Ksar to el-Kébir
Ksar to el-Kébir , in Arab rear RTL القصرالكبير sometimes transcribed Al-Qasr Al-Kabir , Alcazarquivir (in Spanish) or Alcácer-Quibir (in Portuguese) is a city of the Morocco, located in the area of Tangier-Tetouan at the north of Morocco. It counts 100.000 inhabitants, the Qasri .
The name of the city means in Arab large palace or large fortress . Locally, this name is usually shortened out of Al-Ksar or Al-Qsar.
History" Large the citadelle" oldest of the Morocco, a big step of the road of Almohades. The medieval texts allot the urbanization and the fortification Ksar to el-Kébir (known in the past under the names of Ksar Ketama, Ksar Sanhaja, etc), with the caliphs almohades. At all times, Ksar to el-Kébir accommodated scholars, mystics, refugees of Al-Andalus and Algarve. Ibn Ghalib, originating in Silves, settles there and made there come several disciples from Ibn Al-Arif, large mystical of Alméria. With its death (between 1177 and 1183), Ibn Ghalib is declared Saint-Owner of the city; Fatima Al-Andalusiyya, another mystic originating in Algarve, are regarded as second holy Ksar to el-Kébir.
After the Christian reconquest, the inhabitants of Santarem, Evora, Alcacer de Sal and Silves find refuge there.
It is famous because of the Bataille of the Three Kings close to the El-Makhazen wadi, which took place in the vicinity the August 4th 1578. This battle is known as of the Three Kings because the king of the Portugal, Sebastien Ier of Portugal, combined with Mohamed Al-Moutawakil, ex-king and claiming with the throne of Morocco, tried to reverse the sultan of Morocco, Abu Marwan Abd Al-Malik. Riders of the sultan to the number of 40 000 destroyed the Iberian troops. Abd el-Malik, Mohamed Al-Moutawakil and Sebastien are killed. The body of king de Portugal will never be found. Philippe II of Spain takes possession of the Portugal, while the brother of the sultan Ahmed Al-Mansur Saadi goes up on the throne of the sherifs.
Large combat at the 16th century(about 1500 - 1557). Moroccan sultan (1549-1557), founder of the dynasty of Saadiens. Wire of a sherif of Under, it was indicated, at the side of his brother Abou-L-Abbas Ahmed Al-A' radj, as war leader against the Portuguese. After the death of their father, Mohammed and her brother seized Taroudant (1523) and were established in Marrakech like vassal of the sultan ouattasside of Fès. By a series of victorious operations, the two brothers managed to seize several counters establish by the Portuguese: Agadir (1541), Safi and Azemmour (1542). After Ahmed had withdrawn himself in Tafilalet, Mohammed, haloed these victories, turned himself against Ouattassides, crushed the army of the sultan and seized Fès where it founded the dynasty of Saadiens. Skilful policy, it could contain the attempts at expansion of the Othomans by negotiating with Spain an unforeseen alliance. He died assassinated by sicaires Turkish from Algeria. Mohammed Al-Moutawakkil (about 1550 - Alcazarquivir to el-Kébir, 1578). Sultan saadien of Morocco (1574-1576). Governor of Fès, he became sultan with dead of his father, and endeavoured to develop the economy of the country, in particular by encouraging the trade of gold and the slaves with Sudan. Détrôné by his/her uncle Abd Al-Malik, it sought the support of Sebastien, king of Portugal, n the other hand of the transfer of the Atlantic littoral. It found death, at the same time as Sebastien and Abd Al-Malik, in the battle of Alcazarquivir (1578). Mohammed II
History at the 20th centuryThese economic privileges were accompanied by the appearance of feudal capacities (Glaoua, Goundafa…) often playing a double game and contributing to the weakening of the sultanate which mined of the quarrels of succession and the violent revolts against the foreign nationals while the country became the closed field of the European competitions. In 1902, Italy recognized Morocco like zone of French influence, in exchange of Tripolitaine (current Libya); in 1904, England gave up its claims for little that one leaves him the freehands in Egypt. Spain, finally, recognized French hegemony in exchange of two zones which she regarded as historically his: the Mediterranean coast in North, around chair of Ceuta and Melilla; and on the Atlantic a territory located at the south of Agadir. These arrangements had the gift to irritate Guillaume II who recognized in Tangier, in 1905, the principle of the sovereignty of the sultan and started a crisis which failed to cause a European war and ends up leading to the conference of Algeciras which placed Morocco under an international protectorate whose France and Spain were the guarantors. A popular revolt served as a pretext for a French military intervention with the catch of Oujda (1907) then the conquest of Eastern Morocco (1908) while a force hispano-Frenchwoman occupied Casablanca. After a war with the Riffian ones, the Spaniards seized Larache, Asilha and Ksar-el-Kébir. The abandonment of the German claims in exchange of Congo then made it possible to the French to invest the major part of Morocco and, on March 30th, 1912, the treaty of Fès devoted their protectorate on most of the country; an additional convention instituted in November Spanish protectorate, while maintaining the principle of the unit of the country under the theoretical sovereignty of the sultan.
- Stefan Helders, World Gazetter , '' Ksar to el-Kébir ''
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc., '' Ksar to el-Kébir ''
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