Linux is a Operating system derived from UNIX. It is one of the most notorious examples of free software ; the integrality of sound Source code is indeed modifiable, usable and redistribuable freely by whoever. It is presented to the end user in the form of a distribution containing the core Linux and a whole of Logiciels. Certaines distributions is conceived for a use general practitioner, others for specialized use.
The Noyau Linux has for the first time placed at the disposal of the public the September 17th 1991. It did not function whereas with the processors of the type X86. It was then enriched by programs and software libraries resulting from the project GNU in order to form an operating system usable. This combination of the core ( Linux ) and of the programs which surround it (resulting from project GNU) suggests the use of the term GNU/Linux to indicate formally the operating system Linux . However, the use of this term is rare.
Originally developed for the PC compatibles, Linux is used on any types of material, of the Cellphone to the Superordinateur. Its primary market is that of the data-processing waiters, followed by the embarked Systèmes. Its share of use on Personal computer is about pourcent. The mascot of Linux is Tux, a Manchot.
Around the birth of LinuxIn 1991, the PC compatibles dominate the market of the Personal computers and generally function under the Operating systems MS-DOS, Windows or OS/2. The Microprocessor Intel 80386, sold since 1986, starts to be accessible. In 1991, none of these three systems exploits the capacities 32 Bit S of the 80386.
The project GNU is known to have produced many Free software, of which Commandes Unix, the text editor Emacs and the Compilateur C GCC. This software is generally used on Work stations functioning under Unix, because the Noyau of operating system Hurd is only with the state of project.
In June 1991, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) leaves Networking Release 2 (Net/2), which constitutes a system almost complete Unix BSD. But a lawsuit launched by Unix System Laboratories against Berkeley Software Design makes weigh doubts about the statute of this distribution during almost two years.
The operating system Minix is developed by the professor Andrew Tanenbaum for teaching. It is inspired by Unix, free, its sources are available but nonfree, and simplicity is privileged compared to the performances.
1991: birth of the Linux coreIn 1991, the Finnish student Linus Torvalds, which upset the low availability of the Unix waiter of its university with Helsinki, undertakes to write a Noyau of operating system which one will call later “Noyau Linux”.
Linus Torvalds then makes its training on the Operating system Minix. As the author of Minix refuses the contributions aiming at improving Minix, Linus gains the motivation necessary to write a substitute of it. It starts by developing a simple final emulator of , that it uses to connect via Modem to the data-processing Serveur of its university. Linus then wishes especially to include/understand the operation of its computer, a PC compatible based on a Microprocesseur Intel 80386. After the addition of various functionalities whose one Filesystem compatible with that of Minix, Linus directs its project towards something of more ambitious: a core to the standards POSIX.
October 5th, 1991, he announces on the forum Usenet news:comp.os.minix the availability of an outline version 0.02 of his operating system, version 0.01 having had a diffusion more than confidential. the message in question as its translation are available on wikisource.
Since, hundreds of impassioned and companies, small or giant, came to take part in the project whose Linus Torvalds is always the coordinator. Eric S. Raymond describes in a test resounding the development model of the Linux core and part of the free software.
Initially called Freax by its creator, the project finds his name final thanks to Ari Lemmke, administrator of the waiter ftp ftp.funet.fi , which lodges the work of Linus Torvalds in a repertory named Linux . It is the first appearance of a made up term starting from Linus and Unix , which will become thereafter a registered trademark in the name of Linus Torvalds. The penguin Tux, drawn by Larry Ewing in 1996, becomes the symbol of the project.
Diffusion of GNU/Linux
Among the outstanding stages, one can initially quote launching in October 1996 by Matthias Ettrich of the graphic Environnement KDE then in August 1997 by Miguel de Icaza of his competitor GNOME, both being based on the system of fenestration X11 resulting from work of the Massachusetts Institute off Technology. In the iceberg which is a Operating system general public based on the Noyau Linux, the environments of office, like GNOME, KDE or XFCE form the emerged part of it, in direct contact with the user.
There is also the progressive taking into account of the commercial interest of Linux which one can quote some spectacular demonstrations: launching in February 1998 of the Open Source Initiative; advertisement in July 1998 of the support of Oracle Corporation which carries and supports its famous Database under Linux; the stockmarket entry of Red Hat on November 11th, 1999; that of GOES Linux the next month which marks the top of impressive a Speculative bubble; the massive support brought by the giant IBM who there spends of the billion dollars, employs In 2005 nearly 300 developers of the Noyau Linux, and organizes starting from 2003 the legal response at the time of the attack of the SCO Group which affirmed to have the royalties of the Noyau Linux ( to see the article SCO against Linux ); acquisition in October and November 2003 of Ximian then of SuSE by the American giant Novell.
GNU/Linux is used today in many fields, embarked Systèmes with the Superordinateur S while passing by the waiters with in particular the very popular LAMP. Its market share on the stations customers is weak, the various estimates lying in general between 0,3 % and more 3 % according to the methods of statement and calculation. This figure is actually not easily estimable, because on the one hand, of many navigators Web modify their identity by defect (or at the request of the user) in order not to be constrained by the Web sites blocking the navigators other than “Internet Explorer turning on Microsoft Windows”, and on the other hand, it is frequent that a Linux user configures his system so that it does not communicate this information, because they could make it possible to facilitate the search for possible faults by a pirate.
Principles and ideology
See also: Free software
A free software is not necessarily a free software, and conversely any not-commercial software is not inevitably free. They are not either free software of rights : it is under the terms of their royalties that the contributors of a free software grant the four freedoms, which are d
Certain licenses are based on the principle of Copyleft, i.e. of reciprocity: a work derived from a software under copyleft must in its turn free being. It is the case of the most used free license, to begin with the Noyau Linux itself: the license GNU LPG written by Richard Stallman.
The opening of the Source code, one of the four criteria corresponding to the concept of Free software, has advantages theorized inter alia by Eric Raymond as regards fast correction of the bugs which are the wound of data processing, and in particular the correction of the security breaches. It is the refusal of the principle of Sécurité by the darkness.
Linux could not have developed without the presence of standardized protocols used on Internet. A good number of free software are implementations of reference besides, like Apache.
The partisans of the free software are thus constant partisans of the Interopérabilité. They propose the open formats, of the formats of data whose technical specifications are public and without access control nor of implementation, in order not to depend on only one software.
Accordingly let us quote Mozilla Firefox which tries to respect scrupuleusement recommendations put forth by the World Wide Web Consortium, Jabber which gave rise to the standard XMPP recognized by the Internet Engineering Task Force in the field of the Instant messaging or the continuations OpenOffice.org and KOffice which launched the recent standard OpenDocument in the field of office automation.
In other fields, there does not exist organization or of agreement of standardization recognized. The market is then parcelled out between various salesmen who have each one their technology or under the domination of a prevalent economic actor who closes his formats or protocol S.
The first case of figure prevails in the war of the instant messagings and is regulated by multiprotocol software like Pidgin or Kopete. The formats of the continuations successive Microsoft Office and the protocol Common Internet Spins System which makes it possible to divide files and printers between various computers of a network Microsoft Windows fall into the second category. These formats and protocols often or are not badly documented. The Interopérabilité passes then necessarily by the Retro-engineering.
That can require a titanic work, in addition illegal in the United States but legal in Europe (as long as one remains within the framework of interworking); today, OpenOffice.org makes it possible to read the very great majority of the files to the various formats .doc , and the software Samba makes it possible to take part in the Windows networks.
More problematic from the point of view of the Free software are the formats and protocols necessary to interworking, but locked technically and/or legally: Management of the digital rights, software patents, Directive EUCD, Digital Millennium Copyright Act…
Unifix Linux 2.0 of the German company Unifix (and Linux-FT de Lasermoon) are also certified POSIX .1 FIPS 151-2 (Federal Information Processing Standard). Core 1.2.13
On the site Debian, they explain the standards of POSIX are not free and certification POSIX.1 (and FIPS 151-2) is very expensive
Many associations, known under the name of Linux Users Group, User group Linux (LUG or GUL), seek to promote Linux and by extension, the free software, by the means of meetings where demonstrations of Linux are made, of the formations, and for those which wish it installations on their computer.
Many communities exist on Internet in order to help the beginners like the professionals. Let us quote the Lea-linux site, the collaboratif site of information Linuxfr.org and the Linux-Quebec site, which helps the Québécois users like French in their training of the bases of Linux thanks to a network very active IRC. And the projects Proselux and Parrains.Linux allow the linuxien () S to meet to help.
See also: Distribution Linux
The free software is produced in a collaborative way, often independently from/to each other, and can be freely redistributed. It follows a characteristic of the Linux world from there: separation between those which produce the software and those which distribute them.
One calls Distribution Linux a solution ready to be installed by the end user including/understanding a Linux core, programmes of installation and administration of the computer, a mechanism facilitating the installation and the update of the software like RPM or APT as well as a selection of software produced by others.
A distribution can for example choose to specialize (or not) on GNOME or KDE. It is also responsible for the configuration by defect of the system (graphics, simplicity…), of the follow-up of safety (installations of update) and more generally of the integration of the unit.
The diversity of the distributions makes it possible to meet various needs which they are with commercial goal or not; directed waiter, office automation or embarked; directed large-public or informed public; general practitioner or specialized for a specific use (fire wall, router network, bunch of calculation…) ; or certified on a given material.
Among the most famous distributions, one can quote the Slackware which is the first appeared Linux distribution in 1992, always actively maintained by Patrick J. Volkerding; the Debian, published by a community of developers; the Red Hat, published by the American company of the same name which also takes part in the development of Fedora Core; or the SuSE, at the origin derived from Slackware with addition of unquestionable subsystem resulting from Redhat, published today by the company Novell.
Many other more or less specialized distributions exist, being for the majority derived from the caused projects. For example here some specialized distributions “environment of office”: Ubuntu, published by Canonical Ltd which is derived from Debian; Mepis also based on Debian; Zenwalk derived from Slackware; Mandriva, derived from Red Hat, today published by the of the same French company name and implied in several free projects. There exist also distributions known as LiveCD , of which most famous is Knoppix, which makes it possible to start an operating system complete Linux and to reach many software starting from support (CD or DVD) without preliminary installation on the hard drive, and without deteriorating its contents. This flexibility in use made that they became a very popular support of demonstration of use of Linux, and are even used like tools for system maintenance.
Contracts OEM and Windows remission of tax
See also: dependant Sale
One of the stakes which are posed for the Linux distributions is to tie partnerships with computer makers so that it becomes easy to find a computer préinstallé under Linux. Because even if certain distributions affirm to have returned the installation of a Linux system as simple as that of its competitors, the simple fact of having to be with the current which an alternative exists, to be ready to accept changes in its practices and to have to install oneself the system constitutes an undeniable disadvantage compared to the privileged situation which the computer makers for Windows and Mac OS X enjoy, the first by its omnipresence, the second because Apple is at the same time the manufacturer of the Macintosh, prééquipés of this OS.
Failing this, the users of Linux claim capacity being refunded, at the time of the purchase of a new computer, on behalf of the price corresponding to the software and operating system which they do not have the intention to use, as the law of certain countries allows it. If the company Apple were shown several times co-operative vis-a-vis such requests, the refunding of Microsoft Windows is in general long and difficult. In front of the difficulty in obtaining this refunding based on CLUF, since 1998, Linuxfrench associations and AFUL as Roberto Di Cosmo launched in reaction an action for the remission of tax Windows . At the end of 2006, a petition was launched against the “racketiciels”, DGCCRF carried out meetings, and UFC deposited several complaints for dependant sale.
In France, jurisprudence is not fixed yet since only jurisdictions to date decided. Nevertheless, the jurisdictions of proximity of Rennes of July 6th, 2006, or Luneville of July 5th, 2006 concluded with the absence from dependant sale within the meaning of the article L 122-1 from the code from consumption. These two jurisdictions initially point out that the consumers have the possibility of enjoying an offer sufficiently diversified on the market to buy a computer not comprising not desired software. Then, if the consumers want all the same to buy a computer sold with a continuation of software, they can obtain from it refunding pursuant to the CLUF within a fast time. There thus does not exist dependant sale within the meaning of the article L 122-1 of the code of the consumption, i.e. subordinated to the sale of another product or a service.
According to the specialized company in market research IDC, 24% of the waiters and 3% of the GCV were sold with Linux in 2004. IDC provides that the total market of the Linux computers will be of 35,7 billion dollars in 2008. These sales figures do not enter obviously the companies and the private individuals who choose to install to them-even Linux after the purchase of a material provided without Linux.
A study of XiTi realized in August 2007 on: 19000 Web sites professionals gives 95,47% of Market share to Windows (87,8% with Windows XP and 6,48% with Windows Vista), 3.2 with Mac OS X and 0,8% with GNU/Linux. The method used consists in making statements on the visits of a big number of Web sites. In the fields identifying the navigator, information on the name of the navigator, his version is generally present, like its SE. This does not want to say that 0,8% of the computers of the world are equipped with GNU/Linux, but that 0,8% of the Web pages seen were it, undoubtedly, by computers whose operating system is a version of GNU/Linux. This approach, in addition to this skew, presents another problem: it is completely easy to modify the presentation of its navigator, i.e. to modify the parameters identifying the navigator. For a long time, before the noticed takeoff of the Firefox navigator, it was wise to do that to circumvent certain filters on certain sites aiming at pushing back the navigators not MS Internet Explorer. This practice does not seem any more topicality in 2007 thanks to the opening of Firefox, with the awakening of the editors of Web sites and with their efforts for more interworking.
There exist other approaches and other sources. The Canadian ATI, largely minority map production graphs on the Linux market because of the lack of support 3D of his charts on this operating system, estimates that Linux accounts for 3% of its sales.
The tabulated statistics of W3schools give 2,2% of market shares for linux in March 2002 and 3,5% of market shares in February 2007, after a peak with 3,6% at the end of 2006, at the beginning of 2007.
It is important to specify if it is about the Market share of the stations customer or waiter.
The line of order
From filiation with UNIX, the line of order is always available in Linux.
Certain distributions, in particular those specialized in the waiters or certain tasks of administration, use only the line of order, in particular for its low fuel consumption of resource, which had with the absence of Graphical interface.
For a long time, of many operations of configuration required its use, which is not true any more with the recent distributions dedicated to the family use.
On line helps however often mention the step to be followed in line of order, even when a graphic configuration is possible: this method is more universal in the Linux world, and often easier to explain for the person who helps, and its interlocutor has only with Copy-to stick the indication.
A well conceived graphical interface nowadays makes it possible to achieve the large majority of the tasks much more agreeably, but it is not always the case, particularly when the task has a repetitive aspect.
The line of order, which draws its power from its possibility ad infinitum of combining automatic sub-tasks, and which almost naturally makes it possible to automate the task thus accomplished, can then appear more effective than the graphical interface.
Scientists, engineers and developers count among its more frequent users.
Graphical interface and line of order can be also supplemented one and the other: KDE is delivered with a very ergonomic terminal, and offers an effective mechanism ( dcop ) to control and thus automate all its graphic applications since the line of order.
Managers X window
The use of the generic term Linux is misleading being the use of a personal computer. There exist actually three distinct interfaces, with the quite different characteristics and forming each one an autonomous whole: traditional approach centered around an Administrative of windows on the one hand, the environment KDE and the environment GNOME on the other hand.
Traditionally the interface of an operating system based on the Noyau Linux is a sober interface even Spartan, centered around a Gestionnaire of windows (there are the numerous ones like Window Maker or IceWM) and of a rather heteroclite succession of applications.
The disadvantage of such a system is the time necessary to personalize such an environment, and especially the not-standardization of the applications thus used. The applications which one can see on the screen printing of right-hand side (XMMS, RealPlayer, Mozilla Firefox, Xterm, Gaim, Konqueror) follow each one their own conventions: aspect, behaviors, shortened different keyboards; the Copy-to stick and slip-deposit are random…
So individually of the applications like Vim or Emacs can have indeed brilliant aspects, the disparate whole of all these applications in fact a system difficult to apprehend. Time devoted to learn an application and the reflexes thus acquired cannot be applied to the other applications, an enormous advantage which brings the standardization of behavior of the interfaces like had shown it the Macintosh. As example, the short cut keyboard used to leave an application can be: Ctrl+Q, Q, Esc, Ctrl-C+Ctrl-X, Ctrl-C: qa! , bye, quit, exit…
The use of such an environment regresses clearly these last years with the maturity of the alternatives presented below. It perdure nevertheless in users who were done with such a system, or which appreciate it because he makes it possible them to use recent Linux even on old computers.
Environments of office
The inventory of fixtures of the preceding chapter is described in a proclamation gone back to 1996 having pushed Matthias Ettrich to found in reaction the project KDE, then Miguel de Icaza to found the project GNOME the following year, which takes as a starting point Mac OS and by Windows in the field of the software Ergonomie and the standardization of the behaviors.
These two projects became the federators of Linux on the work station.
Each one offers indeed:
- with the programmers, a very productive environment of programming as well as recommendations of interfaces (in English: guidelines ) allowing to produce more quickly of the applications simpler to use;
- with the translators, an infrastructure. These two environments and their myriad of software are translated into several tens of languages;
- with the artists, of the workspaces to exert their talents;
- with the specialists in ergonomics, the possibility of making it simpler and coherent;
- with the external applications, an environment of reference in which to be integrated;
- and consequently, with the user, a complete environment, integrated and homogeneous as well as a succession of essential applications: exploring of file S, Navigator Web, Multimedia player, Customer email, address book, reader pdf, manager of images.
These two environments of office reached an unquestionable maturity recently, quote the year 2003 for KDE, a little later for GNOME. Very active, these two projects intend nevertheless to improve clearly for their next major versions; the efforts in this direction are concentrated within the projects Appeal for KDE, and ToPaZ for GNOME.
Technically, they rest both on many common technologies, the first of which the system of fenestration X11. To avoid duplicating certain efforts, an abstract zone of collaboration between these projects of the name of Freedesktop was installation.
It is in the approach of the Ergonomie (this one being relating to the type of user) and in the design of the role of an environment of the office that they differ: environment KDE pushes far the will from integration between the applications, has very many advanced functionalities and plays the chart of the configuration while taking care to have good choices by defect; GNOME wants to be more purified and is devoted on the essential tasks (taking again philosophy making things just work ). Each one likes, consequently, with a different public.
Offer in software
The quality of an operating system is measured mainly for the user with the applications which it can use. The Linux community produced a great number of software usable in many fields (the examples of software are given only as an indication): office automation with OpenOffice.org, Internet with Mozilla Firefox, Konqueror, IceWeasel, Gnuzilla, Mozilla Thunderbird, Gaim or BitTorrent, the multi-media one with Xine, MPlayer, VLC media player, XMMS or Amarok, graphics, with The GIMP, Inkscape or Scribus or 3D with Blender.
The concept of portability indicates the capacity of a program to being used under various architecture or operating systems.
Finally let us note that it is possible to use software made for Microsoft Windows on a Linux station thanks to an implementation of the API Windows under Linux like WINE. Commercial offers based on WINE as CrossOver Office make it possible to almost use without problems of the software such Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop resulting from the Windows world.
Video gamesAlthough there exist many free plays available under Linux (see in particular Liste of plays under GNU/Linux), the offer does not have anything to see in term of quality and quantity with that of the commercial plays, which in the very large majority of the cases, are compatible only with Windows, and sometimes Mac OS.
However there exists several implementation S of the API Windows under Linux, especially for the plays, thus making it possible to make function many plays conceived for Windows, in the environments Cedega and WINE. Another recourse of the linuxiens quite simply consists in parallel using Windows on the same computer thanks to the Multiboot.
Shell programsThe most known programs in text mode accessible since the line from order include/understand Vim, Emacs, sed, apt… A certain part of them can be also used via an graphical interface.
In addition, the programs functioning in console mode are comparatively numerous. The reasons are multiple:
- Historical (in the beginning, GNU/Linux functioned only in mode comforts).
- Effectiveness (the programs functioning in console require much less resources).
- Speed (to open a console to type an order there is often much less long than to pass by the various menus of a Gestionnaire of windows, or of a graphic Environnement)
- Meilleur control.
The use of these programs can prove to be difficult for a person not being accustomed to work in text mode, of the people coming from Windows for example. On another side, they are relatively snuffed by the advanced users of the systems of the type Unix.
The software which uses a free library can function on Linux and all the platforms where the library is established. These libraries can add a graphic surcouche on already existing text applications as it is the case of Vim, but they are especially used to develop software accessible to the not-data processing specialists and laying out of the functionalities authorized by the graphical interfaces, like slip-depositing it, handling with the mouse, etc
Other applications like Blender or Google Earth are a case with share because they use the library OpenGL intended for the base with the implementation like with the management of programs using the 3D (but also the 2D).
Several software of emulation exists making it possible to simulate the operation of or competitor environment operating systems of play.
Written applications developed for Windows can turn under a Linux system by the applications Wine and its commercial derivative Cedega which emulates the operation of principal the API of Microsoft Windows.
Moreover, Linux also opens the possibility of obtaining a perfect separation between several virtual environments turning on only one physical computer. These environments of Virtualisation make it possible at low prices to optimize the output of the computers Multiprocesseur S which invaded the market in 2006. Xen, VMware, Virtualbox and even Qemu is examples of these technologies.
Assumption of responsibility of the materialThe assumption of responsibility of the material equipment one of criticisms principal is made in Linux. Indeed, all the materials for microcomputers all are not taken charges some directly by Linux and the pilot compatible with Linux are not always available. Certain manufacturers provide systematically pilots for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, whereas under Linux, the community is often obliged to develop them itself. Accordingly, the pilots necessary to make function a computer fully are integrated into the majority of the Linux distributions. In fact the peripherals of second level are likely in certain circumstances not to have pilots available, in particular certain printers, modems, webcams, etc
The first reason of this situation is the weak impact of Linux at the private individuals, which does not encourage the manufacturers to invest in the development of pilots for this environment. The second reason is the refusal of certain distributions (Fedora, for example) to take on board pilots under licenses owners, even when those exist, which obliges the user to find them and to install them manually. Lastly, the absence of API fixed in the Linux core obliges the manufacturers to remake or adapt the pilots to each version of the core.
The users who work on several platforms and which need these pilots can find versions developed by third parties, but of such pilots support generally only one rudimentary whole of functions, and appear only after the exit of the material, with a certain latency time. There exist however mechanisms to make function some pilot developed for other operating systems (like NdisWrapper).
The Webcam S are, for example, particularly concerned by this absence of pilots, but the protocol USB Video Class or UVC makes it possible to answer this problem with many webcam supporting this protocol. Today more and more of large manufacturers make efforts to develop or provide information for the development of free pilots for Linux, like Créative Labs for its webcams or charts sounds, Intel (processors, chipset 3D, networks, etc…) or of the assemblers (Étasunien Dell and the Asus Taiwanese sell for example computers with préinstallé Linux) but many other components require to check the availability of pilots before the purchase, if they are intended for a use under Linux.
Because of the relationship of Linux with UNIX, Linux took a lead in the market of the data-processing waiters very quickly. A crucial point was the possibility of using an operating system of the type UNIX on material PC compatible, much less expensive than the solutions containing UNIX owner and of specific material. Many server softwares much in demand and very much used (Web server, Database, Groupware, electronic Mail server…) are available free, in general without any limitation, and reliable, the market share of Linux in this field consequently grew quickly.
Linux having a reputation of stability and effectiveness in maintenance, it fills the requirements posed with any operating system for waiters. Moreover, the modularity of a system based on the Noyau Linux allows the exploitation of waiters dedicated to a particular task. The bearing of the Linux core on many components Hardwares makes that Linux is usable today on all the architectures used in this field. The material usable is consequently considerable. The last IBM eServer p5 and IBM eServer i5 for example are supported by IBM with an operating system Linux and make it possible to carry out there several Linux systems in parallel.
The market share of the Linux waiters is established in 2004 with approximately 10 % with an annual strong growth of 50 % of [[: of: Linux|the German article]; sources to find] . It is used in about all the fields. One of the most known examples is summarized by the acronym LAMP, where Linux propels a Web server Apache associated with the database MySQL and the computer programming language (alternatively: Perl or Python). Linux is also often used as file server, generally in the Windows networks thanks to the waiter Samba, less often under NFS or Appleshare.
Linux, which enjoys a good reputation safety performance (passage on the scale) is very much used in the field of the data-processing networks, for example like footbridge, Router or Fire wall.
The availability of the source code, and the possibility which results from this to adapt the system to a precise task, made it possible Linux to make its entry in the computer centres. On this market of the host computers, large ultra-reliable computers optimized for the massive treatment of data, omnipresent in the banks, the insurance companies and the large companies, Linux competes with more and more the systems Unix owners which were formerly the standard.
Bunches of waiters
Linux was very early used in the field of the bunches of waiters (in English: clusters ), for example by the search engine Google as of the middle of the years 1990. In this configuration, associated with the concept of Grid of calculation, simple computers turning under a specialized distribution of Linux work independently within a great computer network.
The Superordinateur S are conceived to reach more possible high efficiencies with known technologies, in particular in term computing speed. In November 2006, according to TOP500 Linux makes turn 74% of the five hundred more powerful computers of the world (against 20% for UNIX) including most powerful, the two waiters Blue Gene of IBM (: 40960 and: 131072 processors). In June 2007, it is nearly 78% of the supercomputers which use Linux, against 12% for Unix and, the last, 0,40% for Windows.
Linux is also in the middle of many data-processing apparatuses or consumer electronics, and sometimes without the user knowing it. They are in particular equipment network and numerical small apparatuses intended for the consumption of mass, equipped in general with a processor specialized energy saver and a Mémoire flash.
The success of Linux in this field holds, here like elsewhere, so that the manufacturers appreciate of being able on the one hand to adapt the software to their needs (additional consumption, interface, functions, etc), on the other hand to profit from the experiment and the work of an active community. Linux is also appreciated in this field for its reliability, its resistance to the attacks of the hackers on the networks and of course its exemption from payment.
Specialized forums of co-operation help the manufacturers of these products while putting at disposal instructions, programs and examples of codes, and while endeavouring to standardize the application program interfaces of Linux in embarked. OSDL launched on October 17th, 2005 the Mobile Linux Initiative to accelerate the progression of Linux in this field.
; Networks and communication
- Linux makes turn several Routeur S of which certain models of Linksys, like various terminals provided by Fournisseurs of access Internet (like the Freebox in France).
; Telephones and personal assistants
- Linux also finds themselves on a range of cellphones of Motorola, on the Personal assistant Sharp Zaurus and shelves Internet Nokia 770 and Nokia N800. In the field of the personal assistants of navigation, the systems autonomous GPS of TomTom are conceived starting from a Linux platform.
- Linux is used in readers of living room DivX, on wandering audio like those of SanDisk and on the walkmans multimedia of Archos.
Linux and safety
The reasons for which Linux is famous to have good a Computer security are varied and also depend on the field of application.
Thus, on the work station, Linux profits from strict a Séparation of the privileges, which in practice is often not used with rival systems. One of the consequences is that a worm or Computer virus can reach only part of the resources and functionalities of a Linux system, but neither with the important data of the system, nor with the data of possible other users.
By comparison with other systems large-public, Linux, and before him Unix, was propagated initially among people having a solid technical knowledge and sensitive to the security issues data processing. The development of Linux, consequently, proceeded in a context where safety was a critical question, as testifies some the number of software of quality in this field which is free and originating in the world Linux/Unix.
In the field of the waiters, the degree of safety depends, by comparison, above all the degree of experiment that to the System administrator. There, Linux marks points thanks to its freedom of use, which allows without risk and overcost to test abundantly various scenarios on other computers, and to acquire a useful experiment thus there.
There exists a series of distributions specifically centered on safety, and of the initiatives such as SELinux of the National Security Agency to reach levels of protection increasingly higher. But also, a series of distribution centered on anti-safety, like Vulnerable Damn Linux, to sensitize the experts and the candidates, with the problems of safety on this operating system.
Another advanced argument is the variety of the supported material platforms, as well as the software solutions. The security breach concerning most popular Client email will touch only one fraction of the linuxiens; by contrast, a fault concerning Outlook Express can touch of a blow an enormous proportion of the users of Windows. This thesis is developed in a report/ratio written by celebrities of the field like Bruce Schneier on behalf of CCIA and is taken again by the company Gartner in a document. A part is translatable as follows:
Lastly, the fact that Linux and revolving number of software under Linux are free software allows that its Source code is studied of an eye criticizes by whoever wishing to do it, that is to carry out adaptations, within an educational framework, to answer the private interests of a company/institution or by simple personal interest. In relation to that, one often hears the argument that the security breaches are corrected more quickly, assertion approved and refuted by various studies, according generally to their funding source. Lastly, the freedom of the software makes useless the recourse to the Hacking, the aces or other sites very popular Warez among the followers of the other operating systems, and which constitute a vector of infection of the computers.
Remain that Linux is not completely insensitive with the security issues, like showed it the worm Slapper in September 2002, first of the kind to touching a notable number of computers under Linux, above all the revolving Web servers under Apache (6000 with the apogee of the worm).
Numerical management of the rights
The numerical Gestion of the rights (DRM) relates to the field of multi-media, and in particular the music and the vidéos which can be bought on Internet. Certain works are protected by numerical bolts, aiming at controlling the use of work, for example by limiting the number of listenings or possible copies. These DRM require the use of a particular technology, which is the exclusive property of the manufacturer and salesman of the aforesaid DRM, which explains why the reading of a protected work is related to the use of a special program. The two larger manufacturers of management systems of the digital rights, Microsoft and Apple, condition the use of protected works by their systems with the respective use of Windows Media Player, and ITunes. These companies selling their own operating system, they do not wish to propose version of their programs for Linux. Thus, it is often not possible for the users of Linux to buy on line music on a paying download location, or to listen to already bought and downloaded music.
There exist also DRM on audio CD, but those are much standardized and less currents. The majority are conceived to function with the operating systems of Microsoft and are thus likely to be completely ineffective for a user of Linux.
It is not a question of technical limitations, since free management systems exist. See also Linus Torvalds, according to which Linux and the management of the rights is not incompatible.
Brad Spengler developer at Grsecurity shows Linux sometimes to center its efforts on the functionalities with the detriment of safety. He claims that Linus Torvalds would have said to him not to be interested by the addition of useful options of safety to avoid overflows of plug, because that would slow down the loading of the applications.
It reproaches the absence of a person officially in charge of the safety, with which it would be possible to communicate into private in full safety. In the place the only solution is to send email on a Mailing list relating to the questions of security where the faults discovered are sometimes used at malicious ends before an update of safety is not diffused, whereas the users of Linux are not with the current of the existence of this fault Of other developers of the core reproach this system for consuming considerable resources and for allowing the diversion of license LPG of the core while adding to it of the components owners.
- the Core Linux, the Core of operating system
- the mascot Tux
- Operating system
- Distribution Linux
- List of popular software under Linux
- User group Linux
- GNU and Linux
- public License general GNU (LPG)
- Free software
|Random links:||Mant | Measure distance from abroad in French right | Gillian Taylor | Olivia Bundy Newton | Alexandra (singer) | Nicholas_Aylward_Vigors|