The Latin is a Italic Langue of the family of the Indo-European Langues, language-mother of the Romance Langues, now considered as extinct, even if it continues to be used and developed like Langue written. Used by the Roman , it remained until the 17th century the principal language of the European diplomacy, since it was only the Langue common to all the parts.
liturgical Language and official of the Catholic church (doctrinal texts or disciplinary, Right, etc), it is always one of the four official languages of the State of the the Vatican. It is still partially a Langue of teaching in the Roman Université S pontifical . Even there, the only matter where a good control of Latin is required for the courses is the Canon law. Its teaching with the future Clergé as a Langue spoken is generally abandoned in the local seminars.
The Latin remains studied and used like Langue of Culture. It has a great teaching value indeed and intellectual, and some people usually practice it, it is the “alive Latin ” whose movement does not cease growing.
ClassificationLatin is a Indo-European Langue pertaining to the Italic group, even if this membership were disputed by certain linguists. More precisely, one classifies Latin among the italo-falisques Langues.
Official statuteLatin is always today the official language of the Catholic church. The official language of the Vatican is as for it French with, de facto , Italian.
Derived languagesThe Romance Langues are derived from Latin. E di er
WritingTo consult Latin alphabet for more details.
The Romans are the creators of the Latin alphabet, which comprised, at the time traditional, the following letters: Letters K, Y and Z are rare. Y and Z were added to transcribe the Greek words and K was initially used for C in front of has and the consonants, but was gradually eliminated.
Restored old pronunciationOne knows with precision the pronunciation of traditional Latin, thanks to the many testimonys left by the Latin authors and by means of the method specialist in comparative literature. One of the most important modifications since the Indo-European is the Rhotacisme (passage of S with R under certain conditions; mainly between vowels). The pronunciation of a language not being solidified, as long as Latin was spoken, its Phonème S evolved/moved. The most obvious evolutions here are indicated:
æ (Diphthong): initially then ɛː (as from second century BC);
- with the (diphthong): ; this diphthong, except in certain dialectal pronunciations, was preserved throughout Latin;
- C : K (always hard); in the antiquated inscriptions (and the first names Caius and Cnaeus ), C could be used to note G ;
- CH : kʰ (aspired, as in Greek old);
- G : G (always hard);
- H : initially H (as in English or German) then very quickly dumb (as of the first literary texts);
- I : note at the same time the vowel I , long or short, and the Spirante J (between two vowels); in the school editions, when I is worth J , he is often written J , distinction that the Romans did not practice (due: the letter J appeared only well afterwards): they wrote I in any position;
- m : m ; very quickly dumb at the end of the word (with probably a Nasalisation of the preceding vowel; this treatment occurred before the literary period);
- œ (diphthong): then eː (as from the 2nd century);
- pH : pʰ (aspired; borrowed of the old Greek);
- qu : kʷ ;
- R : R (rolled);
- S : always S ; Latin did not know the sound Z , replaced by R (Rhotacisme);
- HT : tʰ (aspired; borrowed of the old Greek);
- U : note at the same time the vowel U and the spirante W ; the distinction between U and v in small letters is relatively recent and gets busy only in the school editions. The Romans wrote V in any position;
- there : there (borrowed from the old Greek);
- Z : (length; borrowed from the Greek).
Each vowel ( has , E , I , O , U , there ) can be short or long. Ancient Latin was a language with Pitch so equipped with a secondary tonic stress.
MorphologyThe morphology of Latin is that of a flexional language highly .
See also: Latin Variations
One counts in the nominal system as much the names which the adjectives, which follow of the close inflections, if not similar.
The nominal inflection comprises:
- two number S as in French: singular, plural;
- three kind S: masculine, female and neutral (rare in French, only preserved in the pronouns what, which, that, that);
- five types of variation S for the name
- two classes of adjectives: the first corresponds to variations 1-2 of the name, the second with variation 3 of the name;
- degrees of the Comparative adjective (more beautiful than, less beautiful than, as beautiful as) and Superlative (very beautiful, most beautiful, the least beautiful), marked by suffixes: - ior, - ior, - ius (comparative), - issimus, has, um (superlative). There exist nevertheless some exceptions: no-claims bonus, melior, optimus; malus, pejor, pessimus; magnus, major, maximus; parvus, minor, minimus; multus, plures, plurimi.
- traditional Latin comprises seven Cas: Personal, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Rental (seldom used, only in the case of a name city of variation 1-2). The Romance , resulting from Latin to the Middle Ages and ancestor of the French, comprises nothing any more but two of them.
See also: List of the Latin pronouns
Inherited lexicon, borrowed lexiconLike any Indo-European language, Latin has a great number of terms inherited the Lexique common Indo-European. Thus, to agnus , “lamb”, the Slavic Vieux agnę , the Russian corresponds ягнёнок yagnyonok, the old Greek ἀμνός amnós , Breton the oan , etc
As for the loans, they are done with the local languages, the Etruscan ─ for words like kalendæ , “Calendes” (from where calendar ), or verna , “slave born at the house” (from where vernacular ) ─ in the lexicon running and monk, the Osque, the Ombrien, even of other more distant Mediterranean languages. It is especially the old Greek which provided, throughout the history of the Latin language, the most loans, in all the fields of the life.
Evolution of the Latin lexicon towards the lexicon FrenchOne will consult the article Romance Langue for more details on the general evolution of Latin.
A Latin word can have generated a French word which is its direct going down; it is the case for went , “wing”, which becomes wing , amare / to like , bored / bores , carpa / carp , etc
In other cases, the situation is not so simple and the word evolved/moved in a linear way: aqua , “water”, gives water but after another phonetic evolution, same the étymon aqua gave the doublet Eve , still present in the popular doublet sink of aquarium . Fagus , “beech”, sees évincé by a Germanic word and believed , “leg”, is found only indirectly in crural .
- Variations and Latin Conjugations
- List of the Latin pronouns
- Latin Etymology
- Latin Expression and List of the Latin proverbs
- List of the Latin names of the European cities
- List of the Latin names of the French cities
- Latin Roots
- Dictionary of the languages
- Emile Lord of the manor
- Latin Method;
Beats-smg: Luotīnu kalba Be-X-old: Лацінскаямова Nds-nl: Latien Simple: Latin language Zh-min-nan: Latin-gí Zh-yue: 拉丁話
|Random links:||Pensacola | Preadolescencia | James Lauritz Reveal | Hilda (cartoon) | Little sister | Tornado Alley|