See also: Kung fu (homonymy)
The kung fu (confined some) or gong fu in Mandarin (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is the name given in occident to Chinese boxings.
Origin and significance of the term
The term was introduced in Europe into the years 1970 to indicate Chinese films of martial arts. The term “ Kung Fu ” sounded better phonetic and mnemotechnical point of view with the ear of the Westerners. The " terms; gong" and " fu" translated literally and separately have very an other significance that " arts martiaux" Chinese. " Gong" indicate the “control”, the " perfectionnement" or the " possession of a métier". The term is to be brought closer from a semantic point of view of the concept of craftsman such as it was used in Europe at the 19th century: this term designated the expert which by a training near a Master acquired cultures, techniques and know-how. " Fu" indicate the techniques as contents. One can thus say somebody whom it has the " gong fu" in gastronomy, or the " gong fu" in painting, or the " gong fu" in music, etc the term righter to qualify Chinese martial arts is Wushu . The expression " wushu gong fu" indicate " control of martial art chinois". In Chinese, several terms indicate martial arts: zhong guo gong fu (zhōngguó gōngfu) to indicate national martial arts.
StylesThere exist innumerable styles of Chinese martial arts (many is not indexed yet). By convenience, since the end of the 19th century, one classifies them in “way Externe” (waijia), and “sees Intern” (neijia).
The most simplistic design in Europe consists in considering that the external styles use the physical force and speed like principles of drive and the styles Interns the control of breathing, relaxation and slowness to guide energy (IQ). This design rests on the one hand on a knowledge of the Interns styles which stops in Taiji, style yang popularized in China after 1956 (Taiji with therapeutic function), on the other hand with the ignorance of the other styles Interns Shunshi quan , xingyi quan , Bagua zhang , liuhebafa quan , and finally with martial dimensions of these styles. This erroneous design also rests on the ignorance of the IQ gong clean to each Externe style. The popularity of this distinction is undoubtedly to bring closer to the desire to intellectualize a body practice by concepts not belonging to the scientific disciplines but to the médico-monk fields.
The distinction between intern and external is not recognized in China by certain Masters and schools of the traditional styles.
See also: Contenu= ''' to consult the list of External” and “Internal” styles the “, to see [[wushu]].
The styles were built on hundreds of years, some disappeared ( CAM quan , fan quan , etc) and are found like systems incorporated in more recent styles. Old styles changed to adapt to confrontation with the other styles, others were created recently throughout the 20th century under the impulse of the institutes and academies of the sports. The majority of the current styles are styles of synthesis. This is why in the designation of the styles we indicate the generic term which indicates the whole of the related styles (for example Tang Lang quan ); and then the singular name of the style ( taiji tanglang quan , meiha tanglang quan , etc) Several components are with work in the construction and the development of the styles:
pragmatism: the styles are confronted with their effectiveness in singular combat (meets, competition) and on the battle fields. Other parameters: the age of the practitioner (what effectiveness of a style which one cannot practice any more after 30 years?), physical capacities, climate, health, etc,
- practices: of art of combat worked out on the battle fields which techniques of weapons, processes with naked hand or techniques of body with body (fight) were bound with the styles.
History of the “Kung fu”The origin of Chinese martial arts is sifted legends, each style having often developed its own legend. These legends are not to take for “historical realities” but as the metaphorical transpositions, in symbolisms specific to China, myth of the origins and myth of the superman.
The Wushu was exported with the liking of the invasions or the diaspora Chinese towards the Korea, the Vietnam (occupied during 6 centuries by the Chinese), the Filipino , the Malaysia, the Japan, via the island of Okinawa, which was a long time Chinese. With Japan, various styles of karate-dō ( kong shou CAD in Chinese, way of the naked hand), or the kobudo , derive from the Chinese styles.
In Occident, Chinese martial art is not only perceived as a boxing, but also a philosophy, a manner of being and of thinking, a medicine (in particular via IQ gong), a profession and even a religion. It is true that the various styles were built by borrowing from the religions their concepts, their practices and their cosmologies.
- Little story of Conservatory Wushu
- of Chinese Martial arts
- Swiss Association of Kung fu Liuhemen
- Genevese Academy of Kung fu
- Daojia - Chinese Martial arts and taoism
- Wing Tsun Kung fu
- Teaching and history of Cha quan
- Association Kung fu development
- School of Wushu Yang
- Kung Fu Mandchou
- Belgian Mante: Kung Fu IQ Xing Tang Lang Quan
- Dahara - tradition taoist of You IEN Ti of the mounts Kun-Lun
- Site of the Federation of Wushu and Sanda
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