Kliper is a project of future Russian Space shuttle , initially designed to replace the Soyuz. After the withdrawal of the space shuttles of the the United States in 2010, the Russian vessels Kliper and Soyuz will be the only ones to carry the human ones towards the International space station (ISS), until the arrival of the Orion (CEV) of the United States.
The sources diverge, it was initially announced at the time of the living room Farnborough in 2006, that Roskosmos announced the cancellation of the program. However according to other sources the future of the program is not yet defined, the Group of space constructions RKK Energia présenteant at the Russian Space agency (Roscosmos) a project altered of the recoverable spaceship Kliper at the end of 2007.
The Russian space agency RosaviaKosmos started to work on the Kliper project since 2000, and bases itself on former searchs for space freight vehicle dating from the Années 1990. It is designed to replace the Soyuz, which exists in various versions since 1967.
A model life size was presented to the aeronautical Salon Maks 2005 by its manufacturer, RKK Energia.
FinancingIn February 2004, the Kliper project was included in the Russian Space program for the years 2005-2015, in big rise (budget increased by 26% in 2005, then of 6% per annum then). The first launching is announced for 2012 and the operational phase after 2015.
The model of Kliper was in round In 2005 in Europe and Asia, in order to find partners interested by a participation in the financing or a Co-development of the shuttle. The Russian agency is particularly applicant of a collaboration with the European space agency (ESA), which has become its principal partner for a few years. With the Paris airshow, the ESA had announced besides its interest for the project which was however not adopted during the last meeting at the ministerial level.
The Russian agency always sought nevertheless other co-operations or financings, in particular near the Japan, and stated that it would accept all proposals, except NASA, which carries a competitor project, the CEV. Russia had announced its intention to develop only Kliper if no partner is found.
The budget estimated by the Russian agency in 2004 was of 10 billion roubles, that is to say approximately 280 million euros. This estimate appears largely optimistic, the '' Guardian '', being based on the similar costs of programs, advances a figure which appears righter to him of 3 billion dollars for the design and the construction of Kliper until 2015, including 1,8 billion coming from Europe. Dw-world.de advances summons it to him of a billion and half of euros.
The Russian space budget voted for the years 2006 to 2015 is of 305 billion roubles (either a little more than 8 billion euros).
Specifications of the shuttleKliper is a 10 meters length spaceship for a diameter of approximately 3 meters and conceived to remain in orbit approximately 10 days.
Its mass with launching is of 14,5 tons and would have been able to transport 2 pilots and to 4 passengers or, for the version cargo liner, 2 pilots and up to 700 kg of payload. It is designed to carry out up to 25 rotations between the ISS and the Ground.
Just like the Space shuttle Bourane, it not-will be controlled and will fly in automatic flight. A version controllable was however planned for 2012. It would have functioned in.liaison.with European SRV.
StructureThe design of Kliper tries to solve the known problems of any space engine.
The Soyuz is a spherical orbital module, used like kitchen and medical, above the module of return. It is equipped with a hopper below the device mooring. It was conceived to be able to leave a Space station in urgency, on a curved trajectory, or right-hand side in normal weather.
Kliper has the orbital module below the module of return, and the device of mooring is located below. This is possible thanks to the higher width of the module of return, which makes it possible to adapt nozzles of rocket which are used for the mooring. No vessel of the United States forever had comparable equipment, except the module of mooring Apollo - Soyuz.
In connection with this new design, Kliper will have a back-up system in the course of launching, which will make it possible to separate the module from the rocket in the event of problem. This unhooking will be possible with each phase of launching, except during the first second of takeoff.
Profiles of the missionsKliper was to be used as module of return to earth, orbital module, module of propulsion of the ISS.
LaunchingThe first launching (a trial flight) pourait to take place in 2010 since the Cosmodrome de Baïkonour, but also since the Cosmodrome de Plesetsk, where the construction of a specific launching pad would be been necessary. Lastly, it was not excluded that the machine is also launched since the Guianese Space center (CSG).
Cancellation of the programRumors give a report on a cancellation of the program by the Russian space agency Roskosmos in July 2006 at the time of the aeronautical Salon of Farnborough. However sources leave think that no decision was made and that in the actual position of the things it is advisable to remain careful on the future of the program. The advertisement of a cancellation, would indicate a change of orientation, Russia being focused on a co-operation with Europe by the means of the program recently announced Advanced Crew Transportation System (ACTS) famous then Crew Space Transportation System (CSTS).
- Consequence of the participation of Space Europe in the program and many images and diagrams
- Russian Space Web: Kliper
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