The Languedoc (in Occitan Lengadòc ) is a whole of areas of the south of the France which is defined by its language - the Languedocien Occitan - being distinguished from the north of the France, formerly qualified “country of language of oil” - òc and oil being the respective form of the Oui to each part.
Today, the term Languedoc is used in the name of the area Languedoc-Roussillon, territory less vast than the old unit.
Languedoc corresponds mainly to the Narbonnaise first of the Romains, called later Septimanie. The Visigoths, which seized some at the 5th century, gave him the name of Gothie. In the 8th century, the Sarrasins occupied it one moment, but they were driven out by it by Charles Martel, Pépin and Charlemagne. Languedoc consequently formed under the domination of the Francs the duchy of Septimanie, which became soon independent; it merged at the 10th century with the Comté of Toulouse. Following the Crusade against the Albigensians, Amaury VI of Montfort, for which it county had been reserved, yielded it to the King de France Louis VIII, and this transfer was confirmed in 1229 by a treated between Raymond VII and S. Louis.
Prehistory and Antiquity
During the age of Iron the area is occupied by Celtic populations. Towards the end of IIIe century before J. - C. Celtic people, Volques, takes its districts in the area of the Rhone in the Garonne, of the Cevennes in the Pyrenees. They have as a capital Toulouse and Nimes ( Volques Tectosages , Volques Arécomiques towards the Gard ). One attends a first structuring of the territory.
They make a pact with the Romans as of the 1st century before JC. The town of Narbonne is created to pacify the province and becomes the capital of the Narbonnaise . In IVe century, the area is christianized by Saint Sernin.
The Kingdom wisigothic
At the beginning of the 5th century, Languedoc undergoes the invasions Vandales. A few years later, the Visigoths became Masters of the area, after the Romans gave them Aquitaine and the Narbonnese under confederated. The ic Royaume Visigoth occupied soon one the Southern third of Gaulle then the Spain. Toulouse plays the part of capital and saw a small century of gold at the 5th century, before the aristocracy wisigothe is not folded up on Tolède. From this legendary period, only the myth of the Reine Pédauque and the Church of Sea-bream remain.
Contrary to other invaders the Visigoths did not make clean slate of the institutions and maintained continuity the Roman law, synthesizing a romano-Germanic Droit (Bréviaire of Alaric). The persistence of the positive Roman law will allow the continuity of an high degree of civilization. Languedoc will profit thus from an attenuated feudal right which will allow the emergence of a middle-class of City. Toulouse the Cujas will teach at the 16th century with eloquence this old wire of Roman law.
Formation of Languedoc
The Visigoths are ariens, like the majority of the people of the Roman Empire at that time. The relations between Clovis and papacy trinitaire provide arguments to the Francs to claim to annex the area at the 6th century. Follows one turbid long period where the area is dispersed. The Septimanie, the neighborhoods of Narbonne, remains under Wisigothe domination and has peaceful relations with the Moslems, which gives its pretext to the punitive forwarding of Charles Martel into 719, who devastates Occitanie.
Charlemagne will bequeath Toulouse to one of its sons under the title of Royaume of Aquitaine into 778, with all the South, of the Rhone in the Atlantic in order to federate the Hispanic reconquest. The administration of this immense territory is entrusted to the Counts de Toulouse. The dynasty of the Counts de Toulouse, Duc of Narbonne will not have of cease to push back the Moors and to reconquer the territories lost to reconstitute the Narbonnese. From this feudal competition will be born Languedoc from the Garonne in the Rhone, of Toulouse with Saint Gilles.
Raimond IV, known as Raimond de Saint Gilles , (1042-1115) will increase his Kingdom, by a skilful marriage, in the County of Rouergue, Nimes, Narbonne, Gévaudan, of Agde, Béziers, and Uzès. It will be one of the main actors of the first crusade by taking share with the catch of Jerusalem 1099, and will found the kingdom of Tripoli (Lebanon) in 1102. From this contact with the East will be born a true civilization said today Occitane, troubadours, Courtly love…
The Cathare heresy and annexation with the kingdom of France
This expansion will let appear the Dualisme of the heresy Cathare, repressed as from the 12th century by the Catholic church. The order begging for the preaching friars is created in Toulouse by Saint Dominique to give a new dash to true the faith, vis-a-vis the heresy. To testify to this rebirth, the relics of Saint Thomas d' Aquin are exposed to Toulouse in the splendid Church of the Jacobins testimony of Languedocien Gothic architecture. The heresy serves as a pretext for King de France to annex the Méridionales areas by starting the Albigensian Crusade :
Battle of Low wall (September 12th, 1213).
- Toulouse is besieged by Simon de Montfort and catch in 1215.
- the last hearth cathare, Montségur, will fall in 1244.
From there royal Languedoc is born the which persists until the French revolution. It preserves its habits, its language and a specific administration. This historical Languedoc corrrespond in the old county of Toulouse and incorporates the Vivarais, the Velay, the Gévaudan.
Languedoc, one of the first large provinces attached to the crown, loses its autonomy, but influence deeply by its Latin culture royal France still marked by its Germanic cultural heritage. The province was always guarantor of the cohesion of the royal territory, during the most turbid time as the Guerre One hundred Year old where it pushes back the English domination in Aquitaine, as in front of the pressures of the Germanic Roman Empire on banks of the Rhone which it contains.
1348 : Epidemic of Plague in all midday.
- 1443: Creation of the Parliament of Toulouse; Legal competence on the extent of the current areas of the Midday-Pyrenees, Languedoc, Ardeche, the Puy-en-Velay.
16th century: The Reform and the wars of religion
- 1627-1629: new catch of weapons of the Protestants of Languedoc. Repression is directed by the prince de Condé and the duke of Épernon which destroy harvests, massacre the Protestants and proceed to Dragonnades.
The expression Midi was to charm the Sun king to indicate according to the meridian line of Paris the province of Languedoc where the sun is with the zenith when it is midday in Paris as with Versailles.
At the 18th century the intendance of Languedoc covers 2 general information: Montpellier and Toulouse. 1790-1791: creation of the departments. The intendance of Languedoc gives rise to the departments of the Ardèche, the Gard, the Herault, the Aude, the Tarn, the Lozere, most of the Haute-Loire and Haute-Garonne and of a small portion of the Ariège and the Eastern Pyrenees (Fenouillèdes)
- the Kingdom Visigoth
- Hispanie wisigothic
- History of the Midday-Pyrenees
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