To define the labor movement is not easy task. Crossed by multiple tendencies, sometimes hegemonic, sometimes plural, the labor movement seems to vary. One can distinguish according to typology from Marx, the organized labor movement, “the formal party”, of the spontaneous movement, “real party”.
The currents of idea defending the labor movement denounce the painfulness and the alienation of the Salariat. At the 19th century, socialist theorists show to the character deeply exploitor of it (see in particular Karl Marx: paid Work and capital , the Capital , Critical of the program of Gotha …). The traditional claims of the labor movement are at two levels:
- In an immediate way, it there with the requirement of the rise of the wages and the fall of the working time, in several forms: lower number of hours in the course of the day, increase in the time of pause, paid vacations. These two requirements lead according to the Marxist theory to a reduction in the rate of exploitation.
In the long term, the Communists preach the suppression of wage-earning, in order to remove the exploitation (" the working class must register on its flag the revolutionary watchword " abolition of the salariat" , which is its final watchword " (Karl Marx, 1848)).
In the same category but in more limited way, one can also arrange the fights for the prohibition of the Travail of the children, or the night-work for the women.
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