The Kyrgyzstan or Kirghizstan or Kirghizie is a Pays of Central Asia. Extremely mountainous, populated originally by populations Wandering S, old republic of the the USSR, Kyrgyzstan is independent since the end of the latter, in 1991.
See also: History of Kyrgyzstan
The area corresponding to Kyrgyzstan was populated at the 15th century and 16th century by the Kyrgyz , Turkish wandering people originally located, 2000 years ago, in the North-East of the Mongolia and which would have initially moved towards the South of the Siberia between the 6th century and the 8th century, then towards the area of Touva until the 13th century. The Islam became the principal religion of the area about the 13th century; the majority of the Kirgiz are Moslems sunnites of the school hanafite.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the South of the territory fell under control from the Khanat de Kokand. It was formally incorporated in the Russian empire in 1876. The repression of several revolts pushed a certain number of inhabitants to emigrate towards the Afghanistan or the China.
In 1918, a Soviet was founded in the area and the Oblast autonomous Kara-Kyrgyz was created in 1924 within the the USSR. In 1926, it became the autonomous Soviet socialist Republic of Kirghizie. In 1936, the Soviet socialist Republic of Kirghizie was integrated like full member of the USSR.
At the time of the political upheavals which have occurred starting from the end of the year 1980 in Soviet Union, of the free elections were organized in the Kyrgyzstan in 1990 who transfers the victory of Askar Akaiev at the position of president in October of the same year. The country changed name and became the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in December 1990, while Frounzé, the capital, was renamed by its name pre-Soviet of Bichkek in February 1991.
After the failure of the coup d'etat to Moscow which marked the end of the USSR, Kyrgyzstan voted her independence of the USSR on August 31st, 1991. Kirghizie however adhered to the Communauté States independent at the end of the same year.
During following years, the capacity, always held by Askar Akaiev, became obviously increasingly authoritative. The recent legislative elections of February 27th and of March 13rd 2005 were denounced like fraudulent, particularly by the observers of SOEC. Disorders began towards the end of March which were transformed quickly in the South of the country into demonstrations calling with the resignation of the government into place. March 24th, 15.000 demonstrators in favor of the opposition come from the South from the country ran up against the police force to Bichkek and took by storm the building sheltering the presidency after rumors making state of the escape of president Akaiev out of the country. It is the “Révolution of the Tulips”.
The chiefs of the opposition established a temporary government and promised to set up quickly new elections in order to claim with a final legitimacy. The internal struggles with the opposition were regulated quickly, Kourmanbek Bakiev taking the positions of president and of Prime Minister.
Kourmanbek Bakiev then gained the presidential election organized three months after the popular rising which caused the escape of the former president, Askar Akaïev.
See also: Political of Kyrgyzstan
The Constitution of 1993 defines the political statute of the country like a democratic République . The Executive power is composed of a president and a Prime Minister. The Legislative power is bicameral. The judicial Power is composed of a Supreme court, of a Constitutional court, course local and of a general Procureur.
In March 2002, disorders burst in the district of Aksy at the time of demonstrations asking for the release of an political opponent. The repression ordered by the Prime Minister Kourmanbek Bakiev kills six people. A little later president Akaiev accepts the resignation of Bakiev of his functions and replaces it by Nikolaï Tanaiev. President Askar Akaiev lance then constitutional reform, to which was invited the opposition and the civil society, which is concluded in February 2003 by a referendum, probably irregular. The amendments with the constitution transformed inter alia the bicameral Parliament into a Parliament unicaméral of 75 seats as from the elections of February 2005.
After the events known under the name of “ Revolution of the tulips ” which followed these elections, the temporary government promised to develop new political structures and to regulate certain constitutional problems. The compulsory resignation of old the president Askar Akaïev was accepted by the Kyrgyz Parliament the April 11th 2005. This decision allowed a new presidential election the July 10th 2005, which saw the victory of the president by Bakiev interim. The new government, under the presidency of Felix Koulov, is definitively made up in September 2005.
One year after the events of March 2005, a new opposition was structured to require the implementation of reform announced at the conclusion of the “revolution of the Tulips”. It joins together old allies of Bakiev and former partisans of Akaev.
At the beginning of November 2006 the Kyrgyz opposition expresses on the central place of Bichkek to claim a constitutional reform reducing competences of president Kourmanbek Bakiev, shown Népotisme and of Corruption. She claims, moreover, the independence of the company of radiotelevision, and the dismissal of several high ranking officials. The opponents and the faithful ones of president Kourmanbek Bakiev finally arrived to a compromise on the reform of the Constitution which would return the institutions of the more democratic countries. Signed on November 9th, 2006 by president Bakiev, the new constitution founds a presidential and parliamentary republic. The Parliament, composed of 90 seats, will be able to approve the government, whose Prime Minister will be named by the victorious party with the elections, with the agreement of the president.
However, as of on December 30th, 2006, with the favor of the institutional crisis opened by the resignation of the government of Mr. Felix Kulov, the president obtained deputies the vote of a new version of the constitution returning several of the conceded capacities to him in November.
January 29th, 2007, the Parliament approves the nomination by president Bakiev of Mr. Azim Issabekov, ex-minister of agriculture in the Kulov government, at the post of Prime Minister.
March 29th, 2007, the Prime Minister Azim Issabekov gives his resignation, the president Kirgiz having refused to dismiss seven people of the government with an aim of replacing them by members of the opposition. Its substitute is Almaz Atambaev, one of the representatives of the movement of opposition Za reformy (For the reforms).
See also: Subdivisions of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan is divided into 7 areas oblastary (in the singular, oblasty ) and a city ( shaary ). Their center administrative generally bear the same name (the exceptions are noted between brackets in the list below):
- Batken oblasty
- Tchoui oblasty (Bichkek)
- Jalal-Abad oblasty
- Naryn oblasty
- Och oblasty
- Catholic students oblasty
- Yssik Koul oblasty (Karakol)
Each oblasty divided into districts ( raion ), is managed by the official ones named by the government. The rural communities ( aiyl okmotu ), made up with more than twenty villages, have their own mayors and elected councils.
See also: Geography of Kyrgyzstan
Kirghizstan is a country of Central Asia, framed by the China in the East and South-east, the Kazakhstan in North, the Ouzbékistan in the West and the Tadjikistan in south-west. Of a surface of 198.500 km ², the country is completely wedged and does not have an access to the sea.
The country is almost completely mountainous; in the east, the chain of the Tien Shan mark the border with China and culminates to 7.439 with the Pic Pobedy (Russian Victoire in ), which is the culminating point of the country besides. In the West, the chains of Fergana (in North) and Pamir Alay (in the South) take out of clipper the Vallée of Fergana (common to Kirghizstan, Ouzbékistan and Tadjikistan). The chain of Pamir Alay culminates with the Pic Lénine to 7.134 Mr.
These mountainous areas divide the country into two, North and the South; these two parts do not state that by collars located at least at 2.700 m of altitude.
The valley of Fergana is in particular the receptacle of the powerful Naryn river, which crosses the totality of the country since the heights of the Tian Shan to the North-East of the country. Passed in Ouzbékistan, the river becomes the Syr Daria, one of the two principal feeder rivers of the Central Asia.
The cities of Kyrgyzstan are located in the lowest zones of the country. In North, the capital Bichkek is all the same to 800 m of altitude. In South-west, the other hearth of settlement in the valley of Fergana, one finds the towns of Och and Jalal-Abad, as well as the point low of Kyrgyzstan, the valley of Kara-Darya, to 132 m of altitude.
In the East, the lake Yssik Koul form a small inland sea of 6.332 km ² to 1.620 m of altitude, the second plus big lake of mountain of the world (after the Lake Titicaca). Deep of 702 m, the lake is slightly salted and does not freeze in winter.
Kyrgyzstan has 3.878 km of borders, distributed as follows:
See also: Economy of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan remains a rather poor country, whose economy is primarily turned towards agriculture. Right before the fall of the the USSR in 1991, 98% of exports of Kyrgyzstan were intended for the Soviet Union; the collapse of the latter considerably slowed down the production of the country to the beginning of the year 1990. Important reforms were undertaken which made certainly it possible to improve the economic performance of the country during the last years (Kyrgyzstan was the first republic of the old Soviet block to being allowed with the World Trade organization in December 1998), but its incomes are still not constant and poverty remains very present.
Agriculture is the principal branch of industry of the country, employing in 2002 half of the population and producing 35,6 % of GDP. Kyrgyzstan is mountainous and agrees with the cattle breeding, the agricultural main activity. The dominant cultures include the Blé, the Sucre of beet, the Coton, the Tabac, the Légume S and the Fruit S; to a lesser extent, the Wool, the Meat and the old Milk.
Kyrgyzstan exports mainly mineral metals non-ferrous and , manufactured goods teases some and agricultural, of electrical energy and some other goods. The first source of currency is the production of gold of the kirghizo-Canadian mine of Kumtor, whose activity accounts for approximately 10% of the GDP. Its imports comprise Pétrole, Natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, the majority of its tools and machines, Bois, Papier, a little food products and construction materials. Its principal business partners are the China, the Russia, the Kazakhstan, the the United States, the Ouzbékistan and the Germany.
GDP: 1603 million US$
- Growth: 7,1% in 2004.
- average Monthly salary: 66 USD in 2006
- legal minimum Monthly salary: 7,5 USD in 2006
- 2/3 of the population live in poverty.
See also: Demography of Kyrgyzstan
In 2007, the population of Kyrgyzstan was estimated at 5.218.000 inhabitants. In 2004,34,4 % having less than 15 years and 6,2 % more than 65. The country is rural with 66,1 %, for a rather low Population density of 29 inhabitants per km ². The capital, Bichkek, account officially 589.000 inhabitants, for which it is undoubtedly advisable to add many seasonal workers, as well as illegal occupants of ground not indexed in the statistics.
69,5 % of the population is of Kyrgyz origin, a Turkish ethnicity presenting Mongolian influences and Chinese and being historically made up seminomad shepherds. The greatest minority is that of the ouzbèkes (14,5 % of the population), mainly located in the South, followed by the people of Russian origin (9,0 %, primarily in North), Doungane (1,2 %), ouïghour (1,1 %), tadjike (1,1 %), Turkish (0,9 %), Kazakh (0,7 %), Ukrainian (0,5 %) and Korea (0,3 %). There also exists of small communities of German origin .
Population (2003, src: The World Bank of the statistical institutes) : 5 million inhabitants
Life expectancy (2003 src: The World Bank of the statistical institutes) : 68,6 years
Row IDH : 110e world in 2006
Birthrate (2006, src: National committee of the statistics) : 23 per 1000 inhabitants
Mortality (2006, src: National committee of the statistics) : 7,4 per 1000 inhabitants
Migratory balance (2006, src: National committee of the statistics) : - 30.000
Rate of elimination of illiteracy of the adults (2001) : 97%
rough National revenue per capita in dollars (2003, are.) : 340
- 75 % of sunnites (Islam), 20 % the Orthodoxe ones (Christian).
- 97 % of elimination of illiteracy.
- 72 years of life expectancy for the women, 65 for the men.
- 1/3 of the population to less than 15 years.
- 34,4 % live downtown.
See also: Culture of Kyrgyzstan
Traditionally Wandering people , the Kirgiz remains attached to these traditions. They include/understand in particular the craft industries related on the manufacture and the decoration of the Yourte, made thick felt fabrics. The horse occupies a great place in art, the imaginary one and the collective symbolic system. Thus the " Kok borou" and l'" Oulak tartysh", two alternatives of the equestrian play of the " goat écorché" , remained very popular sports.
The epopee and the impromptu melody poem, are the artistic expressions par excellence. This last is accompanied by means of an instrument with 3 cords, the komouz, and can be the subject of tournaments between 2 speakers, the " aïtysh". The epopee " Manas ", phenomenon literary by its volume and its emphase, transmitted and enriched over several centuries by the oral tradition, makes the pride of people which currently know a process of reappropriation of his historical and mythological roots.
The seminomad pastoralism is still respected in many places, while the freedom which it implies has an impact on mentalities of the country.
The principal religion is the Islam sunnite, of the school hanafite. But the Moslem religious practice is also marked by the influences of the Chamanisme, existing before with Islam, and of the Soufisme, whose missionaries played a great part in the Islamization of the area.
The language Kyrgyz belongs to the group of the Turkish Langues. In 1924, an alphabet based on the Arabic alphabet was introduced, replaced by the Latin alphabet in 1928. In 1941, the Cyrillic alphabet was definitively adopted.
In second half of the 20th century, Kirghizstan was illustrated by a nourished poetic cinema of clearness and rigor of the Soviet schools. The large last scenario writers are Tolomouch Okeev and Bolotbek Chamchiev. Since independence, it is advisable to quote before all the trilogy of Aktan Arym Kubat (or Aktan Abdykalikov) made up of the films " Selkinchek" , " Beshkempir" (The adoptive Son) and " Maimyl" (the Monkey).
In the field of the written literature, the figure is detached from Tchinguiz Aïtmatov, author of many books, translated into several languages, in particular " Jamilia" , " The first maître" , " It was a white navire" , " One day longer than a siècle" and " Dreams of the louve".
TourismKirghizstan constitutes a destination still little practiced, but very appreciated for tourism of adventure and nature: Alpinism, Héliski, Trekking, excursions with horse, Rafting, drives out.
The principal objects presenting a tourist attraction are:
the lake Yssik Koul to 1600 m in the east;
- the lake of high mountain Its Koul E 3000 m, area of Naryn;
- the glacier Inylchec and the tops Peak Pobedy (Russian Victoire in ) with 7.439 m and Khan-Tengri to 7010 m, the Chinese borders and kazakhes;
- the Peak Lénine to 7134 m, the border with the Tadjikistan;
- the site of the caravanserai of Tach Folds back 3200 Mr., area of Naryn;
- the greatest site of Petroglyph S of Central Asia of Saïmaly-Tach, near Kazarman, area of Jalal-Abad;
- the village of Arslanbob, in the middle of the single main forest made up of walnut trees, area of Jalal-Abad;
- towns of Ouzgen and Och, in the south of the country.
- Burana, archeological site, old capital of Central Asia, remains the minaret and foundations of mausoleums, close to Tokmak
- the Lake Merzbacher, lake of glacier emptying 2 to 4 times per year
- Syrthes (high plateaus, from 3500 Mr. of altitude), starting from the east towards the west: Syrthe Sary Jaz, Syrthe Ak-Shirak, Syrthe Ak-Sai
- the throat of Konorchek (oblast of Issyk Kul)
- the canyon of Kekemeren (oblast of Naryn)
CodesKyrgyzstan has as codes:
- EX, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- KG, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- KG, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- KGZ, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha 3,
- KGZ, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- KGZ, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3
- KS, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- UA, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- Cities of Kyrgyzstan
- a site of information on Kyrgyzstan
- Embassy of Kyrgyzstan in the United States and Canada
- Site of the World Bank in Kyrgyzstan
- Site of the equestrian festival At Chabysh in Kyrgyzstan
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