Kyōto (ja [[wikt: 京京]] [[wikt: 都都]] reads. “capital city”) is a Japanese city which was of 794 with 1868 the imperial capital of the Japan. It is today the capital of the Préfecture of Kyōto like one of the big cities of the metropolitan zone Ōsaka - Kōbe - Kyōto. Its population is of 1,46 million inhabitants (estimates 2005) and is in the time zone UTC +9 hours, that is to say 7 or 8:00 moreover than Paris following the winter or summer-time.
Although archaeological evidence makes it possible to affirm that the first men pressed the grounds of the islands of Japan as of 10.000 years before JC, the area of Kyōto was not populated that as from the 7th century by the Hata clan come from Korea. During the 8th century, wanting to move away from the influence of the Buddhist clergy within the imperial government, the Emperor made the decision to move the capital since current the Nara towards an area distant from this influence.
The new city, Heiankyō (reads. “the capital of Peace”) became the seat of the imperial court in 794. Later, the city was renamed Kyōto (“the capital city”). Kyōto remained the imperial capital of the Japan until the transfer of residence of the Emperor to Edo in 1868, at the time of the Restoration Meiji. Edo was already the capital administrative and commercial country, like sits of the shōgunat Tokugawa. After Edo was renamed Tōkyō (meaning “the capital of the east”), Kyōto was known little of time under the name of Saikyō (“the capital of the west”).
Saved by the bombardments of the Second world war, Kyōto escaped from little from the atomic destruction; indeed the city appeared at the head of the targets indicated by the committee of the objectives. The city was finally rejected following the intervention of advisers, of which French Serge Elisseeff, who knew the cultural richness of the city and estimated that its destruction would be a serious obstacle with a later reconciliation with Japan. (see atomic Bombardments of Hiroshima and Nagasaki)
It should be noted that the historic buildings of old Kyōto (towns of Kyōto, Uji and Ōtsu) were registered with the world heritage of UNESCO in 1994.
In 1997, Kyōto accommodated the conference which gave rise to the Protocole of Kyōto.
Located at the center of the western portion of the island of Honshū, the city is surrounded by mountains, which return particularly the nights of summer choking.
The city was drawn according to a reason for grid in agreement with the Chinese tradition of Géomancie . Today, the principal districts of businesses are located at the south and the center of the city, while north and Arashiyama in the west, is less populated surfaces with the green atmosphere.
Kyōto is divided into 11 districts/districts (区): Fushimi-ku (伏見区), Higashiyama-ku (東山区), Kamigyō-ku (上京区), Kita-ku (北区), Minami-ku (南区), Nakagyō-ku (中京区), Nishikyō-ku (西京区), Sakyō-ku (左京区), Shimogyō-ku (下京区), Ukyō-ku (右京区) and Yamashina-ku (山科区). They are municipal divisions having a municipal office but are not, as it is the case with Tōkyō directed by a council.
In 2005, the population was estimated at 1.466.321 inhabitants and the city extended on 610,22 km ². That is to say a density of 2403 inhabitants per km ². There are 638.490 hearths. Approximately 10% of the population of the city east coed.
With its 2000 temples, its palates, its gardens Zen, its architecture, Kyōto are regarded as it arts center of Japan. Many temples of Kyōto are classified in world heritage UNESCO, under the name “Historic buildings of old Kyōto (towns of Kyōto, Uji and Otsu)”.
Kyōto is also known for the abundance of its delicious foodstuffs. The history of Kyōto allows the culture of a large variety of vegetables.
The population of Kyōto speaks a Dialecte called the kyōto-Ben, a version of the Kansai-Ben. But there exist also catchwords of certain districts and the kyōto-Ben is often compared to the dialect used in the famous district of Gion, by the Geisha S in particular.
Kyōto is known like one of the important university centres of the country, and accommodates 37 establishments of higher education. Important the Université of Kyōto constitutes one of the best universities in Japan and in Asia, several of its researchers obtained the Nobel Prize. Two others, are also very famous: (Ritsumeikan (立命館大学)), ([[Doshisha] (同志社大学))]. One can also quote (Kyōto Sangyou (京都産業大学)), or (Bukkyo 佛教大学). Kyōto also has an important network of higher education called the consortium of the universities of Kyōto, which is composed of three national establishments, five public (prefectoral and municipal), and 41 private universities.
The students represent approximately 10 % of its population.
In Philosophy, Kitarō Nishida (1870 - 1945) was the founder of the École of Kyōto, a current of Japanese Philosophie, which sought to marry Western philosophy with the spirituality resulting from the traditions Far-Eastern, and continued by many disciples of which Hajime Tanabe.
Tourism constitutes an important share of the saving in Kyōto. The city enjoys indeed many cultural heritages, constantly visited by the Japanese school complexes and the foreign tourists.
The industry of Kyōto is mainly made up of small installations, the majority whose are managed by Japanese traditional craftsmen. The Kimono S of Kyōto are particularly recognized and the city remains the first center of manufacture of Japanese kimonos. However, such companies start to decline today, per hour when the sales of traditional goods stagnate.
The only big industry of Kyōto is that of electronics. The city accommodates indeed the seats of Nintendo, Omron Corporation, Kyocera (Kyoto Ceramics), Murata Manufacturing, the giant of the textile Wacoal Corporation as well as the manufacturer of Daihatsu cars. Nevertheless, although industry high-tech knows a certain growth, the decline of tradionnelle industry is not balanced. It has resulted from it that the aggregate output from the east city in relative decline in comparison with other cities for several years.
Means of transport
The international airport of Kansai is at 80 minutes in the train of Kyōto by the line " Haruka" company Japan Rail. Many visitors arrive at Kyōto since Tōkyō, by the means of the Shinkansen. The rail networks being very developed in Japan, it is possible to move between Ōsaka, Kobe and Kyōto by using one of these three principal companies: the West Japan Rail (old public company), the Hankyu (阪急) and the Keihan (京阪) (note that the characters kei (京) and han (阪) refers to Kyōto (京都) and Ōsaka (大阪)).
The station of Kyōto is with it only a monument which it is interesting to visit. It makes also function of shopping mall, hotel, comprises many restaurants and proposes a sight on the city since the top of the eleven stages.
The public grid system is rather wide and makes it possible to easily discover the many temples and sanctuaries which account the city. There are two lines of Métro laid out in cross, cutting the city in the North-South and East-West directions, and of many lines of Bus exploited by several different companies. A way of drunk inside the city costs 220 Yen S while a fixed price allowing an unlimited number of ways in a given perimeter costs, by using the most current company of bus, 500 yens for one day. It is possible to reach easily in the bicycle, available to the hiring, the majority of the tourist sites of the city. Various hikes are also proposed to the visitors who want to visit has foot various districts of the city.
- Gion Matsuri
- Jidai Matsuri - during which all old the corporation of the city ravel in behavior of time
- Gozan Okuribi
- : it is acted in fact of a " partnership of amitié".
Famous charactersIn Kyōto were born or died:
- Teinosuke Kinugasa 衣笠貞之助 (1896 - 1982), realizer
- Hideki Yukawa 湯川秀樹 1907 - September 8th 1981) was a Physicien Japan board, which received the Nobel Prize of physics in 1949 for its research in the theory of the elementary particles. He was first Japanese to receive a Nobel Prize. He was not born in Kyōto, but he is citizen of honor of the city.
- Soushitsu SEN 千宗室 1956 -) schoolmaster of ceremony of the, Ura senke 裏千家
- Daisuke Matsui 松井大輔 (1981 -), footballer (Mans, Leagues 1 Frenchwoman)
Proverbs of Kyōto
- “Throws a stone randomly, you wound a professor”
- “the inhabitants of Kyōto are ruined to get dressed” 京の着倒れ (it is a proverb which is opposed to that of Ōsaka: “The inhabitants of Ōsaka ruin themselves to eat” 大阪の食い倒れ
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