The Liberia (Republic of Liberia), or Liberia with the English orthography, is a country of Africa west.
See also: History of Liberia
In 1822, Liberia is rested by an american company of Colonisation (the The National Colonization Society off America ), to install released black slaves there. Beginning of a faintness enters theBast ones and the population indigenous.
In 1931, the Société of the Nations (SDN) condemns the conditions of Forced labor imposed on the autochtones by theBast ones for the account of multinationals of the industry of the rubber. The constrained scandal the government with the resignation. In 1936, the new government prohibits the forced labor. Nevertheless, the autochtones, private of right of Vote, remain Citoyen S of second zone. It will be necessary to wait until May 1945 so that the president William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman grants the right to vote with the autochtones.
In 1960, Liberia enters during one 20 years time of prosperity, thanks to concessions offered to foreign multinationals (mainly American and German) for the exploitation of the ore layers of Fer of the country.
In 1971, William Richard Tolbert junior, vice-president since 1951, reaches the presidency following the death of president Tubman. The economic policy which it follows increases cleavage between Américano-Bast and indigenous S.
The April 12th 1980, the government of the True Whig is reversed at the time of a Coup d'etat carried out by Samuel Kanyon Doe, indigenous which seizes the power. The president William Richard Tolbert junior is wildly assassinated. Doe founds a Dictature quickly.
In 1989, the National Patriotic Face off Liberia (NPFL), a group of opposition under the authority of Charles Taylor, is organized. The revolt gains the worldwide without meeting quickly serious resistance on behalf of the governmental forces. Nevertheless, the projection is stopped with the doors of Monrovia. In same time, the members of the Economic community of the States of West Africa (CEDEAO) decide the sending of its force of interposition, the ECOMOG , made up of 4 000 men.
In 1990, a dissension within the NPLF leads Prince Johnson to make secession, and has to create off the Independent National Patriotic Front Liberia (INPFL) with a thousand of dissidents. The September 9th 1990, president Doe is assassinated by Prince Johnson at the time of a visit to the troops of the ECOMOG.
In 1992, the NPLF tries a new attack on Monrovia which shows a failure. The situation enlise. War leaders create new dissenting factions. The attempts at resolution of the conflict by CEDEAO remain vain.
In 1996, the whole of the factions accept the behavior of a vote under the aegis of CEDEAO.
The July 19th 1997, Charles Taylor is elected president of the republic of Liberia with 75% of the voices. The validity of the election is questioned in spite of the many foreign observers dispatched for the occasion by international organizations.
In 1998, the ECOMOG leaves Liberia.
After the departure of Charles Taylor in 2003, a political transition under narrow control of UNO is organized. The November 23rd 2005, after two turns, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is declared victorious with the presidential election with 59,4%, against against 40,6% for George Weah. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf becomes thus the first democratically elected woman president of a country in Africa. It lends oath the January 16th and between thus officially in function.
See also: Political of Liberia
Liberia is a multi-party République with Presidential regime. The country currently saw a phase of transition from the Civil war towards a Démocratie. The government is based on the model of the the United States with three equal branches, although the president occupies actually a dominating place in the political scene. After the dissolution of the Republican party in 1876, the True Whig exerted the power until the coup d'etat of 1980. Currently, no party holds the majority at the Parliament.
The longest presidency was that of William Tubman, according to 1944 with its death in 1971. Shortest was that of James Skivring Smith, which lasted only two months, of the November 4th 1871 at January 1st 1872.
See also: Subdivisions of Liberia
Liberia is divided into 15 counties: Bomi, Bong, Gbarpolu, Grand Based, Grand Wraps Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River These, River Gee, Sinoe.
In 2001, the population of Liberia was estimated at 3 230 000 inhabitants.
Following the civil war which struck Liberia opposing the troops of president Charles Taylor (who awaits his lawsuit with the Netherlands) to the L.U.R.D (Bast plain for the reconciliation and the democracy) supported by the USA and the mode of Guinea, the population fell to approximately 2 800 000 inhabitants.
See also: Geography of Liberia
See also: Economy of Liberia
Liberia is a Tax shelter of which one of the characteristics is never not to reveal the name of the natural persons on its trade registers. Liberia belongs to the flags of convenience.
See also: Demography of Liberia
In 1981, the population of Liberia amounted to 1,2 million inhabitants. She is estimated at 3,32 million in 2003, which represents a low density of 33 inhabitants to the km ².
Between 1990 and 1995, the engagements made more 200 000 died and 800 000 Bast had to find refuge abroad (Ivory Coast and Guinea), being added to the million displaced persons inside the country. Because of the war, Liberia knows a very high infantile death rate (132 for 1 000).
TheBast ones are with the number of 20 000 and the Lebanese community is strong of 10 000 representatives. The indigenous population is composed of about fifteen communities. The south of the country is dominated by Krous, the remainder of the population belongs to groups attached to the mandingue family (Mendé, Kpellés, Vaïs, etc).
The population of Monrovia, capital and main port of the country, increased considerably because of exodus of the civil populations fleeing the combat (720 000 inhabitants in 1994 against 425 000 in 1984). The second port, Buchanan (24 000 inhabitants in 1984), is connected by railway to the iron mines of the Mont Nimba, whose production was stopped during the conflict.
EducationThe university of Liberia is located at Monrovia. Created in 1862, it is one of oldest the establishment of higher education in Africa. The civil war with seriously damaged the university in the years 1990. The restoration of the university began shortly after the restoration from peace.
According to the estimates of UNESCO in 2004, 65% of the pupils are registered with the elementary school and only 24% for the secondary cycle. Beyond economic misery, the problem of the children soldiers partly explains the low level of schooling to the secondary school.
See also: Culture of Liberia
The principal religions are the Animisme (40%), the Christianisme (40%) and the Islam (20%).
- Liberia - 1981 - PUF, collection " What do I know? " , by Louis Dollot, 127 p.; 18 cm, ISBN 2-13-037056-X
CodesLiberia has as codes:
- A8, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- EL, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft, since 2002,
- GL, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- LB, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- LBR, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- LBR, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- LBR, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3
- LI, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- LI, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft, now uncommon,
- LI, according to the Code list of country FIPS 10-4,
- LR, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2
- .lr, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- the film Lord off War which evokes a war leader resembling extremely Charles Taylor.
- the book American Darling , of Russel Banks (ED. Actes Sud, 2005)
- the book Allah is not obliged , of Ahmadou Kourouma which tells the life of a child-soldier (Prix Renaudot in 2000 - ED. threshold)
- Visa for the hell of Célhia de Lavarène
- List of leading policies
- important Study on Liberia on the site of the University Laval (Quebec)
Beats-smg: Liberėjė Simple: Liberia Zh-min-nan: Liberia Zh-yue: 利比利亞
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