Leadership comes from English leader , chief (indicated by his pars) of a political party in Great Britain.
Leadership (of leader and the suffix: - ship ) indicates quality, the capacity, art to conquer, exert and preserve this function of leader. Winston Churchill, leader of the conservative party, is the best example than one can find of it, the more so as he exerted his leadership in other fields that the interior policy.
“Leader” was introduced into the French language at the XIXe century and is used to appoint a leader, a leader, a leader of ground, influential actor, listened, leading people towards objectives, often associated with the conduit of changes.
The leadership thus tends, in French, to define a capacity to carry out people or organizations towards the attack of objectives. The leadership is associated will have recognized with a person or a group of people in her aptitude to motivate, imply, impel, guide, inspire and/or influence its entourage.
For the contemporary American psychologist Robert Sternberg, the leadership and the Créativité is closely dependant. On the one hand, the creativity is a form of leadership and, on the other hand, one of the three components of the leadership is the creativity.
Terminology, use and conceptual field
Leadership does not have translation in French.
It indicates the behaviors which one can recognize with that which provides the “function of the leader”. Generally, it can be defined like " capacity of an individual to influence, justify, and to return the other able ones to contribute to the effectiveness and the success of the organizations of which they are members " .
" To have leadership" , it is to exert an influence in a step of competition.
In the Hierarchy S structured, the term can still be used for to describe the only function or the relations which authorize and legitimate the exercise of a behavior of leader.
When only the to be able and its prestige interest it, owing to the fact that they are generally out of the field of reality, they oblige the leadership to slip on these desires by making sometimes gleam the only possibility of their Réalisation. If not, it will find to organize the whole of these people of kind so that they adopt a more realistic attitude by the choice of an orientation plus ground with ground of their requirements.
The leadership can have a formal aspect (as in the majority of the leaderships political or economic) and abstract (as in the majority of the friendly relations). To speak about " leadership" (the abstract term) rather than of the action to lead generally implies that the entities which ensure the leadership have " competences of leadership".
Several types of entities can provide or have a leadership, reality or potential:
- a person who has a function or Autorité, as a President
- a person which has a function or an employment associated with an expertise, competence, or experience, like a leader of team, a captain of boat, an engineer in Chef, or a relative,
- a group or a person which is Pionnier of a Tendance or a movement, as those which launches new vogues,
- a group of respected people, (called " group référence" by the Sociologist S like the economic commentators or the spokespersons of trade unions
And, in addition:
a product which influences other offers of product in a competitive market.
According to the Canadian Forces, the leadership is defined as being art to influence the comportment human one in the way wanted by the chief.
Individual leadership or of groupThe leadership can come from an individual, of a group of people or even of désincarnées characteristics - if it is not mystical - of a Figure celebrates (to be compared with a Héros). However, there exist other uses of the word leadership without there being an active leadership, but to which follower show large a Respect (often resulting from the tradition) (to be compared under courtesy Reverend ).
The follower often allot to the Leader a statute or prestige. Beside prestige, role granted sometimes to the leaders of Opinion, the use of the term leadership can be used to characterize the influence between candidates, for example within a company or on an economic or technical market, without there being permanence of the leadership. There can be a situational or occasional leadership. Thus one can bring an important distinction between to be in the command and the process of leadership. The leadership implies a relation of to be able - the capacity to direct the others at a given time or in precise circumstances.
Leadership, a capacityThe leadership is this capacity, this aptitude to direct around its person the desires of the others to lead them towards an idea, an objective, a manner of making, in their giving a practical way, within the framework of a project to which they adhere.
The leadership can also characterize a period during which this leadership is exerted, as in " during the Years 1940, the Russia was under the Stalinist leadership ". The variation of this type of leadership conditioned in time is done through the leadership by objective .
Difference between leadership and FührerprinzipIn certain languages, the term which appoints the leader and the term who indicates the leadership have very different significances. It is also necessary to note the various connotations of a synonym of the word " leader" coming from German: the word Führer and the ideas which accompany it on the Führerprinzip , at the base of a German law which made depend the large companies on the capacity Nazi.
Difference between leadership and charismaThe Charisme is marked more by an emotional influence, not directed towards an objective égocentré. A leader can not have charisma.
Types of leadership
By definition, so that there is leadership, it is necessary that there are following .
One can categorize the exercise of the leadership like reality or potential:
- real: to give an orientation or a direction, as in the sentence " the emperor showed a leadership satisfaisant"
- potential: capacity to direct, as in the sentence " it could have exerted a leadership efficace" or in the concept " born for diriger".
In the groups of control like the soldiers, the political parties, elites of government, and other communities based on the Belief S like the Religion S or dashes of companies, the idea of leadership can become a Saint graal and people can manage from there to await a Transformation which is proposed like exit (individual and integrated at the same time in a community like drank social) by the leader; such entities can encourage their members to return a Culte to the leadership, to respect it and endeavor to become qualified in this field (that it is in a realistic way or not).
Ideally, one cannot buy or to sell leadership in a structure where the follower risk their life such as for example in the Armée; on the contrary, the leaders must justify their function of command in the spirit of their soldiers in order to obtain them it better. In such a situation, the follower can only subject themselves without condition or revolt.
On the basis of personal independence deep included/understood well, the personal strategies which one can use to protect oneself from unrealistic waitings related to the belief in the leaders are the following ones:
- * to maintain an attitude of questioning and Skepticism,
- * to support confidence on its own capacities of Decision.
- * to check in a practical and précautionneuse way the assertions of the doctrines of the leader.
Le basic principle remaining that the leader represents some people (?), and on their premises, which posed it on this pedestal.
- * to support confidence on its own capacities of Decision.
One can also distinguish the leader from consideration (centered on the relations with the collaborators, confidence and the respect), and the leader centered on the task. Let us note that a leader is not one or the other but tends more towards one of these dimensions (dichotomy suggested by Fiedler)
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