An automobile , or car , is a terrestrial Véhicule being propelled itself using a Moteur. This vehicle is designed for the Transport Terrestre of Nobody S or with Marchandise S, it is equipped consequently. It is currently one of the most widespread means of transport on planet.
General informationThe car is a means of personal Transport. Its capacity usually makes it possible to transport from two to nine people. There exist models of reduced size (two places) or vaster (up to nine places even ten places). The latter are generally Monospace S, utilities transformed into “minibus” or 4x4.
Because of its broad diffusion, the car is called today by many names: convey, case, motor, car, case with soap, mud heap, dustbin, cage (car, tank, machine (old) with the Quebec).
The cars required an adaptation and a development of the Highway network. They function using an engine which can use various energy sources: the gasoline, the electricity, the Compressed air, the gas like LPG, etc the engine, via the transmission, involves either the nose gear wheels (traction), or the aft wheels (propulsion), or the whole of the wheels (4x4). The cars have various body according to their use: Truck, station-wagon, Cut, Convertible, utility, Monospace etc the interior of the body breaks up into three parts: the driving compartment, the cockpit which accommodates the passengers and the trunk which accommodates their luggage.
- It was created at the time of the invention of the first “automobile” cars, because they were provided with a Moteur with embarked energy source, whereas the other “cars”, Diligence S, Calèche S, carrioles, carriages and others terrestrial Véhicule S were driven by a horses (horse-drawn) or a Bœuf S
- the “automobile” term is forged only in 1890 and, it is necessary to await 1896 to see the French Academy coming to a conclusion about its kind, in fact female
Constitution of the carThe components of a car are:
- rolling members, gathered in the nose gear and rear wheel-axle unit, suspension, Wheel S, pneumatic S, Brake S… ;
- the Frame, or Frame-hull, which supports or constitutes at least partially the Carrosserie;
- the power unit, which includes/understands the Moteur and its auxiliary bodies (Démarreur, battery, Carburateur, exhaust…), the system of Clutch and the Gear box;
- the electric installation and electronic, of which the Instrument panel, lighting, Indication, the electronics of management engine and active safety (ABS, Speed regulator ESP, , etc);
- Various equipment: seats, direction, safety equipments Airbag…
According to the mode of propulsion, one distinguishes the traction S front, the cars with propulsion (driving aft wheels), and the integrals or 4x4.
See: Operation of the car
History of the car
See also: History of the car
Road safety and safety of the vehiclesIn France, the hecatomb knew a top in 1972 with 16.548 dead this year there then dropped thanks to the improvement of the vehicles, the installation of the speed limits, of the safety belt, the extension of the Autoroute S and the reduction of the consumption of Psychotrope S in particular the alcohol to be approximately 6.000 with the beginning of the year 2000, of which many young people Saturday evening.
Evolution of the handling
The evolutions of the suspension S, of the pneumatic S, anti-locking system (ABS) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP) allowed interesting progress as regards handling of the cars supporting the road safety. One nowadays finds even suspensions controlled electronically on certain cars (in option), most of the time, on the sporting ones which improve the handling once more that is in the turns or on the braking of urgencies.
Safety of the vehiclesThe active or passive security systems previously described contribute to produce surer cars. The effectiveness of these systems are tested and measured during impact tests (or crash landing test) (like the Euro-NCAP valid for the European Community). A sure car for its passengers constitutes a sales point for the car manufacturers who make large efforts on the question. True progress has been made for a few years, in particular in the Airbag S or the prétentionneurs belts. Indeed these systems make it possible the driver not to violently run up against the wheel in the event of shock.
The Airbag (inflatable cushion), sometimes imagined as a bag which chokes, is actually a true technological prowess. Indeed, it consists of an ultra nylon bag resisting and of a pyrotechnical system which, thanks to various chemical formulas and with an electronic computer electronic computer (detecting the shock in 5 ms), produces sufficient gas nitrogen to inflate the bag in direction of the passengers in less than 40 ms. Vents located on the side of the bag make it possible the gas surplus to be evacuated, ensuring thus at best the energy absorption, carried out with 75% by the front block. It deflates then into 0,5 S approximately. However an unexpected release or a release which proceeds if there is a bad position (for example if the passenger places his legs on the airbag) can have undesirable effects, despite everything the airbag remains in the very large majority of the cases a making safe element if it starts.
In short, a cycle of airbag lasts less longer than a Wink. It ensures the passive safety of the passengers with the girdles with prétentionneurs .
This one has many qualities. Indeed, like the airbag, it consists of a calculator and a cartridge of pyrotechnical gas, which tightens the belt until a force from approximately 4.500 NR; from there, the belt slackens, then the cycle starts again, to the contact point with the airbag,
Other systems can intervene to avoid the whiplash injury. On the convertibles, arches located behind the seats go up very quickly when the calculator estimates that there is a risk of reversal, hoods or roof, open or closed.
Today the car manufacturers work on systems even more powerful. True progress lies in the fact that the number of airbags passed from two to eight in a few years. From now on more no car leaves without in being equipped: frontals AV AR, side AV AR, curtains AV AR, knees AV, ankles AV
It seems that the next improvements in term of safety will relate less to the limitation of the damage caused by the accidents than on the limitation of the number of those. Indeed, the efforts of the manufacturers and equipment supplier S gave the day to very sophisticated equipment which should gradually spread on all the vehicles:
- ABS (AntiBlockier System): System allowing to avoid blocking the wheels with the braking of a vehicle, thus allowing to preserve the direction of the vehicle.
- ESP (Elecronic Stability Control): control trajectory which can act independently on braking/acceleration/the steering of each wheel to maintain a course defined according to various parameters: speed, longitudinal/side acceleration, steering angle, etc
- ref. or EBV: electronic distributer of braking.
- ASR : control motricity, commonly called antipatinage, very useful on wet ground, but sometimes blocking the vehicle during startings on snow (it is often déconnectable to mitigate this problem).
- Speed regulator: Allows to fix a maximum speed not to exceed and to keep a constant speed without intervention of the driver.
- AFU : Helps with emergency Braking allowing a stronger pressure during a few seconds in the circuit of the brake fluid).
- AFIL : Involuntary alarm of Crossing of Line (Citroen).
- Posting head high: ( Head-Up Display or HUD).
- video Monitoring system anti angle-death.
- anti-collision Radar coupled with the adaptive speed regulator: allows to limit the speed of the vehicle in order to maintain constant the distance compared to that which precedes it. Also allows to initiate an alarm and of prépositionner the brake pads, by detection of the insufficient deceleration of the vehicle with respect to an obstacle, mobile or not.
Road safetyThe behavior of the drivers is implied in 95% of the accidents. A sure car is not synonymous with a sure control. In France the insurers establish their tariffs by taking account of the model of the vehicle. The more the vehicle has a raised top speed, the more it is powerful and heavy, the more important the rate of accident and the damage which it causes are. With the Canada, the residence in an urban area and the type of use (remunerated occupation or leisure) are the determining factors. At the beginning of the 21e century, France intensified its policy of repression by establishing automatic radars (functioning without human intervention). This policy was sometimes criticized, disputing in particular the relevance of the choices at the time of these radar installation of at places considered to be not very dangerous. The figures of accidents nevertheless decreased and the mean velocity of the users also dropped.
Polemic on the road safetyFrom the point of view of the insurances, the grosses Truck S, in particular those known as 4x4, offer an optimal protection to the tests Euro NCAP. The high center of gravity of the 4x4 of crossing, coupled to a flexible suspension, obliges the drivers of these vehicles to adopt a very flexible control and very in on this side speed limits, which goes in the direction of safety on road. The drivers of large not specialized vehicles, like the Monospace S, are sensitized with this problem and are endangered much more often for the same reasons.
The children are particularly threatened by these elevated vehicles: the height of the 4x4 often prevents their driver from seeing the toddlers, and their head is the first run up against by the avoid-shock. This high height has moreover as a consequence, in the event of collision, to rather project the pedestrian towards the ground than to make it rock on the cap, which generally increases the risks of cranial lesions at the time of the shock against the ground, whereas in the event of projection on the cap one can observe a dislocation of the Rachis. The same applies to all the vehicles of the type Monospace, commercial vehicles as well as the heavy trucks such as the buses, coaches and other heavy means of displacement. Fortunately, the manufacturers of these vehicles study more and more bumpers which absorb the shock and avoid the risk as often as possible passing it below the vehicle.
To have such a car is thus regarded by some a setting in danger of the life of others, and as the choice of its safety suitable for the detriment of the safety of the other road users. Choice all the more criticized since the drivers of these vehicles are with the source of a greater number of accidents. The avoid-buffaloes (the specialists prefer the term push-bar ) which equips certain vehicles 4x4, are particularly aimed because of the danger which they make run to the pedestrians. In the absence of buffaloes in the cities, the supposed utility of this push-bar for a cross-country vehicle is to protect the elements from body in the event of slip at low speed. Only, one European regulation authorizes for the new avoid-buffaloes only one material close to the plastic which absorbs the shock. It should nevertheless be specified that the push-bar is of a certain utility in cross-country (protection of the vehicle).
The supposed capacity of seduction of these vehicles is compared to a symbolic system of domination rising from their massive and powerful aspect. Publicities stressing the speed and the power of these vehicles are also stigmatized for the promotion which they make of these road behaviors considered to be irresponsible.
On the other hand, the defenders of this kind of vehicles make the point that an average of behavior does not condemn the whole of the drivers; one cannot consider an individual guilty by defect, especially to roll in an approved vehicle. If there is an insufficiency, it would be then to seek in the objectives that the administrations are fixed whose role is to ensure the safety and the good being of the population.
Environmental impactThe most known environmental impact is the atmospheric pollution, which causes respiratory diseases and contributes to the warming of the planet.
Avec the appliances heating domestic, the car became the person in charge of the urban Smog S, chronic situation in the Asian capitals. According to the French Agency of environmental public health (AFSSE), atmospheric pollution, related for nearly a third to the pollutant emissions of the cars, would be responsible each year for the death from 6.500 to 9.500 people in France.
Outre the Roadkill, of the indirect impacts such as the Fragmentation écopaysagère by the highway network, or the luminous Pollution, of the hundreds of thousands of children is reached of chronic Saturnisme in the countries and areas where the lead addition in the gasoline is not prohibited. It is also necessary to mention:
Nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx); effects on the human healthAt the origin of the " peaks of polutions" , the nitrogen oxides are directly dangerous for the human health, and are mainly emitted by the transport sector of which motor vehicles.
This is particularly true for the diesel engines: whose catalysts are inoperative for NOx
Europe (governments and manufacturers), contrary to Japan, however does not attach to date a priority importance to this pollutant in the automobile fight against pollution, but concentrates its speech on the aspect of the CO emissions and climate warming.
Pollution with CO; contribution to the greenhouse effectThe average consumption of the new vehicles decreases by 0,1 l/an since 1995, to reach in approximately 2005 (152 geq CO/km in 2005), but all the vehicles not being new, a vehicle emitted in 2004 an average of 208 gram-equivalents (geq) CO/km, according to the IFEN, in France.
The emissions by vehicle, under equal speeds and conditions, are more important in the USA (cars heavier and powerful) or in certain poor countries (model old).
In 2004-2005, the cars emitting less CO are electric, hybrid, LPG or with engine diesels: the Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI (81 g/km), the Smart TDCI (90 g/km) and the Citroen C1 1,4HDI (108 g/km) (But the diesels emit more carcinogenic particles than the gasoline cars). In the gasoline category, transmitting of CO are the Toyota Prius 75 (104 g/km), the Daihatsu Cuore (109 g/km) and Smart Fortwo or City-Half-compartment with gasoline (113 g/km).
Les Ferrari 360 Modena and 550 Maranello reach 440 and 558  respectively; G, whereas Bentley Arnage culminates with 456 G. At BMW, the 4×4 X5 (335 G) is preceded by the truck M5 (346 G) and the roadster Z8 (358 G). Lexus X-ray 400h, a cross-country vehicle usually criticized for important CO rates, rejects as for him only 188 G, and that thanks to the intelligent and autonomous use of two electrical motors combined with powerful thermal V6 gasoline (“H” meaning “hybrid”). These figures are given for new vehicles, whose performances can be degraded quickly in the event of bad use or maintenance.
In France , in 2005-2006, the total of the national CO emissions would have decreased (of less than 1%), however, those induced by the private cars increased by 17% of 1990 to 2004, becoming responsible for 14% of the French emissions. Transport by car and plane are those of which the use increases more: the annual distance traversed by the French car fleet increased by 30% of 1990 to 2004, in spite of price increases of the fuels. The budget “transport” of the households has quintuplet since 1960, representing in
2005,15% of the average household budget (5 140 €), preceding that of the food (4 980 €), whereas in 1960, it was to him 2,5 times inferior.
In same time, the vehicle fleet of the households passed from 27 to 30 million vehicles, whose Middle Age passed from 5,8 to 7,6 years (source: CCFA). 29,7 million cars of private individuals and 5,5 million light commercial vehicles, of which approximately the half ensures a use of vehicle of private individual, circulated in France in 2004, for 47 million drivers which roll more and more because of the distance growing between the habitat and the work place or of leisures and services. Average annual mileage was of 12.843 per vehicle in 2004. It increased by 5,3% of 1980 to 2005, with a light stabilization since 2001, the number of cars in circulation having even decreased in some cities. The households having several vehicles are also increasingly numerous.
the average weight of the sold new vehicles passed from 900 kg in 1984 to 1.250 kg (today = 200?), for an average power gaining 38% in 20 years, which resulted in an increased consumption of resources and more emissions of GES during transport of the raw materials and parts during manufacture and of their use. Ademe noted that 167 models emitting less than 120 geq CO/km were approved in France in 2005, but which they related to only hardly 15% of the sales.
Comparison between two cars (the quoted weight relates to the lightest of the C1 range and of the same car for the other cars):
- the Peugeot 106 (1991) weighs 795 kg and the Peugeot 107 (2005) weighs 790 kg, the stability of the weight is very rare of 14 years
- the Renault Clio I (1990) weighs 790 kg and the Renault Clio III (2005) weighs 1090 kg is 38% of more in 15 years
- the Peugeot 405 (1987) weighs 1020 kg and the Peugeot 407 (2004) weighs 1400 kg is 37% of more in 17 years.
air-conditioning increases energy consumption and still often uses products at the risk for ozone, or greenhouse effect. It relates to 38% of the French car fleet (2004) and 70% of the bought new vehicles (2003). In 2004, the main part of the emissions of HFC due to transport is ascribable with the cars according to the IFEN.
On this subject, the site of ADEME, indexes the vehicles according to their production of CO.
The European Union entered into on this subject a negociation with associations of car manufacturers, at the end which the latter pledged to reduce the polluting emissions of the vehicles put on the market.
The manufacturers sensitize more and more ecological impact of the cars: several propose a motorization Hybride gasoline/electricity (Toyota, Honda,…). August 21st, 2007, the Japanese manufacturer Nissan announced that all its models from now on will be equipped with an energy gauge of efficiency allowing the optimization of fuel consumption.
The label Energy COThe majority of the European countries adopted the system of the label energy CO, system of indexing tested on our refrigerators for example. This label at summer presented in France on May 9th, 2006 by Nelly OLIN, Minister for Ecology and Sustainable development. This one is intended to characterize the new vehicles offered to the sale by presenting the class of the vehicle on a scale being spread out of has to G. classification can vary according to the countries; in France, it is based on fixed values where for example the class has corresponds to the vehicles whose emissions are lower than 100 G CO/km. According to the ADEME, the average of the emissions of the new vehicles sold in 2005 reached 152 g/km of CO, that is to say category D.
New Tax COAs of on July 1st, 2006, a new tax is added at price of the automobile license. For the cars whose CO emissions are higher than 200 g/km, is required the payment of a tax of 2 € per gram up to 250 g/km. Beyond, the tariff passes to 4 € by gram of CO. This tax applies to the sale of new vehicles like to that of vehicles of occasion manufactured after June 2003.
The engines also emit in very small quantity of the Carbon monoxide. Blood poison with low dose, these is mainly the gas which causes the Mort at the time of the Suicide S by exhaust fumes inhalation.
The production of carbon monoxide by an engine is due to a too small quantity of air admitted to burn the gasoline injected into the roll front combustion. The modern engines produce only negligible quantities of CO per traversed kilometer. The catalytic systems of exhaust tend to reduce these emissions, but contrary to a spread idea, they do not store particles, nor do not function directly after starting: it takes them time “to heat” and thus to activate the catalysation. Moreover, Heavy metals of the group of the Platine are lost in significant quantity by these systems when they age or when the cars run on bad roads.
The catalysts with three ways of the vehicles with gasoline (C0, Nox and HC) also lose their effectiveness when the load requested from the engine is important, generally in strong acceleration or high speed. One speaks then about débouclée phase of the engine. At the time of this one, fuel is provided in excess in order to lower the temperature of exhaust fumes and to protect the parts from the engine. The European standard does not envisage any measurement of the pollutants beyond 120 km/h and thus does not take account of this operating process.
The engines with the diesel emit particles of unburnt residues, which induce disease risks respiratory. These emissions were largely reduced thanks to the injectors with high pressure and the filters particle. They oblige to put on the market of the gas oil with little sulfur. An improvement would be to add to it synthetic fuel as for the Audi R10.
Pollution by benzene
The Lead of the gasoline, which made it possible to increase the Ratio compression, by rise in the Number octane and improved the Lubrification of the engine, was replaced by additives with the Benzène. This benzene is not rejected after combustion, it is on the other hand volatile when it is exposed to the air, as during the provisioning with the pump. If the benzene (carcinogenic and mutagen) is considered to present a negligible risk for the motorist, it increases the cancer risks for the workers of oil industry, the pump assistants and the people living in the vicinity of the service station.
In addition to the fresh tar has an intrinsic toxicity and emits HAP suspected of being carcinogenic and/or mutagen, the parking roads and spaces now occupy in the developed countries a considerable share of the territory. For example for only the the United States, this surface is equivalent to half of the surface of the Italy .
That has some consequences:
- Proofing : this surface bituminized lets stream of water which takes care of various pollutants of which salts of snow clearance. In the rich countries, retaining tanks and basins of storms accumulate or pretreat very polluted water which can elutriate there before joining the hydraulic network, but water thus intercepted does not feed any more the tablecloth, contributing to the Inondation S. part of the pollutants passes nevertheless in the air (benzene, micro particles.) or infiltrates in the ground (heavy metals) with the accesses of the roads.
- Albedo : With the sun, the bitumen Noir decreases the albedo of the ground; it accumulates heat, which it restores the night, contributing to produce a microclimate of the arid type, which reinforces the ecological barrier that are the roads for the Microfaune, except for some species (salamander S after the rain or reptiles which are attracted by the road to be heated there, which still makes them more vulnerable to the Roadkill.
- pollution : In particular at the time of the accidents, various fluid (Oil S, fuels, contents of batteries, antifreeze, brake fluid, mercury of contactors, etc) infiltrate and pollute little by little and sometimes seriously the ground and the ground water. A reduction is possible by the replacement by electric systems, a recuperation of the energy in a vapor circuit or a better effectiveness and less toxic products.
The erosion of the tracks
In the countries where the ways are not bituminized, the passage of the vehicles causes a rising of dust much more important than traditional transport, with animal haulage. That also causes an accelerated erosion of the grounds, the ground grains losing their coherence. the Sahara is transported by the winds and is found in the Mer S. Là, this dust makes decrease the luminosity and prevents the development of the coral. -->
Impact of the roads on the environmentThe construction of a road has many impact on the species and their habitats:
destruction of the habitats by the operations of earthwork
- degradation of the medium by pollution
- mortality by collision (Roadkill)
- local modification of the climate above and in edge of the roads
- luminous pollution
- sound pollution
For more information, to see the article entitled Road.
Car and companyThe massification of the car in the Western companies during the XXe century had many and major social consequences. It contributed in particular to the development of the suburbs then of the Périurbanisation, and to the success of the model of large distribution.
For the detractors of the car, the road infrastructures absorb every year of the billion in investments, disfigure the landscapes, dénaturalisent the territory and threaten the ecosystems. According to them, this billion, invested in alternative or Community means of transport would make it possible to have more effective and more durable communication networks.
The generalization of the car to the planetary scales since the end of last century is not without posing problems as for the Climate warming, with the Air pollution, the Sécurité and the Santé of the people and in particular of weakest (Piéton S, Cycliste S, children, elderly, etc), with the wasting of the natural resources and in particular with the exhaustion of the reserves of Pétrole.
For some, the car is also social source of pollution, poorest and most fragile being most directly touched by the harmful effects related on the car and road infrastructures (noises, accidents, turnings imposed to the pedestrians and to the cyclists, urban relegation, etc).
For others, the car is on the contrary a formidable technological object which evolves/moves permanently and is less and less polluting. It is essential to many people to work and move; the auto industry, in which Europe and France continue to occupy an important place on a world level, provides directly or indirectly an employment to million people. Lastly, to lead and to have a car can be a pleasure and must remain a freedom which, for the vast majority of the motorists, who are also pedestrians or users of other means of transport, is exerted in the respect of others.
For a critical approach of the age of the car, to see a text of Andre Gorz entitled the social ideology of the motor , a text of Automobile Marcel Robert entitled and destruction of the planet and delivers it of Bernard Charbonneau entitled " Hommauto".
The principal elements of comfort are:
- Car radio
- Heating and air-conditioning manual/automatic
- Toit opening
- Raises pane electrically (electric or manual)
- Allume Speed regulator cigar
- automobile leather, adjustable and heating
- Coffre with luggage
Maintenance and repair
See the Leitartikel Maintenance of the car.
Technical controlVisualize the article on the Technical control.
With the Japan for example, a very expensive technical control which takes place after the third year encourages the users to get rid of their vehicle before this expiry. In Suisse it is after four years.
Training of control
- Driving school
- Driving license
- Highway code
International living rooms car
World of the car (Paris)
- International fair of the car of Geneva
- Living room of Frankfurt
- International fair of the car of North America, with Strait (Michigan)
- International fair of the car of Montreal
- Motor Show of Quebec
As of the birth of the car, one sees appearing races allowing the various pilots and models to measure itself between them. These competitions multiply and one sees emerging various types of tests implementing very different vehicles.
Some of these competitions see to clash marketed standard models with large scales (ex: rallys), whereas others put in scene especially designed vehicles (ex: Formula 1). Success in these sports depends as much on the vehicle and the team of mechanics that of the pilot. Besides certain competitions crown at the same time the best pilot and the best manufacturer.
The automobile sport is extremely physical (centrifugal force, accelerations, brakings) in F1 it is not rare to exceed 4 G, that made lose up to five kilos with its pilot at the time of a Large-Price or a race of endurance.
Notes and references of the article
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