La Nouvelle-Orléans ( New Orleans in English) is more the big city of the State of Louisiana, with the the United States of America cash 480.000 inhabitants and 1.400.000 in the agglomeration. The Louisianian city is as populated as Lyon, the third metropolis of France (for the city-even and the agglomeration). The limits of the parish of Orleans correspond to the city of New-Orleans.
It is an industrial center and of distribution, an important seaport and a city with the rich, old, and vibrating cultural life (from where its nickname of Big Easy , the “easy gross”), especially for its music: the Jazz and its kitchen containing seafood (Shrimp S, Oyster S, crayfish S). The city is on the edges of the the Mississippi to the 30,07°N, 89,93°O.
Very exposed during the centuries with the Hurricane S coming from the Gulf of Mexico, La Nouvelle-Orléans underwent dramatic floods and heavy devastations at the time of the passage of the cyclone Katrina of the August 29th 2005. Its population, mainly, was temporarily evacuated towards towns of Louisiana, Texas and other States of the American federation (see Conséquences of the Katrina hurricane on La Nouvelle-Orléans).
Colonial periodThe city was founded by the French under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, in 1718. The name of the city was selected in the honor of the regent, Philippe, duke of Orleans. With the simple departure Counter of the Company of the Mississippi, it became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722 (the capital was transferred from Biloxi with New-Orleans).
The site selected is that of a meander of the Mississippi, from where the form while growing city: it was called Crescent City , the city in the shape of crescent. Fortifications were to surround it as of the beginning, but they were never carried out. It is not that in 1760 qu ' a palisade out of wooden was built in urgency.
The plans of New-Orleans were drawn by Adrien de Pauger and the Fair one of the Tower on the traditional model of the new cities, i.e. a symmetrical checkerwork, whose maximum size was to be 88 hectares divided into 66 small islands, with a place where were the church (the future Saint-Louis cathedral), the house of the governor and the barracks. On the quays were arranged stores, a hospital and the convent of the Ursulines. It is in particular Adrien de Pauger which drew the plans of Vieux Carré with its streets with right angle. Construction proved very difficult because of wood bulky which occupied the site and of the climate: the hurricane of 1722 caused enormous damage. The lack of labor, the epidemics and the mosquitos also slowed down work. The digging of the channel started in 1723. The dam along the Mississippi was completed in 1724.
The fact that Louisiana was deprived of social structures, political and religious rigid gave to all the feeling of an increased freedom. According to the parochial registers of the time, half of the catholics of New-Orleans did not make their Easter and entered only seldom the Saint-Louis church. The frequentation of the Indians to freer manners, in particular out of sexual matter, had to contribute to the evolution of mentalities. In a few years, arrived from France more than 1.300 women, including 160 prostitutes. The cases of bigamy were not rare and much of French took young Indians like mistresses. In short, the city of New-Orleans sheltered a cosmopolitan, multiracial community and even, by certain aspects, interloper.
In 1733, when Jean-Baptiste Moyne de Bienville became again governor of Louisiana, La Nouvelle-Orléans had already the reputation of a free and merry city, with its festivals, its good food and its dances. During all this period, French of France remained the official language of the colony: it was the only language of the white, but the blacks spoke the Creole (containing French) and the Indians, their ancestral languages.
La Nouvelle-Orléans became the economic capital of Louisiana: it exported skins come from the interior and products of the plantations (indigo, tobacco…).
In 1763 the colony was yielded to the Spanish Empire by a secret agreement: the Treated of Fontainebleau, which was confirmed by the treated of Paris, but no Spanish governor (Antonio de Ulloa) came to take the control of the city before 1766. In the same way, few Spanish-speaking settled in the Louisianian capital. Some of the first French colonists were not never satisfied of the Spanish mode, and made multiple petitions to turn over under that of the France. October 28th, 1768, a group of creole colonists tried to drive out the Spaniards of the city, following the establishment of the Exclusif. The resumption in hand was done by a troop sent in July 1769: the leaders were stopped and new of them were condemned to death. A municipal council was founded to satisfy the local claims.
A fire destroyed 856 buildings the March 21st 1788 and another 212 in December 1794. Consequently, a payment of town planning imposed the brick to replace wood for the houses on floor, and the Tuile S for the covers.
In 1795, the Spain authorized the the United States to use the port. The city returned under French control in 1800 but in 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte sold Louisiana (which included/understood a territory much vaster) with the the United States for 80 franc million. At that time, the city counted approximately 8.000 inhabitants.
The population quickly increased in particular with the creole arrival of the S which left Haiti after the revolution of All Saints' day Louverture in 1802. During the Guerre of 1812 the Britanniques sent a force to try to conquer the city but they were overcome by the troops ordered by André Jackson with a few kilometers downstream with Chalmette the January 8th 1815 (Bataille of New-Orleans).
The population of the city doubled in the years 1830. Towards 1840, it reaches 100.000 inhabitants, which made of it the fourth city of the the United States. But the first in importance in the center of the grounds.
The city was the capital of the State of Louisiana until in 1849, then of 1865 with 1880. On this date, Baton-Rouge took over. Its port had an important role in the treats slaves, whereas it had the greatest community of servile origin.
The history of Delphine LaLaurie and the ashamed way in which she tortured her slaves are probably most known of the macabre tales of the French district (Vieux Carré). Mrs LaLaurie, respected Socialist, accommodated many great events in her opulent residence, 1 140 rue Royale. Its sumptuous way of life was been useful by a great number of slaves. However, the ill treatment of the slaves being illegal, the company started to avoid LaLaurie after a neighbor had surprised this elegant woman driving out a girl of slave with a whip. The girl jumped of the roof in an effort despaired to flee LaLaurie and killed herself. The neighbor informs the authorities. It was the end of the social career of LaLaurie. It was rejected by the good company.
At the beginning of the American Civil War, La Nouvelle-Orléans was taken by the Union (Northerners) without combat, and was thus saved destruction which underwent the majority of the cities of the South. There remains a historical seal with the richness of the 19th century beyond the Vieux Carré or Carré French. The city accommodated the World Fair known as centenary of the Coton.
The city gained a reputation of vice and Tripot at the end of the 19th century and beginning of XXe in particular with the shady district of Storyville.
20th centuryMost of the city is located under the sea level and is bordered by the river the Mississippi and the Lac Pontchartrain, also the city it is surrounded by Digue S. Until the beginning of the 20th century, constructions were largely limited to the slightly elevated part on the natural dams and the Bayou S because the remainder of the area consisted of Marécage S subjected to frequent Crue S. What gave to the city, at the 19th century, the shape of a crescent. In the years 1910, engineer A. Baldwin Wood proposed an ambitious plan of drainage with pumps of its design which are always used.
In the Years 1920, in an effort of modernization of the aspect of the city, much from rambardes of the balconies of the street of the Channel, the commercial street, were withdrawn. In the Years 1960, the streetcars were replaced by buses. These decisions were then regarded as errors and from now on the street returned to its initial aspect, which the tourists in search of expatriation like.
Cultural heritage of New-OrleansThe city is in the middle of the culture of the the Caribbean including the worship of the Vaudou. Many visitors adopt the slogan Acadien or Cajun “ Laissez good times to roll ”, in particular while strolling in the square French (Vieux Carré) which is surrounded by the river and the streets of Rampart, Canal and Esplanade. One of the local specialities to taste with the Coffee of the World: coffee with milk with fritters. The Natchez , a Paddle steamer, daily makes a turn on the river the Mississippi.
There are from now on two lines of streetcars (a kind of Tramway) with the red line parallel to the street Canal through the Vieux Carré and the green one along the street Saint-Charles. A nostalgic walk forever immortalized in the famous part of Tennessee Williams a tram named desire .
Because the height of the Ground water, the cemeteries use Crypte S. For a long time, funeral ceremonies are accompanied by musicians by Jazz. No visit with New-Orleans is complete without an excursion in the museums external oldest of the city, its cemeteries historical. Often called the Quoted of dead the , these cemeteries are remarkable for their single tombs and on the surface. The tombs are monuments of eighteenth, nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, and are, like the cemeteries themselves, an appreciable part of the particular heritage in this city. “New Orleans” is always New-Orleans, especially in the rate/rhythm of the festivals, the rites and the atmosphere of its French past. Even if on the million inhabitants of the agglomeration in 1970, only 10% (that is to say 100000 people) had French like native tongue. Among them, a minority (40000 people approximately) resulted from old creole families townsmen of Vieux Carré; less still (10500) of the black French-speaking community (of which was originating Sidney Bechet), and the remainder (50000 people) were of Cajuns (Acadian) having left their bayous or the Meadow of Lafayette. All categories touched by the intensive anglicanisation introduced with schooling généraliséee into the inter-war period, which carries the half-million French-speaking people listed in 1970 (still including some Indians Koasati and Chitimacha) on the million “French of Louisiana”, according to the current American expression Louisiana French .
Among the many culinary specialities: the fritters néo-orléanais, the kidney beans with Riz, the Po' servant boy and them (sandwiches) Muffaletta; the Oyster S of the gulf and the Crawfish (small fresh water crayfish); the Choked , the Jambalaya, the Gumbo and Creole kitchen. Today after the passage of the hurricane Katrina the Orleans News is in the train of reconstuire.
Surface of the east city of 907 km ² of which 48,45 % in water levels. The city is wedged between the Lac Pontchartrain in north, the the Mississippi which crosses the city to the south, the Paroisse of Jefferson in south-west and the Paroisse of the Persimmons in south-east. Most of the city is located in lower part of the sea level (approximately 60 cm).
La Nouvelle-Orléans follows a meander of the Mississippi, from where its nickname The crescent city (the city growing).
- In 1725, New-Orleans counted 1.000 inhabitants, in 1752,3200 inhabitants.
SociologyLa Nouvelle-Orléans east one of the American cities poorest of the country. It counts one of the most important populations Afro-Americans of the United States (67% of the inhabitants of the city).
The police force of New-Orleans is considered among worst of all United States whereas the administration of the city, like state, is manifestly corrupted and inefficient.
When the national rate of criminality decreased, that of the homicides, with New-Orleans, increased significantly. Thus, a person residing with New-Orleans, has ten times more risk to be made assassinate than the average American. The rate of the homicides is there higher than those of other cities however much larger, like New York, Los Angeles or Chicago.
EconomyThe economy of New-Orleans is declining since several generations. La Nouvelle-Orléans was a long time a large international port which benefitted from its situation privileged with the outlet of the Grandes Plains: the port exported cereals (12,5 million tons in 1996). He also lived thanks to a vast hinterland irrigated by the 23.000 km of the river system of the Mississippi and his affluents. He was with the first world rank for the ships carry-barges.
At the 20th century, under the authoritative administration of the governor Long Huey, the State of Louisiana developed its harbor installations and industry related to the oil activity, thus giving the opportunity to many inhabitants to integrate the working class or the middle-class.
But then, the development of the productive economy or the sectors like energy or the trade, offering raised wages, were abandoned with the profit of arts, the culture and especially of the Tourisme. Tourism thus became the basic principal activity of New-Orleans. It is however an activity with the wages relatively low, often of 50% in lower part of the national average allowing about half of the employees, mainly black, to maintain their family above the Poverty line. With the culture, it is a branch of industry which especially benefitted the white part of the population, owners of restaurants, of hotels, or agents and property developers. Other recipients being festive young people, single people and gay.
- La Nouvelle-Orléans enorgueillit to be itself the city which with the best kitchen of the United States and best music of the world. Indeed, it is the city from which comes the Jazz and the Blues, and one eats Cajun or Creole there.
- the agglomeration counts approximately 120 clubs of jazz in 2006
- the University Tulane, private establishment, prestigious and very selective.
- Loyola University New Orleans, private establishment.
- the University of New-Orleans, public corporation managed by the State of Louisiana within the framework of the University of State of Louisiana.
The city is been useful by the international airport of New-Orleans Louis Armstrong, located has Kenner.
- La Nouvelle-Orléans is the city which organizes the most Festival S in the world: each year, nearly 500 various demonstrations are organized in various districts.
- Among the annual celebrations most famous is the season of the Carnaval (fatty Tuesday), with floating parades and decorations. It gathered nearly 700.000 people in February 2007.
- the Jazz festival (called in English “ New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival ” or “ Jazz Fest ”), organized since 1969, gathered more than 400.000 people in April - May 2006.
See Krewe of the Old man and fatty Tuesday of New-Orleans.
Celebrities born with New-Orleans
- Antoine Rigau (1758-1820) General of Empire of Napoleon 1st. Died with New-Orleans
- Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), musician of jazz
- Sidney Bechet (1897-1959), musician of jazz
- Terence Blanchard (1962 -), musician of jazz
- Buddy Bolden (1870-1931), musician of jazz
- Roy Brown (1925-1981), singer of blues
- Truman Capote (1924-1984), writer
- Harry Connick Jr. (1967 -), musician and actor
- Conceited Domino (1928 -), singer of rhythm and blues
- Clyde Drexler (1962 -), player of basketball
- Champion Jack Dupree (1910-1992), bluesman
- Snooks Eaglin (1936 -), bluesman
- Marshall Faulk (1973 -), American football player
- * Stuart Hamm (1960 -), bass player
- Mahalia Jackson (1911-1972), singer of Negro spiritual and gospel
- Dr. John (1940 -), musician
- Lonnie Johnson (1894-1970), bluesman
- Peyton (1976 -) and Eli Manning (1981-), players of American football
- Branford Marsalis (1960 -), musician of jazz
- Wynton Marsalis (1961 -), musician of jazz and brother of the precedent
- John Allen Muhammad (1960 -), criminal
- Ray Nagin (1956 -), mayor of New-Orleans
- Lee Harvey Oswald (1917-1963), criminal
- Anne Rice (1941 -), woman of letters
- John Kennedy Toole (1937-1969), writer
- Carl Weathers (1947 -), American football player and actor
- Stanley Williams (1953-2005), criminal, founder of the Crips
- Pauley Perrette (1969 -), actress
- Reese Witherspoon (1976 -), actress
The greatest sporting infrastructure of the city is the superdome.
the Film enthusiast , novel of Walker Percy.
- Conspiracy of the imbeciles , novel of John Kennedy Toole.
- To dine at Antoine' S , detective novel of Frances Parkinson Keyes.
- Discussion with a vampire , novel of Anne Rice, adapted to the cinema by Chronic Neil Jordan and more generally its of the vampires as well as the cycle the saga of the witches .
- the awakening , novel of Kate Chopin.
- lost Hearts and exquisite Body , novels of Poppy Z. Brite
- Archdiocese of New-Orleans
- Saint-Louis Cathedral of New-Orleans
Twin townsThe Orleans News is twinned with ten cities:
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