The Languedoc-Roussillon is a French Région made up of five departments. It is bordered in the south by the Spain, Andorre and the Mediterranean (the Gulf of Lions), and the following French areas: Provence-Alp-Coast of Azure, the Rhone-Alps, Auvergne, the Midday-Pyrenees. Several natural elements limit it: the the Pyrenees, then the Threshold of Lauragais, the the Cevennes and the River the Rhone. Several geographers spoke about a Amphithéâtre turned towards the sea while speaking about the mountains and the Languedocien plains and roussillonaises.
In 2004, the district council lately elected adopts a new logotype symbolizing the sun, and which comprises the currency: “To live in Septimanie”. Indeed, the current president of the district council, Georges Frêche, wished to thus re-elect the area, but since gave up. Septimanie is the name which it carried at the 5th century, but current the Lozere did not form part of it. Moreover, the Catalan S (those living in the the Eastern Pyrenees) were in great majority hostile with this modification. Following many protests, whose demonstration gathering 8000 people in Perpignan, on October 8th, 2005, Georges Frêche decides to give up the " project; Septimanie" and the denomination " Area Languedoc Roussillon" becomes again of rigor.
The languages of the area are in addition to French the occitan (Languedocien, of Provence) and the Catalan. The name of the area is said in Occitan Lengadòc-Rosselhon rruseˈʎu and in Catalan Llenguadoc-Rosselló rrusəˈʎo .
See also: History of Languedoc-Roussillon
See also : The Catharisme, the wars of religion, Marie Durand.
Towards the end of IIIème century before J. - C. Celtic people, the Volques, takes its districts in the area of the the Rhone to the the Garonne, of the the Cevennes to the the Pyrenees. They have as a capital Toulouse and Nimes. One attends a first structuring of the territory.
They make a pact with the Romans as of the 1er century before J. - C. Narbonne east creates to pacify the province into -118 and becomes the capital of the Narbonnaise.
At the beginning of the fifth century, invasion of the Vandals. A few years later, the Visigoths are essential. The area of Narbonne as all the remainder of Spain remains wisigothe until the fall in front of the Moors in 719.
The area is conquered by Charlemagne, which named it walk of Gothie included in the kingdom of Aquitaine creates in 778. This vast territory including all the South of the Rhone to the Atlantic in order to federate the Hispanic reconquest will be bequeathed by Charlemagne to one of its sons in 781. The administration is entrusted to the Counts de Toulouse.
At the time feudal take place a great political fragmentation: the counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne passed in the orbit of the kingdom of Aragon, whereas Low-Languedoc passed under the domination of the Trencavel house and their rivals the counts of Toulouse.
Raimond IV says Raimond de Saint Gilles (1042 - 1115) will achieve by marriage the goal of reunification by increasing its state with the Comté of Rouergue, of Nimes, Narbonne, the Gévaudan, Agde, Béziers and Uzès.
After the Albigensian Crusade and the extinction of the dynasty of the counts de Toulouse the province is joined together with the kingdom of France in 1271. From there was born royal Languedoc which will persist until the French revolution. It is the time of the Catharisme and the Cathares:
The treaty of Corbeil ratified in 1258 division with the territories of the South of the area. The Corbières formed the border between the kingdom of France and the Royaume of Aragon.
Administrative cuttingThe Languedoc-Roussillon area comprises five departments: the Aude, the Gard, the Herault, the Lozere and the the Eastern Pyrenees. It has as a chief town Montpellier, which is also chief town of Herault.
This one counts two chief towns of district, Béziers and Lodève. The Département of the Aude has for chief town Carcassonne and chief towns of district Limoux and Narbonne. The Département of the Gard, whose chief town is Nimes, has two chief towns of district: Ales and Vigan. The department of the Lozere has for chief town Mende and only chief town of district Florac. Finally the the Eastern Pyrenees have Perpignan for chief town, Céret and Prades for chief towns of district.
District council of Languedoc-Roussillon
See also: District council of Languedoc-Roussillon
The policy in Languedoc-Roussillon was dominated a long time by the opposition between two characters: Jacques Blanc (president of the district council during eighteen years) and Georges Frêche, his socialist adversary which succeeds to him in March 2004. The Minister S Claude Allègre and Jean-Claude Gayssot are originating in the area.
See also: Geography of Languedoc-Roussillon
The Languedoc-Roussillon area is very contrasted and does not have a geographical unit. It extends on distinct natural units.
The littoral Plaine contrasts with the mountainous areas of the average Cevennes Montagne with the the Pyrenees while passing by the Grands Causses. The rock coasts of the Pyrenees alternate with the long sand beaches protecting from vast pond S (pond of Thau, Vendres, the Méjean…).
ClimateThe unit of the Languedoc-Roussillon area is more climatic geographical, in spite of significant nuances. The area mainly raises of the Mediterranean Climat.
The principal nuance of Mediterranean climate is consisted the Causses of Lozere, where the winter is very rigorous, punctuated even sometimes of true snowstorms. The temperatures of summer themselves are not excessive, except in the content of the throats. The natural prolongation of these reliefs, the the Cevennes, as for him, is strongly sprinkled. This mountainous barrier is the first met by the Mediterranean rains, which flow there. Thus, the solid mass of the Aigoual, which receives more than 2 m of water per annum (with a European record of 950 mm in 24:00), remains even fresh in summer.
Aubrac and Margeride present oceanic and semi-continental influences respectively. The climate of Aubrac does not appear Mediterranean but rather oceanic of mountain with Mediterranean influence (like Planèze de Saint-Flour)
On the other hand, it low Languedoc-Roussillon have very hot summers in common. The average temperature of the summer months is highest of France to Perpignan (22,3°C), but Montpellier is not remains about it with 23,7°C active in July and of the records until 42,9°C. The number of hours of sunning is exceptional with a record in 369 hour old Montpellier of insolation in July. Contrary, the winters are soft (Perpignan: 6,7°C in January, Montpellier: 5,6°C), even if the violence of the continental winds (mistral and Tramontane), dessicants and cold, can brutally vary the temperatures of winter and the intersaisons.
Precipitations are characteristic they also Mediterranean climate since they occur essentially with the intersaisons and in the form of violent downpours; it rains more in Montpellier that with Paris and hardly less than with Brest, but these rains are concentrated on a number of days lower by half (752 mm in 90 days than Montpellier; 440 mm annual with Salses, in Roussillon). These brutal rains can be dramatic for the grounds after one long period of Sécheresse, gullying the ground and causing Inondation S.
These characteristics Mediterranean are even largely shared by the Pyrenean reliefs of the south of the area, where they penetrate by the valleys. Thus the Cerdagne or the Vallespir profits, they also, of a remarkable sunning. The high mountains know only one late snowing up.
See also: FOR THE THIRD TIME Languedoc-Roussillon
See also: Economy of Languedoc-Roussillon
Vis-a-vis the parcelling out of the exploitations which involves a great difficulty of marketing in particular to export, by June 2006, at least 15.000 hectares on a total of 270.000 will be withdrawn of the vine growing. Part of the grounds close to the cities and littoral will be reclassified in zone to build and will be sold to increase the influence of suburbia. The remainder will turn over to the scrubland.
See also: Demography of Languedoc-Roussillon
The area knows more the demographic strong growth of France, and could count to 3.100.000 inhabitants in 2030, that is to say a rise of 34% compared to 2000. This rise is especially due to the internal migrations, the Natural increase being rather weak. This immigration worsens the problem of unemployment, one of the highest rates of France with 12,6%.
MediaThe 1st radio occitane of Languedoc-Roussillon east Ràdio Lenga of òc 95.5 FM. It exists since 2003 and emits since Narbonne (Aude).
The newspaper " Libre" midday; appears daily in Languedoc Roussillon:
The daily newspaper " 'Independent " appears in the Aude and the Pyrenees Orientales
The television channel 7L - local chain of Montpellier.
Several festivals of Cinema, of Music alive, arts animate the area:
- the national opera and the national orchestra of Montpellier program representations and concerts throughout the year.
- the festival of cartoon film of Baillargues at the end of November
- the festival of the film méditerranéen' of at the end of October to the beginning of November
- the festival of Christian film in January,
- Cinematographic Meetings of Pézenas mid-February.
- the festival " Itinérances " of Ales in March
Spectacles and festivals
- the traditional festival of Music of Radio-France and Montpellier Languedoc-Roussillon Herault is held in July
- the festival of Jazz of Junas , in Gard, is held at the end of July
- the festival of old music and Baroque of Villeneuve-the-Maguelone , in June.
- the spring of the actors with its programmings (circus and theater) in June.
- the festival of theater and spectacles for children, " Saperlipopettes here are enfantillages".
- the international festival " Aimed for Image" of photojournalism of Perpignan is held at the beginning of September
- the festival of Cinéma of Alès " Itinérances " in the month of Mars'
- the festival of Arts of street " Crater surface" with Ales at the beginning of July. If the festival is called " Crater surface" , that returns to the history of the town of Ales, old mining city which today is made vacation resort.
MuseumsMany museums brighten the area:
- With Sète, the Museum Georges Brassens, the Museum Paul Valéry, the international Museum of modest arts and the Molière Theater - National scene of Sète and of the Basin of Thau
- To Lodève, the Museum Fleury.
- With Montpellier, the Musée Fabre has in particular the collections of Pierre Soulage, Agropolis-Museum is the museum of science and company.
- With Nimes, the Square of Art,
- With Collioure, the museum of modern art,
- With Perpignan has six museums.
- With Céret the museum of modern art collection Picasso
- With Ales the museum Pierre Andre Benoit
The area Languedoc-Roussillon organized the Mediterranean plays of 1993.
Many sports are practiced there:
the Handball : The club of Montpellier gained 8 championships of France, 6 championship victories of France and the MHB was champion of Europe 2003.
- the Rugby : Perpignan was vice-champion of Europe in 2003 and 8 times champion of France.
Among the traditional sports, one can in particular quote the tambourine, a play of ball.
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