Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov (Влади́мирИльи́чУлья́нов), known as Lénine (Ле́нин “the man of the Lena”) (April 22nd 1870 - January 21st 1924) is a Révolution naire and Russian politician , militant of the Parti working social democrat Russia (Russian section of the Second International), founder and directing party Bolchevik, one of the leaders of the Russian Révolution, founder of the the USSR.
FamilyHis/her parents: His/her father Ilia Nikolaïevitch Oulianov (1831-1886), moderated monarchist, was a great figure of the state education in Russia and was anobli by the Tsar in 1882. With Simbirsk and in the province of Simbirsk, it opened the first schools for the nonRussian populations. It helped by its activity with the awakening of the political conscience of the people. His/her mother Maria Alexandrovna Oulianova, born Blank (1835-1916), devoted all her life to her hearth and her children.
Alexandre Oulianov, older brother, born in Nijni-Novgorod on April 12th 1866, carried out by hanging on May 20th 1887 on the scaffold drawn up in the court of the fortress of Schlüsselburg with Saint-Pétersbourg after having taken part in an attempted murder against the Tsar.
Olga Oulianova, younger sister, born in Simbirsk.
Dimitri Oulianov, younger brother, born in Simbirsk in 1874. Deceased in 1943.
Maria Oulianova, younger sister, born in Simbirsk in 1878. Died in 1937.
Born in Russia with Simbirsk the April 22nd 1870, Lénine is the son of Ilya Nikolaevitch Oulianov (1831 - 1886), a Russian civil servant (inspector of the schools) anobli which works with the introduction of more than Démocratie and a free education for all in Russia, and of his wife Maria Alexandrovna Blank (1835 - 1916). As much of Russians, its ethnic origins and nuns are métissées. Resulting from a cultivated family, it is of origin kalmouk by his paternal grandparents, German by his maternal grandmother, which was of confession Luthérienne, and of Jewish ascent converted with orthodoxy by his maternal grandfather. Vladimir Oulianov (Lénine) itself is baptized in the orthodoxe Russian Church.
Vladimir is distinguished in the study from the Latin and the Greek . Two tragedies occur early in its life: in 1886, his/her father dies of a Brain hemorrhage. The following year, in May 1887, his/her older brother Alexandre Oulianov is hung to have taken part in a plot threatening the life of the Tsar Alexandre III. This event radicalizes Vladimir (his Soviet biographers regard it as determinant), it also disgusts it revolutionary action “romantic” of the anarchists; it is stopped later this same year and is excluded from the university of Kazan for its participation in demonstrations coeds. It continues to study in an autonomous way and obtains in 1891 a license authorizing it to practice the right.
Rather than to settle in a legal career, it is implied more and more in the diffusion of the revolutionary ideas and the study of the Marxisme, most of the time with Saint-Pétersbourg. It is interested in the terrorist Serge Netchaïev of which it preserved the idea of a structured organization and the principle according to which The end justifies the means. December 7th, 1895, it is stopped and imprisoned during one year by the authorities before being exiled for three years in the village of Chouchenskoïe in Siberia.
In July 1898, it marries there Nadejda Kroupskaïa, a socialist activist she also in deportation. In April 1899, it publishes the book the development of capitalism in Russia . In 1900, its exile ends. He travels to Russia, Europe and publishes the newspaper Iskra (“the spark”), as well as other leaflets and books relating to the revolutionary movement.
He takes an active part in the Parti working social democrat Russia (POSDR) and, in 1903, takes the head of the fraction “Bolchevik” of this party, following a division with the “Menchevik S” (partially inspired by his lampoon That to make? ). In May 1905, he is elected at the Central committee of the party by IIIe congress. In 1907, he moves in Finland for safety reasons. He founds the newspaper Pravda (“the truth”). Against the “revisionism” of certain social democrats, it writes his work Matérialisme and Empiriocriticisme in 1909. It draws aside Alexander Bogdanov of the direction of the Bolshevik fraction. It continues to travel to Europe and takes part in many gatherings and socialist activities, in particular the Conférence of Zimmerwald of 1915. When Elizabeth Armand (known as Inessa or Ines) leaves Russia to settle in Paris in 1910, it meets Lénine and other Bolsheviks in exile and becomes at the same time its emissary and his egery.
He sees in the First World War a fight between rival imperialisms for the division of the world ( imperialism, supreme stage of capitalism , 1917) and wants to make war between nations a war between classes.
When bursts the Révolution of February 1917, following the fall of the tsar Nicolas II, Lénine is in Suisse with Montreux, like many exiled Russian. After having imagined various impossible routes, it returns of Suisse to Petrograd through Germany in war, with a group of Russian revolutionists of all tendencies, on train protected by a immunity diplomatic, known as “leaded”. This episode caused a polemic, some showing Lénine to be bought by the German government. In its memories, Erich Ludendorff explains why he hoped that the revolution in Russia would bring the decomposition of the army tsarist and the return in Russia of revolutionists favorable to a peace separated with Germany.
As of its arrival with Petrograd accommodated with the sound of the Marseillaise, on April 4th, Lénine makes a conference during which it presents its Thèses of April , which is published in Pravda : immediate peace, capacity with the Soviet S, factories with the workmen and grounds with the peasants. The provisional government resulting from the revolution of February not solving any of these problems, these ideas become increasingly popular. With the repression of the riots in July by the government, the leaders Bolsheviks are stopped (whose Trotsky), their newspapers prohibited, Lénine flees in Finland. It returns in October, wishing to reverse the provisional government, with for slogan “all the capacity with the Soviets! ”. Its ideas concerning the government are expressed in its test State and revolution (August-seven. 1917) which calls the new shape of more democratic government based on the working councils or Soviet S . After the coup attempt of State of the general monarchist Kornilov in September, the provisional government is discredited and the Bolsheviks become majority in the Soviets.
With the Soviet report heading
After the success of the revolution known as of October, on November 8th, Lénine is named president of the Conseil of the police chiefs of the people by the Congrès of the Russian Soviets. Under its impulse, the Soviets nationalize the great land and buildings (February 19th, 1918), industries (June 30th, 1918) and state to ensure dictatorship of the proletariat.
Vis-a-vis the threat of a German invasion, confronted with the oppositions to the center even of Russia, but also knowing the serious situation of the central empires and the revolutionary prospects thus opened, the revolutionary chiefs question themselves.
The majority of the Bolsheviks chiefs, such as Boukharine, support the continuation of the war like means of causing the revolution in Germany. Lénine defends the option of an armistice or of a peace treaty, costs which costs, in order to consolidate the mode. Leon Trotski, which carries out the negotiations, recommends as for him an intermediate position, recommending the demobilization of the army without signing an unjust peace.
When the negotiations fail, Germany launches starting from February 18th, 1918 an invasion during which Russia loses a big part of its Western territory. Consequently, the position of Lénine gathers the votes of the majority of the chiefs Bolsheviks and Russia ends up signing the Traité of Brest-Litovsk (March 3rd, 1918) which is definitely unfavourable for him. Lénine transfers the capital to Moscow (March 12th) and inaugurates the policy known as of the Communism of war , within the framework of the civil war. By accepting the fact that the Soviets are the only legitimate shape of working government, Lénine founds a Russian constituent Assembly. The Bolsheviks lose these elections, which are gained by the Parti Socialist-revolutionist (PSR). This one was divided in September 1917 into left faction (pro Soviet - Parti Socialist-revolutionist left) and right-hand side (anti-Soviet). The Bolsheviks have all the same then the support of a majority of the Congress of the Soviets and form a coalition government with the Socialist-revolutionists of left. However, this coalition crumbles with the opposition of the revolutionary Socialists (SR) of left to the conditions of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. They then unite with other parties in order to reverse the government Bolshevik, including by the civil war. Lénine reacts while making prohibit the revolutionary Socialists (including the “SR of left”).
In July 1918, it makes approve by Ve congress of the Soviets the first Constitution of the federative Republic of the Soviets of Russia. However it must deal so that it calls the “counter-revolution” and who is a civil war, supported by the foreigner (1918-1920). Soon, the Tsar is carried out with his family and his close relations ( all the family of the tsar; his/her daughter Anastasia, despite everything the stories which turn around its survival, is it also carried out).
August 20th, 1918, Fanny Kaplan, member of the Left Socialist-revolutionist, Lénine approach whereas this one regains its car at the conclusion of a meeting. It calls it, it is turned over, it draws three times above to him. Two balls reach it: one with the shoulder, the other with the lung. Lénine is taken along to its private apartment with the the Kremlin and refuses to venture at the hospital, fearing that other assassins do not await it there. The doctors judge too dangerous to extract the balls. Lénine survives and takes again its activity, but its health is fragile. Fanny Kaplan was carried out without judgment.
In March 1919, Lénine and other leaders Bolsheviks decide the creation of the Internationale Communist. It is the time of the secession with the movement Socialiste. As from this moment, the members of the International Communist, including Lénine and the Bolsheviks themselves, were known like the communist . In Russia, the party Bolshevik is renamed Russian Communist party (Bolshevik) which becomes finally PCUS in 1922. It is the only authorized party, the others are prohibited and their continued members.
In same time, of 1918 to 1920, the Russian Civil war and the “Communism of war” continues to make rage in all Russia. Very diverse political movements and their militants take the weapons to support or reverse the Soviet government. Foreign powers arm with the “white Armées” in order to reverse the capacity of the Soviets. In a situation of “besieged citadel”, the Communism of war is pitiless, as the war which gave him birth. Lénine shows for this period its great determination in the realization of its ideas, a sentence of Lénine became famous: “If it is necessary to kill 100 people of the people and that in these 100 people there is a " blanc" then it is a good thing”. The occupation of the Ukraine by the German armies and the blockade deprive Russia of corn. To face the famine and to nourish the cities, with court of means of payment, Lénine takes again the “requisitions” of the provisioning of the peasants, almost without compensation, founded under the Kerensky government, and stopped after October (the white armies must besides they also give up the free market and resort to the requisitions in the zones which they control). This spoliation leads the peasants to reduce their production dramatically, sometimes to support the enemies of the green “reds” armed white or “”. Sometimes, the detachments of requisition take all food, to seeds necessary to the sowing of the peasants who resist.
The civil war is particularly atrocious. The two camps resort to the taking of hostages, summary executions and punitive forwardings. Certain sources count 100 000 with 500 000 summary executions during the civil war. Some see in the prison camps the base of the future Gulag, organized as from 1929 per Stalin, others see there only the continuity of the prison camps used by all the belligerent countries. The camp of the Solovki islands accommodates for example with the whole beginning of the year 20 political opponents (anarchistic, mencheviks, sailors of Crondstad etc) artists, dissidents various.
Although many different factions are implied in this civil war, the two involved independent groups are the Red Army (Bolshevik) and the White (tsarists). The foreign powers such as the France, the the United Kingdom, the the United States and the Japan also intervene in this conflict (at the sides of the white). Finally, the Red Army takes the advantage in 1919, crushing its adversaries (like the anarchistic Ukrainians) and reducing the forces of white Russian and their allies to some pockets of resistance (which however perdurèrent during several years, in particular in Far East Russian).
With the end of the year 1919, the successes gained in Russia and the rising of the league Spartakiste in Germany create with the eyes of Lénine the ideal occasion of to probe Europe with the bayonets of the Red Army to extend the revolution towards the west, by the force. At the same time and to contain the Communists, the Western countries - convinced that the white forces would not carry it - support the will of the Second Polish republic, recently independent, to take again its Eastern territories, annexed by Russia at the time of the partition of Poland at the end of the 18th century. The Guerre polono-Soviet begins badly for the Poles who, underestimating the Red Army, are made initially étriller and to push back to Warsaw. Lénine saw Poland as the bridge which the Red Army should cross in order to establish the bond between the Russian Revolution and the communist partisans of Western Europe. But this vision encountered contradictory interests. France (with the general agreement) sends “modest” “a French military Mission” (of the “instructors” such as a certain captain de Gaulle, planes with their pilots, etc) which reverses the situation, allowing the Poles to fill their objectives. Lénine includes/understands the lesson and gives up (at least temporarily) the export of the revolution by average soldiers.
In March 1921, the Revolt of Kronstadt, rising armed with the sailors of the fortress to be able it of the Soviet S, for free elections and freedom of the press, and against the Bolsheviks, is repressed by the Red Army (which counts 10000 dead in its rows at the time of the attack). 2168 sailors were carried out, 1955 condemned to obligatory work and 1272 released.
Russia pays the tribute of these long years of war and most of the country is in ruin. Since all the efforts are not tended any more towards the war, pragmatic Lénine, , explains why under the pressure of the circumstances, the Communism of war was too quickly: to rebuild the country from nothing, a certain return to the free trade is temporarily necessary. In March 1921 is born the Nouvelle economic policy (NEP), which is characterized by a limited return of private capitalism.
In 1922, Lénine transforms the old Russian Empire into “Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics” (on a proposal from Stalin). But its declining health gradually reduced its activity.
The health of Lénine is already seriously threatened by the constraints of the revolution and the war. The attempted murder of 1918 comes to be added to its health issues. The ball is always placed in its neck, too near to the Spinal column so that one can try an operation with the medical techniques of the time. Lénine knows its first attacks in May 1922. It leaves it partially paralyzed (of its right-sided) and its role in the government decreases. Following a second attack, in December of the same year, it must be resigned to give up any political activity. In March 1923, the third attacks nails it with the bed and deprives it of the word.
Lénine dies on January 21st 1924.
The majority of the historians agree to consider that the cause of dead most probable is the attack caused by the ball placed in its nape of the neck following the attempted murder. The official cause of its death is a Artériosclérose or a fourth attack but, of the 27 doctors who intervene to look after it, eights only subscribes to this conclusion on the report/ratio of Autopsie. That leaves place for doubts and alternative theories.
Shortly after its death, of the indications concerning a Syphilis appear. That would not have anything very extraordinary, because a broad part of Russia at that time was reached by this disease. The body of Lénine does not show any typical visible lesion of the last phases of the disease. However, of the documents made public following the fall of the USSR, as well as the memories of the doctors of Lénine, suggest that it was treated for syphilis as of 1895. In 1923, the doctors of Lénine prescribe to him of Salvarsan, the only drug available at the time to treat syphilis, as well as potassium iodide, which was also of frequent use for the treatment of this affection.
The documents suggest moreover that one gave the order to Alexi Abrikosov, the pathologist in charge of the autopsy, to prove that Lénine had not died of syphilis. Abrikosov does not mention syphilis in the autopsy, but the second report/ratio of autopsy does not speak about any the bodies, of the main arteries or of the areas of the brain usually affected by syphilis, whereas the lesions with the vessels of the brain, the paralysis and some other affections which it mentions are typical of this disease.
Lastly, a posthumous diagnosis by two psychiatrists and a neurologist published in the European Journal off Neurology affirm to show that Lénine is deceased continuations of syphilis.
The town of Petrograd is famous “Leningrad” in its honor in January 1924 and preserves this name until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, date on which it finds its name of before 1914, Saint-Pétersbourg.
Following its first attack, Lénine had published several documents indicating the future recommendations for the government. It worried enormously on the capacity about a party, which it denounces as bureaucratized, to keep in mind the needs for the workers to the international level. Its last political act is to strongly criticize the brutality of Stalin, in two texts of December 25th, 1923 and of January 4th, 1924 called its political Legacy .
Of Stalin, which is then general secretary of the Communist party since April 1922, Lénine says that it has an unlimited capacity concentrated in its hands and suggests that the comrades consider a way of dislocating it of this station . The woman of Lénine discovers the document in the study of this one and reads it at the central committee which decides not to follow these recommendations and to keep the secret text. When the text is published abroad in 1926 by Communists dissenting (max Eastman and Boris Souvarine), the Russian leaders (Trotski included/understood, in the name of the unit of the party) denounce a “forgery”. The text will be recognized like authentic only in 1956 by Khrouchtchev, and will be published in the USSR only in 1987.
With the beginning of the year 1920, the Russian movement of Cosmisme is relatively popular and it is envisaged to preserve the body of cryogenic Lénine of manner in order to be able to give again life in the future to him. The equipment necessary is bought abroad but for various reasons, the project is not concluded. In the place, the body is embaumé and exposed publicly in a mausoleum on the red place to Moscow. Thing that Lénine wanted under no pretext, according to him they are not the men but the ideas which must be preserved. In spite of the will expressed by Lénine little before its death that no Mémorial is set up for him, various politicians (in particular Stalin to strike its capacity on the people) seek to improve their image by associating it with that of Lénine after its death. It is then high with a mythical statute quasi and the statues, monuments and memorials with its honor flower.
After the death of Lénine, the competition makes rage to collect legitimacy that its name brings. The terms “Leninism” and “Marxisme-léninisme” appear, the first being also asserted by the trotskists, the second only by the Stalinist ones (this “Marxism-Leninism” constituting the official doctrines of the USSR and its affiliated parties of the Komintern then Kominform). The “Marxism-Leninism”, term of official propaganda, is more usually called Stalinisme.
See also: Works and bibliography de/sur Lénine
To approach his thought, one can retain:
“Lénine” is a revolutionary pseudonym. It explained its choice publicly forever, which leaves the free field to all the theories. At that time, Georgui Plekhanov which had an important influence on Lénine used the pseudonym Volgine , according to the the Volga. But some saw in the choice of Lena, longer and running in the opposed direction, the sign of an opposition between Plekhanov and Lénine. There exist other theories concerning the origin of this name. During its exile with Chouchenskoïe, in Siberia, the Russian river nearest was the Ienisseï, not the Lena: it is thus not an evocation of its stay in this area.
One finds sometimes the name of “Nikolai Lénine”, although it was never known under this name in Russia.
The study of the brain of Lénine
The Cerveau of Lénine was taken before its body is embaumé. The Soviet government asked famous neuroscientific the Oskar Vogt to study it in order to precisely locate the cells responsible for sound Génie. The Institute of the brain was created in Moscow specifically to this end. Vogt published an article on the brain in 1929 in which it reports that some Neuron S pyramidal in the third layer of the cerebral Cortex of Lénine were particularly broad. However the conclusions concerning the bond between this observation and the genius were disputed. The work of Vogt was regarded as unsatisfactory by Soviet. Research was continued by the Soviet team but work concerning the brain of Lénine was not made public any more.
The contemporary anatomists do not believe any more that the morphology only can determine the operation of the brain.
|Random links:||Ptah-Sokar-Osiris | Men in Black (comics) | Henri Tissot | The Community of communes of Véziaux d' Aure | Syndrome of the banquet | Le_Japonais_knotweed|