See also: Language (homonymy)
The language is a Organe located in the oral cavity which is used for the Mastication, at the Phonation and the Déglutition. It is also the body of the Goût. It is a very vascularized body, which is also the Muscle most extremely compared to its size at the Man.
The language measures 7 cm
The language is divided into two sections, the root of the language and the body of the language which is, also, divided to him into two parts: the posterior third or segment pharyngien and former two-thirds or oral segment.
The language occurs on the level of the Os hyoïde. Its skeleton is ostéo-fibrous: includes/understands the bone hyoïde and two fibrous membranes, the lingual Septum (which separates the language in two halves) and the Membrane hyo-glossienne.
Several muscles contribute to the formation of the language. These muscles take origin on the bone hyoïde, the mandible, the apophysis styloïde of the temporal and the palate. They are new in all, and except for one only (the higher longitudinal muscle), they are present in pairs.
Extrinsic muscles of the language
Intrinsic muscles of the language
There exists an odd muscle and three pairs of intrinsic muscles of the language:
- the higher longitudinal muscle (odd)
- lower longitudinal muscles
- vertical muscles
- transverse muscles
Vessels of the languageThe language is vascularized by the lingual Artère, a branch of the external artery Carotide. The lingual artery is divided into three major branches:
- the dorsal artery of the language,
- the sublingual artery
- the deep lingual artery.
The lingual vein, or veins ranine ensures the drainage of the territory of the language in the thyro-linguo-facial venous trunk which then throws in the external Jugulaire.
Former faceThe posterior part (segment pharyngien) of the former face of the language includes/understands the épiglotte, the lingual amygdalae, the former and posterior pillars between which the palatine amygdala and the foramen cæcum place. The portion pharyngienne of the language is not very visible normally when the mouth is open. This part goes to the final furrow of the language, where the language starts as it is defined by the majority of people, that is to say the oral section of the language.
The oral section leaves the apex of the language to the final furrow and is traversed by a median furrow. It is on this part that the Papille S. are.
Let us add all the same that it is preferable to brush the language when the teeth are brushed, in order to avoid any breath pushing back and of the decays
Lower faceOn the lower face of the language, one can see the lingual Frein which is a thin membrane which connects the face lower of the language than the floor of the mouth. The veins ranines are also quite visible due to the fact that the skin (mucous) is thin and transparent in this area.
Another visible structure is the lingual caruncle, located in the floor of the mouth, with the foot of the lingual brake. The sublingual caruncle is bored umbilical ostium which is in fact the opening of the Canal of Wharton. The channel of Warthon is the channel excretor of the salivary Glande submandibulaire.
On each side of the caruncle one can also see the openings of the salivary channels of sublingual glands.
Taste budsAt the human one, they make it possible to recognize various savors sweetened, salted, bitter, Acide, glutamate and water. Taste buds recover the language and are responsible for the perception of the tastes. The papillae are classified in four kinds:
- the papillae circumvallées (or caliciform) 12 located at the back of the language and form V lingual;
- the fungiform papillae are disseminated on the major part of the language;
- the thread-like papillae are those which are present in greater number and give to the language its particular texture;
- the foliated papillae are located on the sides of the language.
Only the 5 above mentioned tastes (sweetened, salted, acid, bitter, glutamate) are likely to be perceived by the buds of the taste. For the remainder of the tastes (taste of liquorice, anise, rice, etc), it is side of the nose and sense of smell which that occurs.
The innervationTwo types of nerves innervent the language: the motor nerves make it possible the language to move and the sensory nerves which allow the perception of the stimuli.
Motor nerves of the language
- the laryngé nerve (from the Vagus X comes) - > innerve bottom of the language
- the lingual nerve (comes from the nerve mandibulaire V3)
- the Nerve glosso-pharyngien (cranial Nerve IX) innerve the portion a little former including/understanding the circumvallées papillae
- the chorda tympani (comes from the intermediate nerve VII) - innerve all the average and former portion with the lingual nerve.
- geographical Génio glosse
- www.lesucre.com - animation on the taste buds
- Diagram detailed on the language
Simple: Tongue Zh-yue: 脷
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