Lübeck is a Hanseatique city of Germany of north, in the Land of the Schleswig-Holstein. With a population of 215.000 inhabitants, it is the second plus big city of the Schleswig-Holstein, after Kiel, the capital of the Land.
The city belongs to the Liste of the world heritage of UNESCO, in particular for its red brick architecture.
The first city
The Slavic city
The Slavic settlement took place in Osten Holsteins from 700 after Jesus Christ. Au préalable other Germanic people were established there. Already time of Charlemagne, a first colony moved back in the north of the island of the old city of Lübeck. This Slavic city of Liubice, which was located at the mouth of ready Schwartau of the Trave, is today after archaeological excavations important a Bodendenkmal (archaeological memorial). This city was since the 10th century with Oldenburg in Holstein (Starigard) the main city of the Abodrites.
The chalk-lining of Nakonides, residing in Mecklenburg and at Liubice, was in state of war permanent with Liutizens. Probably Liubice was already at that time strengthened in strong castle. The dendrologic datings gives year 819 as dates probable from the foundation of the strong castle but Liubice was evoked for the first time in 1076 by Adam of Bremen, which exposes also the lapidation of Ansverus in 1066 to Einhaus. In 1093, the Christian nakonide Heinrich seized the power on the Abodrites and made of Liubice his residence. After its death in 1127, the city was burned by Ranen.
German colonization and the strong castle of Lübeck
The town of Lübeck in its current location on the Buku hill, place of an old strong castle between the Notched joint and Wakenitz, was then refondée by the count Adolphe II of Schauenburg and Holstein and became the first German port city on the the Baltic. It arranged the first strong castle for which documents reached us. Indeed in 1147, Helmold von Bosau evokes fortifications made up of a ground and wood slope. In the middle of tombs of modern times, a well going back to approximately 1155 was highlighted. In 1149, Vicelin was bishop of Oldenburg. In 1158, Adolphe had to give up the strong castle with Henri the Lion, when it exacerbated the hostility of this one by his interference in the quarrels around the Danish throne. After a second large fire in 1159, the city was again rebuilt by Henri. After the fall of Henri, the strong castle became imperial of 1181 to 1189, then until 1192 it belonged again to the duchy of Saxony. Between 1192 and 1201, it became again a possession of the county of Holstein. The strong castle was evoked in 1217 by the king Valdemar II of Denmark and remained in its possession until 1227, when it made place with a new monastery. In 1226, Lübeck becomes imperial city. In 1229, the Dominican monastery was founded.
The time of Hanse
Its geographical location favorable to the maritime trade, and its foreign policy as a free city in the Holy Roman Empire Germanic, Lübeck opens out and became the one of most important cities of the Northern Europe.
After a fire in the 1157 and supposed attempt per Henri the Lion to carry out a concurrent city Löwenstadt , Lübeck was, after its transfer by the count Adolphe II, rebuilt in 1159 per Henri the Lion, which for that gave up its town of Bardowick.
In 1160, Lübeck obtained the Soester Stadtrecht . This time is regarded today by the historians as the beginning of Hanse of the merchants (contrary to Hanse of the cities). The principal argument justifying this position consists in the privilege of Artlenburg of 1161, in which the tradesmen of Lübeck became equal in right with, until there dominant, commercial goths for the trade on the Baltic. At that time started with the Chronica Slavorum under Helmold von Bosau and its successor Arnold von Lübeck the testimony detailed on the events concerning the Slavic tribes of the North-West. In 1181, the emperor Frederic Barberousse gave a stronghold to Lübeck with the duke Bogislav Ier with the duchy of Poméranie. The privilege of Barberousse in 1188 equipped Lübeck with a territory and new commercial possibilities. The constitution given to Lübeck by Henri establishes a municipal council of 20 city council men, which was supplemented by a complementary election within the association of the tradesmen and elected in his center to 4 mayors. So that only the rich person commercial families could take share with the council, nevertheless only a member of the same family was authorized to take part in the council (never 2 at the same time). A model of this constitution remained preserved mainly until the 19th century. Thus the bases of the rapid and exclusive rise of the tradesmen of Lübeck from the interior on the trade in north of Europe were posed.
At the 14th century, Lübeck, then capital of the Hanseatic League, was the second plus big city of the Germany after Cologne. The right lübeckois ( lübisches Recht ) was in force in many cities of Germany and the Baltic. The Court of Appeal of the League was in Lübeck.
In close cooperation with Hamburg, Lübeck controlled the major part of the trade on the Baltic (between Scandinavia, Novgorod) and the remainder of the Europe. Lübeck then maintained important a marine war, in particular to fight the Piraterie.
The decline of the Hanseatic League decreased the importance of the city, which remains however a shopping mall.French on November 6th, 1806, Lübeck was formally incorporated in the French Empire in 1810, then restored by the Congrès of Vienna.
The night of the March 28th to the March 29th 1942 sees the first massive Bombardement of a German big city by the British Royal Air Force . The assessment is very heavy: 320 died, 784 wounded, 1 425 destroyed dwellings, fire of the old city, destruction of the cathedral and other monuments.
In 1987, UNESCO declared World heritage the preserved parts of the old city. The protected area by UNESCO includes/understands the most important buildings of the city, such as the town hall, Koberg (district of the 13th entirely preserved century) or Holstentor carries it.
GeographyThe old city of Lübeck is on a small island with the confluences of with the Trave, river navigable which opens in the the Baltic 17 km more in the North-East, in the district of (lübeckois since 1329). Several Bridge S on the Notched joint and Wakenitz binds the old city to the more recent districts. Towards the south, a channel () connects the city to the Elba.
The following communes are close to Lübeck. They are located all in the the Schleswig-Holstein except 3 which are in the Land of Mecklembourg-Poméranie Western:
District of Nordwestmecklenburg in the Mecklembourg-Poméranie Western which includes/understands the towns of Dassow, Selmsdorf and Lüdersdorf.
District of Herzogtum Lauenburg with the communes of Groß Grönau and Groß Sarau, Klempau, Krummesse, Rondeshagen and Bliestorf like Groß Schenkenberg.
District of Stormarn which includes/understands Klein Wesenberg, Wesenberg, Hamberge, Badendorf, Heilshoop and Mönkhagen.
District of Ostholstein with Stockelsdorf, Bad Schwartau like Ratekau and Timmendorfer Strand.
The districts of Herzogtum Lauenburg and Stormarn belong already to the agglomeration of Hamburg, European Métropole. Lübeck, as a principal city, form with Stockelsdorf, Bad Schwartau, Ratekau and Groß Grönau an agglomeration. An important urbanization, because of attraction of the area, also develops in the common neighbors of the Land of Mecklembourg-Poméranie Western. The commune of Krummesse has a single characteristic in Germany, it relative has the longest communal border with its territory. In the frontier communes of Lübeck reside approximately 70 000 inhabitants, so that its agglomeration reaches the 283 000 inhabitants.
Organization of the city
Since the decision of the citizens of September 28th, 1972 the town of Lübeck is divided into 10 districts ( Stadtteile ). Those themselves are divided into 35 districts ( Stadtbezirke ).
The 10 districts with their administrative numbers and many inhabitants are:
- 01 Innenstadt (approximately 12 000 inhabitants)
- 02 St Jürgen (approximately 40 000 inhabitants)
- 03 Moisling (approximately 10 000 inhabitants)
- 04 Buntekuh (approximately 10 000 inhabitants)
- 05 St Lorenz-South (approximately 12 000 inhabitants)
- 06 St Lorenz-North (approximately 40 000 inhabitants)
- 07 St Gertrud (approximately 40 000 inhabitants)
- 08 Schlutup (approximately 6 000 inhabitants)
- 09 Kücknitz (approximately 20 000 inhabitants)
- 10 Travemünde (approximately 15 000 inhabitants)
The districts lübeckois acquired each one a clean identity during time.
The Innenstadt (literally downtown area) is the tourist center of Lübeck, the oldest district and smallest. Innenstadt is located mainly on Altstadtinsel (literally island of the old city) between the Trave and Wakenitz and which extends on approximately 2 kilometers from north in the south and 1,5 kilometers of is in west. Some significant buildings are located on a surrounding small island (for example the Holstentor, which is located at the end of above-named Wallhalbinsel). To leave Innenstadt, one must in all the cases use a bridge which crosses the old belt of fortification around the city. The new city, contrary to the majority of the other cities, is not joined directly at the old moyenâgeuse city.
In the west of the Holstentor the two suburbs of Sankt Lorenz-North and Sankt Lorenz-South are, separated by the railroad. It is the church St Lorenz on Steinrader Weg, which is with the site of the vault of a cemetery going back to an epidemic of plague at the 16th century. Half at the end of the 19th century, these suburbs were especially built for the poor and average classes, and a working culture is established there. In Meierstraße in St Lorenz-South, was born Willy Brandt. Karl Friedrich Stellbrink worked in the district of St Lorenz-South, Pasteur lubecquois victim of the Nazism. Still today the buildings and industries (Drägerwerk AG) dominate in these districts which comprise few green areas.
Beyond the railway after St Lorenz-South then the districts of Buntekuh and Moisling are which is covered with buildings of the Sixties. In the district of Buntekuhse one also finds parks industrial wide along A1. The district of Moisling contrary to that of Buntekuh has a history centenary: already at the 17th century there existed on this site a Danish city from which major the part of the population was of Jewish confession. Today still a cemetery Jew remains. The district of Buntekuh (literally coloured cow ) owes its name with an agricultural domain which existed here until the end of the Fifties. This field accepted this name according to the name of a sailing ship of the Hanse the Bunte Kuh , which led in 1401 the attack against the pirate Klaus Störtebeker.
In the south of the old city on the peninsula of Wakenitz and with the edge is old city, is the district Sankt Jürgen , covered in north by a residential district with villas and in the south rather by buildings with the Fifties at the Seventies. This district ends in the south with a broad belt of green areas made up of fields and meadows in the countryside of Lauenburg. In the east the district is delimited by Wakenitz, at this place because of the old border between the two Allemagnes is in the alluvial plains a natural park. In St Jürgen are located the 2 greater establishments of higher education of the city, the university and Fachhochschule. St Jürgen has with Innenstadt the strongest concentration coed. In the beginning St Jürgen was suburbs with horticultural exploitations and pastures. Today only four horticultural exploitations remain because of urbanization of the grounds as for example the district of the university which extended since the old monastery.
Sankt Gertrud in the north of the east old city like St Jürgen, near the old city, covered with traditional residences and villas of time around the municipal park and Wakenitz. More at the east modern districts of dwellings for all the social layers are located. On the Notched joint, the very interesting village of fishermen of Gothmund with thatched cottages is which preserved their thatched roofs. Here also the municipal forest of Lauerholz is, in which the border with old GDR is let follow.
Beyond the communal forest of Lauerholz the small district of Schlutup is, which before is very covered by the fish shops with the port on the Trave which is currently transformed into port specialized in packing paper. In Schlutup before the reunification the northern frontier passage between the FRG and GDR was: the way of routing towards Rostock and Sassnitz by using B105.
In the north of the Trave Küchnitz , the old industrial district of Lübeck is. Here until in the Eighties, of the cast iron, coke, cement, copper inter alia were produced by blast furnaces. Today the museum of work, in the historical workshop Herrenwyk, recalls this time. In Kücknitz an important part of the port of Lübeck is, who is made up amongst other things of a new terminal of containers. The shipyard Flender, rich in tradition of this district, was put in bankruptcy in 2002.
At the mouth of the Trave is located finally Travemünde , which was already attached to Lübeck at the 14th century and which since 1801 is recognized as a seaside resort. The attractions of Travemünde are its broad sand beach on the site even or on the Priwall peninsula which could be reached only by vat before the reunification because it was closed by GDR. In the south of the peninsula is Pötenitzer Wiek, a bay of the Notched joint who because of the proximity with the border preserves an important biodiversity. At Travemünde the port of Skandinavienkai is located, the large German port of cruising on the sea Baltique which has connections with many ports such as for example Trelleborg, Helsinki or Klaipėda.
The Parliament of the town of Lübeck (Bürgerschaft) is in the following way made up (elections of 2003):
Union Christian Democrat of Germany, 27 seats.
- Left social democrat German, 17 seats.
- Alliance 90/Les Green, 4 seats.
- Left liberal-democrat, 2 seats.
Personalities of Lübeck
Lübeck saw being born:
- Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), painter,
- Hermann von Fehling (1812-1885), chemist,
- Heinrich Mann (1871-1950), writer,
- Thomas Mann (1875-1955), writer, Nobel Prize of literature in 1929
- Willy Brandt (1913-1992), politician, chancellor, Nobel Prize of peace in 1971
- Dietrich Buxtehude, type-setter, lived and taught in Lübeck in the years 1700.
- Günter Grass, writer, Nobel Prize of literature in 1999, lives in Lübeck.
In Lübeck died:
- Bernt Notke, painter and sculptor (born about 1435; deceased in 1509)
- Official site of the town of Lübeck
- Site of the town of Lübeck
- Photographs of Lübeck
- VfB Lübeck (football club, www.vfb-luebeck.de)
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