAD, many men formerly under the orders of Liu Biao which had joined CAD CAD rejoin in Liu EIB. Sun Qian grants to him the command of the province of Jing.
Liu EIB then assembles a forwarding to take again the districts of Wuling, Changsha, Guiyang and Lingling and pushes with rendering their respective governors: Jin Shun, Han Xuan, Zhao Fan and Liu Of. The governor of Lujiang, Lei Xu, returns in person with ten thousand men in front of Liu EIB to make his tender. Liu IQ dies of disease shortly after and Liu EIB, pushed by the people, is found protective of Jing. Sun Quan is wary then of Liu EIB and offers to him his/her little sister, Sun Shangxiang, in marriage. Liu EIB goes to the capital of Wu to meet Sun Quan and to organize the marriage. According to the Chronicles of the duke of Shanyang, Liu EIB would have said before the departure: “Sun Quan is a bad chief. I do not want to re-examine it. ” and would have doubled walk day and night.
Sun Quan sends a messenger at Liu EIB to propose an attack concerted against Shu, Jing indeed making plug between Shu and Wu. Yan Guan, the secretary of Jing, proposes in Liu EIB: “If we accede to the request of Wu, but which we fail in our attack against Shu, Wu can take to us with reverse. But if we make mine accept their request, and that we say to them that as we only have just installed us in the province, we cannot launch yet of attack, Wu will not dare to cross our borders to attack Shu. ” Liu EIB adopts the plan of Yan Guan. According to the Yearly of the emperor Xiandi , Liu EIB makes this answer to Sun Quan: “The inhabitants of the province of Yi name of Shu '' are rich, powerful, and profit from considerable geographical advantages. Although Liu Zhang is weak, it has the means of being defended. Zhang Lu is a hypocrite and does not have any allegiance towards CAD CAD. To now send a forwarding to Shu, on more than ten thousand Li (approximately: 4150 km) has few chances to succeed and even Wu IQ and Sun Wu could not impose their will on it. Although CAD CAD does not have a respect towards the emperor, it however reigns on its behalf. It is told that the defeat of CAD CAD to red Cliff would indicate a decline in its power, but it of it is nothing. Today, CAD CAD has the two-thirds of the Empire. It brought together its knights with Canghai and assembled its troops with Wuhui. Do you think that there will remain sitted until dying of old age? If the allies attack the ones the others without good reason, they offer to CAD CAD a pivot of which it could draw advantage. To attack Shu is thus a plan which misses retreat. ” However Sun Quan does not follow the opinion of Liu EIB and starts to join together troops with Xiakou. Liu EIB then sends to Zhou Yu this message: “If you wish to attack Shu, I will not let to you act with your own way in order not to lose the confidence of the inhabitants of the Empire. ” It sends Guan Yu to be posed in Jiangling, Zhang Fei in Zigui and Zhuge Liang in Nanjun while it leaves itself for Canling. Indicator that Liu EIB is serious, Sun Quan orders in Zhou Yu to fold up himself.
Conquest of ShuIn 211 (16th year of Jian' year ), Liu Zhang learns the intentions from CAD CAD to attack Zhang Lu with Hanzhong. On the councils of Zhang Song, it turns to Liu EIB to seek an alliance and sends Fa Zheng like emissary. However Zhang Song and Fa Zheng betray Liu Zhang and propose in Liu EIB to take the control of the province.
Liu EIB leaves for Yi with Pang Tong and a few tens of thousands of men, leaving Guan Yu and Zhuge Liang to keep Jing. While arriving at Fucheng, Liu Zhang comes to accommodate them. Zhang Song and Fa Zheng convince Pang Tong to suggest in Liu EIB benefitting from the banquet to capture Liu Zhang, but Liu EIB refuses: “It is a too important business to be regulated in an so expeditious way. ”
Liu Zhang recommends Liu EIB to row of commander-in-chief (zh-Hant 大司馬, dàsīmǎ ) and of colonel of servants (zh-Hant 司隸校尉, sīlì jiàowèi ) while Liu EIB recommends Liu Zhang to the row of “marshal which conquers the west” (zh-Hant 鎮西大將軍 zhèn xī dàjiāngjūn ) and guard of Yi (zh-Hant 益州牧, Yìzhōu mù). Liu Zhang gives to Liu EIB soldiers to attack Zhang Lu and sends it to supervise the army with Baishui. On its side, Liu EIB brings thirty thousand men equipped. Liu Zhang returns to Chengdu while Liu EIB advances in north. However, Liu EIB does not attack Zhang Lu immediately and is made partisans in the area.
In 212, CAD CAD attacks Sun Quan and this last requires of the assistance to Liu EIB. Liu EIB sends a messenger at Liu Zhang with this message: “Lord CAD is attacking Wu and this last is in a critical situation. Sun Quan and me sums like the lips and the teeth. In Qingni, Guan Yu is with the catches with Yue Jin and if I do not leave to assist it, Yue Jin high risk to carry it and take all my province. This threat is more important than that which Zhang Lu represents. This last is defending oneself and in the immediate future does not pose to us concern. ” For this purpose, he asks Liu Zhang ten thousand men, but this one grants only four thousand of them to him, with only half of the equipment. According to the Book of Wei , furious, Liu EIB would then have said to its soldiers: “We came to beat us for Yi and we did not spare our efforts. Liu Zhang piled up considerable richnesses, but feels reluctant to reward the military merits. And it wishes that we fight with dead for him? ”
Meanwhile, Zhang Known, the older brother of Zhang Song and large governor of Guanghan, denounces the plot of his/her brother. Consequently, Liu Zhang orders the execution of Zhang Song and orders with its soldiers not to let Liu EIB leave the area. Furious, Liu EIB makes carry out Yang Huai, the commander of the troops of Baishui, by pretexting that this one had been coarse towards him and gives then the order to Huang Zhong and Zhuo Ying to send their troops against Liu Zhang. Liu EIB personally directs forwarding in Guanzhong and attacks Fucheng defended by Liu GUI, Leng Bao, Zhang Ren and Deng Xian. The latter are beaten and beat a retreat with Mianzhu. Liu Zhang then sends Li Yan to Mianzhu to reorganize the army, but that prefers to be subjected to Liu EIB and to offer its troops to him. Liu EIB sends Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun to tackle Baidi, Jiangzhou and Jiangyang and load Guan Yu to keep Jing. Liu EIB besieges during one year Luocheng, kept by Liu Xun, the son of Liu Zhang.
At the time of the summer 214 (19th year of Jian' year ), Liu EIB comes to end from Luocheng. Liu EIB besieges Chengdu a few days and Liu Zhang offers its rendering. Liu EIB is proclaimed then protective of Yi and fact of Zhuge Liang its right-hand man, of F Zheng its strategist, of Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and My Chao its generals. It also offers stations to the former subordinates of Liu Zhang, but also to people who had been put at the variation by Liu Zhang like Liu Ba or Peng Yang.
In 215 (20th year of Jian' year ), Sun Quan sends a messenger at Liu EIB requiring of him to return Jing to him. Liu EIB answers: “It is necessary for me initially to obtain Liang before being able to return Jing to you. ” Furious, Sun Quan sends Lu Meng to attack the districts of Changsha, Guiyang and Lingling. Liu EIB directs fifty thousand men to Gong' year and leaves Guan Yu in Yiyang. Meanwhile, CAD CAD captures Hanzhong and Zhang Lu flees. Fearing to be taken out of clipper, Liu EIB proposes in Sun Quan to divide Jing into two. Sun Quan inherits Jingxia, Changsha and Guiyang and Liu EIB of Nanjun, Lingling and Wuling. Liu EIB is folded up on Jiangzhou. Meanwhile, Zhang Lu is subjected to CAD CAD and this last entrusts the defense of Hanzhong as well as the attack of Shu to Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He. Liu EIB sends Zhang Fei to Yanchu to face Zhang He with the procession of Wakou. This last is overcome and is folded up on Nanzheng. Liu EIB returns in Chengdu.
Establishment of the kingdom of ShuIn 218 (23e year of Jian' year ), Liu EIB launches an attack generalized against Hanzhong and load Wu Lan and Lei Tong to capture Wudu but both is killed by the troops of CAD CAD. Liu EIB is established in the strait of Yangping, vis-a-vis Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He.
To the Spring 219 (24e year of Jian' year ), Liu EIB crosses the Mian river and assembles its camp in the Dingjun mounts. Xiahou Yuan tries to seize the area and Liu EIB sends Huang Zhong to face it. Xiahou Yuan and Zhao Yu are both killed in the battle. CAD CAD sends reinforcements to the south to come to end from Liu EIB. This one known as: “Even if CAD CAD arrives, it can nothing make. Hanchuan is with me! ” When CAD CAD arrives, Liu EIB is defended, but does not seek to attack.
In summer, CAD CAD is folded up and Liu EIB captures Hanzhong. It sends Liu Feng, Meng Da and Li Ping to attack Shen daN in Shangyong.
In autumn, many mandarins wishes to found Liu EIB as a king de Hanzhong (zh-Hant 漢中王, Hànzhōng wáng ). They send to the Xiandi emperor a petition signed by more than one hundred thirty personalities of Shu of which Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, My Chao and Huang Zhong. Liu EIB itself sends to the emperor a report to aspire to this title.
In March 220 (25e year of Jian' year ), CAD CAD dies. About October, his/her son CAD pi détrône the Xiandi emperor, appoints emperor and proclaims the era Huangchu . Following the rumors making state of died of Xiandi, Liu EIB declares mourning and the posthumous title of Xiaomin emperor gives him (zh-Hant 孝愍皇帝, Xiàomǐn huángdì). According to the Book of Wei , learning death from CAD CAD, Liu EIB sends Han Ran to present its condolences and of the gifts, but CAD pi, furious that one uses the death of his father to make diplomacy, orders to the governor of Jing to carry out Han Ran in order to cut the diplomatic mission. According to the Dianlüe , Han Ran goes sick and written in Liu EIB that it is impossible for him to achieve its mission since CAD pi had just ordered its execution. Consequently, Liu EIB cancels the mission.
Many a mandarins of Shu whose Zhuge Liang, Semi Zhu, Liu Bao or Xiang Ju then make pressure on Liu EIB so that he proclaims itself emperor and continues the line of the Han dynasty. Liu EIB accedes to the requests, and in May 221 (26e year of Jian' year ) is established as an emperor, proclaims the era Zhangwu and declares an amnesty general. It appoints Zhuge Liang Prime Minister (zh-Hant 丞相, chéngxiāng ) and Xu Jing Minister for the People (zh-Hant 司徒, sītú ) and founds a temple with the memory of Liu Bang and its descendants. In June, he establishes Dame Wu as an empress and names his son Liu Shan crown prince. In July, it names his son Liu Yong prince of Lu (zh-Hant 魯王, Lǔ wáng ) and his son Liu Li prince de Liang (zh-Hant 梁王, Liáng wáng ). Liu EIB, furious of the execution of Guan Yu, prepares a forwarding against Sun Quan. Zhang Fei is assassinated by its clean subordinated during the preparations. The attack is launched in August. Sun Quan proposes in Liu EIB an offer of peace but Liu EIB, too in anger, refuses and captures Zigui.
In February 222 (2nd year of Zhangwu ), Liu EIB launches a new attack against Wu, but in July, Lu Xun inflicts to him a defeat crushing with the battle of Yiling. Liu EIB beats a retreat with Zigui then with Yufu. The generals Li Yi and Liu has of Wu continue Liu EIB until Nanshan then in October fold up themselves in Wu.
In December, Liu EIB orders in Zhuge Liang to reinforce defenses north and south of Chengdu. Sun Quan, learning that Liu EIB is in Baidi, proposes a new offer of peace to him. This time, Liu EIB accepts and sends Zhong Wei at Sun Quan in order to negotiate the details of them.
Towards January - February 223, Huang Yuan, the large governor of Hanjia, learns that Liu EIB is sick and foments a rebellion but it is quickly repressed by Zhuge Liang. Liu EIB, too sick, entrusts the management of the kingdom to Zhuge Liang and Li Yan.
According to the Collections of works of Zhuge Liang , the last edict of Liu EIB to his/her son Liu Shan known as:
“My disease had started on a simple diarrhea but evolved/moved in something of more serious and I am condemned. When a man reaches around fifty, one cannot any more regard it as young person. I have already about sixty and I do not regret. Thus do not afflict you and lily this with your brothers. The She lord came to see me and said to me that the Prime Minister had noticed that your wisdom had increased much. I hope that the things will continue thus, and I would not have any concern. Make efforts, make efforts! Do not make an evil under pretext that it is only one small evil, does not let a good not occur under pretext that it is only one small good. Only the merit and the virtue must avoid a man. The virtue of your father is mean, thus does not imitate me. If you can it, studies the Livre of Han and the Classique of the rites and if you have time, the books of Zhu Zi, Liu CAT and Shang Jun in order to extend your knowledge. I intended to say that the Prime Minister had compiled writings of the Shen Masters, Han and Guan as Liu CAT but I did not read them. ”
Feeling that it was going to die, Liu EIB made to mander his/her son Liu Yong and says to him: “After my death, you and your brothers listen to the Prime Minister as if he were your father and see with him for all things. ”
The June 21st (day of the Guisi ), it dies of the continuations of a dysentery in the palate of Yong' year at the age of sixty-three years. Zhuge Liang brings back its body to Chengdu and it is buried in Huiling. It receives the posthumous title of emperor Zhaolie and his/her son Liu Shan succeeds to him as a Houshu emperor.
Liu EIB in the Novel of the Three KingdomsIt meets his brothers in arms Zhang Fei in front of a poster of the emperor who claims of the assistance vis-a-vis the invasion of the yellow turbans. Guan Yu joined after having sympatisé with them and where Liu EIB explains its plan to them to restore the size of the Han dynasty. He is general, when he takes part with his brothers in arms Guan Yu and Zhang Fei in the war against Dong Zhuo in 192 in the sides of CAD CAD.
After being itself allied with the Kingdom of Wu, it founds the kingdom of Shu with the assistance of the strategist Zhuge Liang. It conquers the provinces of Jing, then that of Yi directed by Liu Zhang. This attack had been organized by the brilliance strategist Pang Tong (strategist coming from the same school that Zhuge Liang) but this last dies in Luo Feng Po. Zhuge Liang then becomes the principal strategist of Liu EIB. However, at the time of the battle of the castle of Fan, the brother in arms of Liu EIB, Guan Yu is captured by the Wu army and is carried out in the presence of Sun Quan. The death of Guan Yu makes Liu EIB insane of rage, it engages a battle against Wu with Yiling and dies. His/her son Liu Shan takes again the throne.
He was married with the girl of the emperor Wu, beautiful and intelligent the Sun Shang Xiang. Their marriage, although purely policy, led to a true passion. Nevertheless, carried in the torment of the war, they had of another choice to only clash.
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