The life expectancy is a data Statistique. It makes it possible to know the average lifespan which one can hope for to reach at one time given for a given nation. This Statistique is calculated and published by many organizations, including WHO.
The life expectancy with the birth is calculated starting from quotients of Mortalité by age, i.e. of probability of dying in the year for people who reach an age given (note: it can be also calculated starting from the Death rate). It is the intermediate duration of the life of people whose, with each age, the risk of death would be measured by the quotient by age observed this year. It thus synthesizes the conditions of Mortalité of the year, in the form of a fictitious generation. It differs from the average of the ages at the time of the Décès of all the people died during one year which, it, is sensitive to the age structure of the Population.
In almost the whole of the countries, the life expectancy of the Femme S is more important than that of the Homme S.
Evolution of the life expectancy
From 1900 with 2000, the life expectancy in France (average men and women) passed from 40 to 78 years. The average life expectancy almost doubled in one century only. This projection was the result of many progress:
- Medicine: assumption of responsibility of the Pregnancy and the infants, Asepsis, Antibiotic S, Vaccination S, Surgery…
- public health policy: fight against the food risks, Security policy of transport, Norme S of Sécurité in the companies and the buildings, campaigns against the Tabac and the technical alcohol…
- : conservation of the Food S by the cold, lowers price of the heating and energy, materials of fire protection or other
- rise of the Standard of living, reduction of the extreme poverty and food deficiencies serious partners with this situation, accessibility in the majority of a comfort formerly reserved for an elite (Running water, electricity, Chauffage, access to housing…)
The individual causes also played a part in the increase in the life expectancy. The awakening of the importance of the prevention modelled the behaviors: reduction in the consumption of alcohol, Hygiene, asepsis, awakening of the importance of the physical-activity and food balance for health…
Today, the prevention of the health hazards by the individual constitutes the most effective means to allow the continuation of the increase in the life expectancy in the developed Pays. However, it seems that a Compression of morbidity occurs indeed. That means increase in the life expectancy without incapacities.
Let us note that it is hazardous to use the concept of life expectancy in other contexts. We thus give of it below a precise definition like its evolution these last years in the world, and then an illustration of abusive use which one can make of the term.
Abuse the term
It is not rare to intend to speak, in the context of the road safety, of the life expectancy on the Hard shoulder . Certain figures like 15 or 20 minutes are advanced (see for example the site of tv news of France 2). In addition, it is sometimes as marked as the life expectancy with Verdun would be of two or three weeks. This surprising comparison comes owing to the fact that the calculation of the life expectancy relates only to the population having attended the place and there having actually died. One cannot conclude from it that a hard shoulder is a place more mortifère that a battle field, only that when one dies there, that occurs on average more quickly. An indicator more adapted to describe the danger here would be rather a Probabilité (a relationship between the survivors and deaths).
WHO also publishes since 2001 statistics called life expectancy in good health , which does not take account of the years of life during which the individuals suffer from terminal illness.
Notes and references of the article
|Random links:||Towns of Romania | Charms (Haute-Marne) | Élizabeth Herrgott | Maria (Actéon Islands) | Circulation in one way | Frederick_Augustus_I_de_la_Saxe|