Lima is the main city and the Capitale of the Peru. It is located on the central coast of the country, on banks of the Pacific Ocean in the Région of Lima. It was founded by Francisco Pizarro the January 18th 1535.
- Surface: 2 664,67 km
- Many inhabitants: 8.447.260
- Density: 2,559 hab/km
The districts of Lima are:
Its seaport is called the Callao and its airport Jorge Chavez.
GeographyThe city includes/understands the valleys Chillón, Rímac and Lurín. With a surface of 2 664,67 km, Lima is regarded as being the city most extended on a desert, before Cairo. The town of Lima is also surrounded by mountains, with the foot of the Andes cordillera, which makes that the sea water vapor is concentrated in the atmosphere of the city.
The historical center of the city corresponds to a geographical center of the agglomeration. At the 19th century, the walls of the city were demolished, and the higher classes gradually left the historical center to go more and more to the south, until integrating the seaside resorts of Miraflores and Barranco. As from the Fifties, the rural migration and the growth of the local population exploded the limits of the city. In 2003, with the arrival of the mayor Castañeda Lossio, a new semi-official division of Lima was established. On a side, the Lima Moderne includes/understands the districts of a center of the city hypertrophied, which includes/understands the historical center, and all the districts located at the south of Rimac built until the Eighties, like the districts of San Isidro or Miraflores, as well as the expansions of residential districts suburban like Santiago de Surco or San Borja. Then, three " cônes" of settlement resulting from the rural migration, Lima Norte , Lima On and Lima Este . These last years, the economic growth of the Toledo government allowed an improvement of the standard of living in these peripheral districts, and one witnesses a commercial boom today through the establishment of great Centers Shoppings in districts which, 10 years ago, were still only Bidonville S. However, in north, in the east and the south of the city, of new districts of fortune are born each year. The capital of Peru east one of the most polluted metropolises world: measurements of September 2006 show that the rate of concentration of the suspended particles is of 179,05 micrograms per cubic meter is more than 138,7% of the average rate fixed by the American agency of the Environmental Protection Agency .
This irrefutable fact is primarily due to the extremely toxic type of fuel put on sale in the service station of Lima.
HistoryThe city was founded by Francisco Pizarro the January 18th 1535, with the name of “City of the kings” (Ciudad of los Reyes), however, with time persisted its original name which comes from the language Aymara ( filed-limaq : yellow flower) or of the Quechua ( rimaq , chatterer) by its river, Rímac. On the first charts of Peru, one can jointly see the name of Lima and that of the City of the Kings. It becomes the principal fortified town of the Hispanic capacity in Peru. The town planning of Lima was used as model in Spanish South America during the colonial period.
AdministrationThe current mayor of Lima east Shine Castañeda Lossio which was elected in 2003 for a mandate finishing in 2006. The administrative organization of the city is very particular. The mayor of Lima east at the same time mayor of the district of Lima, the downtown area, whose zip code is Lima 1 and the mayor of the 41 other districts of the city. On the district of the center, it has all the capacities of a mayor, while on the territory of the metropolitan municipality, it deals mainly with the philosopher's stones of voiery, circulation and transport. The 41 other mayors are in load of the municipal police of their district, of, the maintenance garbage collection of the roadway system…
Places and monuments
Almost all the remarkable monuments are in the historical center, including the national university Majeure San Marcos (1551) which is oldest of America. In the downtown area, also called the Cercado in reference to the walls which surrounded the city at the 18th century, one finds for example the Torre-Tagle palate, current seat of the Peruvian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and the best example of the creole architecture of Lima, largely inspired by Andalusia, and other large residences seigneuriales, as the House Rivetted-Agüero, the Prado house or the house of Negreiros. The cathedral of Lima, built at the 17th century, is one of the more good examples of the colonial baroque on a continental scale. It contains the mausoleum of the conquistador Francisco Pizarro. In addition to these examples of colonial architecture, the historical center of Lima, classified world heritage by UNESCO in 1991, is a concentration of the architectural styles which marked the Latin America, with neo-classic buildings of French inspiration, like the municipal theater of Lima, the place San Martin or the Rimac building, of the buildings Art nouveau, like the building Courret, some units Art déco, especially around the Jiron of the Union , the way pedestrian which binds the two principal places of the downtown area, the place of Weapons and the place San Martin. Beyond what were the old walls of the city, the districts of the urban development of the end of the 19th century detect avenues of large neo-classic middle-class houses, like the Paseo Colon , and of large parks like the Exhibition site, or the Park of Reserva which were the places of walk preferred at the beginning of the 20th century. Apart from the downtown area, El Olivar , a garden of olive-trees planted at the 16th century, in San Isidro, the sea front of Miraflores or the center of Barranco, and its houses of the beginning of the century, are quite as worthy of interest. Founded in 1926, Larco Musée in Lima Peru presents, on a chronological criterion, impressive galleries of exposure which teach 3000 years the exceptional panorama of the development of the history of old Peru précolombien. Surrounded by elegant gardens and single in its kind, the museum is installed in an old manor of style " virreinal" dating from the 18th century, which itself was built on a pyramid précolombienne of the 7th century of our era. The Larco museum exposes the finest collection of gold coins and money of old Peru, as well as the famous one and delicate collection of erotic art, one of the tourist attractions most visited and appreciated in Peru. The Larco museum is one of the rare international museums where the public can reach and stroll in its deposit to appreciate the 45 000 archaeological artefacts, carefully ordered and classified, thus leaving a memory and an unforgettable experiment to the visitors. The works of art of the Larco museum were exhibées in the most prestigious museums of the world and are considered, on a world level, like the icons of art précolombien.
EconomyIndustries of production of vehicles motorized, textile, paper, painting and agroalimentary are established in Lima. The popular quarters of Victoria shelter the textile shopping mall largest of Latin America, Gamarra, which is the heart of the textile economy to the national scales. The city is the seat many mining companies and fishing industry, Peru being the first world producer of fish meal and the second for the volume of the catches. The city is often the site of the multinationals on an Andean country scale. The financial center is with San Isidro, especially around the expressway, which crosses the district, while the tourist night life and reception center is in Miraflores, more to the south. These last years, with economic stability, tourism of businesses developed much in Lima, and the city will be the seat of the congress of APEC in 2008.
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