Kinshasa , old Léopoldville , of the name of the king Léopold II of Belgium, is the Capitale and more the big city of the Democratic republic of Congo (DRC). It has at the same time the administrative statute of city and province.
Located on southern bank of the river Congo at the level of the Pool Malebo, it faces the capital of the République of Congo, Brazzaville. It is the city - the most populated province country with a population of: 8096254 inhabitants, and: 9343416 for the agglomeration Kinshasa- Brazzaville, it is also more the big city of sub-Saharan Africa and the second agglomeration of sub-Saharan Africa behind that of Lagos.
General informationKinshasa forms an administrative entity with particular status and plays the part of administrative, economic and cultural center of the Democratic republic of Congo. She extends on more 30 km of the east in the west and on more 15 km of north in the south. Its inhabitants is called Kinois.
An important part of the surface of the area of Kinshasa rural, is covered of a grassy savanna strewn with shrubs. The rural district of Maluku, the oriental party of the province, only occupies with it 79 % of the territory. In fact, it is a town of important contrasts, with residential and commercial sectors smart, formless universities, and slums coexisting side by side, and thus also of vast “rural” zones sometimes invading the city at the point to find market-gardening and breedings downtown.
Downtown area, the commune of Gombe account several building S of more than 50 m of which in particular the Gécamines Building, the Sozacom Building, the Hotel Memling, Building CICC or the Building RTNC (located him at Kabinda). Near the Central station of Kinshasa, at the end is Boulevard of June 30th, is in addition the impressive building of the ministry for transport, built by the Chinese.
HistoryCentral Africa has traces of human occupation going back to the first millenium before our era. The centuries preceding colonization see people bantous settling in the area of the means and low Congo, previously exclusively occupied by the Pygmy S. Différentes tribes and people compose the new population. On the level of the Pool Malebo, Tio (or Téké) populates Right Bank (northern) river and people compared to Téké (Humbu and Mfinu) populate left bank (southern). The area sees the draft of slave and the trade of ivory enriched the téké people, then set up in kingdom.
As of 16th or 17th century, the area of the Pool becomes a true turntable between the basin of the river and the coastal regions. Vegetables of Americas are also introduced inside the continent thanks to the trade and the slaves (generally of overcome in various conflicts) leave towards Loango, the mouth of the river and with the South of the kingdom kongo. The Bobangi S, sometimes called Bangala (people of the river), occupied major the part of the trade with the equatorial area by sailing the river and its rivers to the Téké villages of the Pool.
During fishermen and especially of the tradesmen téké come from north markets and villages in the south of the Malebo Pool install and on the plate which one will name later the plate of Batéké . These villages are colonies because Téké are limited to fishing and the trade. The tribes of the area, Humbu and Mfinu, were regarded as the owners on this side of the river. With the wire of time, the Téké colonists push the local population more far from banks, towards the interior of the hills. The principal Téké villages of southern bank were Nsasa with close to: 5000 inhabitants, Ntambo with less: 3000 inhabitants. Lemba, among a multitude of small villages humbu, was the commercial and political capital of Humbu, with approximately 300 inhabitants. The markets of the river saw caravans of slaves carrying oil, almonds, of palm, groundnuts, of sesame and ivory outward journey and to come.
European colonizationIn 1881, Sir Henry Morton Stanley signed the “treaty of the friendship” with a chief Téké, Ngaliema, thus obtaining the right of establishment to the site of current the commune of Kintambo, on the edges of the Baie of Ngaliema, where it founded a station which it baptized later Léopoldville in the honor of his principal Léopold II of Belgium. Stanley had chosen the place where the river Congo became navigable in direction of the upstream. The site roomy and easy to defend was already populated of 66 villages former to Stanley with a total population estimated at: 30000 inhabitants. Stanley founded also another station, this one close to the hamlet of Kinshasa ( nshasa meaning “gone”), with the agreement of the chief Ntsuvila. This village gave its name to the current city, being drawn up, with the village of Mpumba, where today the district of the businesses is.
Growing capitalIn 1929, it inherited the function of administrative center assumed up to that point by Boma, by the application of the royal decree of July 1st 1923. At that time, Léopoldville is confined with the communes of Kintambo and of Gombe current developed around Bay of Ngaliema, then the communes of Kinshasa, Barumbu and Lingwala appeared. In the years 1930, majority of the residences for the employees of the Chanic, the Filstisaf and the Utex Africa.
Léopoldville became juridically a city only on June 25th, 1941 (with: 5000 hectares and: 53000 inhabitants); since 1923, it was only one “urban district”. Consequently occasion, it becomes capital colony, chief town of the province of Congo-Kasaï and district of Means-Congo. It was divided into two zones: the urban area with Léo II, Léo-West, Kalina, Léo-I or Léo-Is, and of Ndolo; and the indigenous zone in the south. The growth of the city starts in 1945 with the end of the forced labor which makes it possible to the populations black to increase. Arrive then of many peasants of the countryside in the search of an employment, piling up in the boxes of the indigenous zone. The city is then mainly populated of Bakongo. In the years 1950, planned cities of Lemba, Matete, and part of Ndjili were arranged to place the employees of the industrial park of Limete. In 1954, the city opens the first university of the colony, the Université Lovanium.
The city counts 11 communes and 6 additional zones in 1957: communes of Kalamu, Dendale (current commune of Kasa-Vubu), Holy Jean (current Lingwala), Ngiri-Ngiri, Kintambo, Limete, Bandalungwa, Léopoldville (current Gombe), Barumbu, Kinshasa and Ngaliema; and additional zones of Lemba, Binza, Makala, Kimwenza, Kimbanseke and Kingasani. The additional zones of Ndjili and Matete are added.
The city changes officially name into 1966, of Léopoldville with Kinshasa.
In 1968, it is equipped with the statute of area to the same car as the other areas of the country and the number of common master key with 24. The ten new communes are: Bumbu, Kimbanseke, Kisenso, Makala, Maluku, Masina, Ngafula Mount, Ngaba, Nsele and Selembao.
Urban growth and African evils
In 1945, the capital of Belgian Congo sheltered: 100000 people. With independence, in 1960, Léopoldville counted: 400000 hearts, which made of it the largest agglomeration of central Africa. Fifteen years later, after the city received the name of Kinshasa in 1966, its population had already crossed the course of the 2 million. It grew in a considerable way, thus passing from: 500000 inhabitants at the end of the years 1960, with: 4787000 in 1998. The last estimates according to the administrative census of 2005 are with: 7500000 inhabitants.
In 1991, and then in 1993, Kinshasa is victim of plunderings, whose after-effects are still visible as well materially as humanly fifteen years later. These plunderings follow an economic crisis due to the political system and economic as well ineffective as corrupted of the worldwide.
According to the estimates it could reach more than 10 million inhabitants in 2015 (thus rising among the 30 larger Agglomération S world). According to the the World Bank the volume of the jobs created by the informal sector in urban environment in Africa is quasi unequalled, with 95 % (against 45 % and 50 % in some cities like Freetown or Ouagadougou).
In spite of the fact that it is among the countries richest of Africa as for the richnesses of the ground, of the basement and human, the Congo currently occupies one of the last places in the world as for its GNP and its real standard of living.
According to an investigation of the Networks of the teachers of the children and young people of street (REEJER) of 2006: 13877 children live and work in the streets of Kinshasa, mainly in the communes of Masina, Kimbanseke and Limete.
See also: Geography of Kinshasa
The city-province extends on a surface from: 9965 km ² made up of a large plate (Plate of Kwango), of a range of hills (mounts Ngaliema, Amba, Ngafula), of a plain and marshes at the edge of the Malebo Pool. The plain is the part most populated and being itself in the shape of crescent of bay of Ngaliema in the East to the plate of Kwango in the West of the Malebo Pool.
The annual variations of temperature in the area of Kinshasa are of approximately 13 ° Centigrade. The climate of nature equatorial (heat and wet), is composed of a Rain season 8 months. The dry season is of mid-May at mid-September. The remainder of the year is relatively rainy especially in the neighborhoods of March or November.
Several rivers of various dimensions cross the plains of the city-province, generally fascinating source in the hills, sliding ring of the South towards North, to throw itself in the Congo river. Lakes of reduced sizes, like the Lake My Vallé and the Green lake, are also localized there.
Opposite BrazzavilleOpposite, on Right Bank of the river, one finds Brazzaville, capital of the République of Congo. For differentiating the two countries well having “Congo” in their name, one calls sometimes the Democratic republic of Congo “Congo-Kinshasa”, in opposition to “Congo-Brazzaville”. In addition to being twinned with Brazzaville, Kinshasa is twinned with Lome, Dakar, Ndjamena, Brussels and Utrecht.
EducationThe town of Kinshasa counts several universities or institutes of higher education:
- Academy of the interdisciplinary Art schools
- Center for further education (CIDEP)
- Data processing school of Electronics and Accountancy (EIECO)
- Institute of the buildings and public works (IBTP)
- Institute facultaire of the communication and information sciences (IFASIC)
- National institute of Arts (INA)
- Institute of higher learning of trade (ISC), Gombe
- Institute of higher learning of the techniques applied (ISTA)
- Institute of higher learning of the Medical Techniques (ISTM/KIN)
- Institute of higher learning of Statistics of Kinshasa (I.S.S./KIN);
- Institute of higher learning of arts and trades (ISAM)
- teaching Institute of higher learning (ISP)
- catholic Faculties of Kinshasa (FACAKIN)
- University of Kinshasa (UNIKIN), in the past called the University Lovanium
- American University of Kinshasa or Franco-American University of Kinshasa
- University cardinal Malula
- Christian University of Kinshasa (UCKIN)
- central University of free Kinshasa
- University of Kinshasa (ULK)
- national teaching University (UPN), old IPN
- Protestant University of Congo (UPC)
- University Simon Kimbangu
- University William Booth (UWB)
- International Christian University (UCI)
- Faustin Linyekula with creates into 2001 the Studios Kabako, a place of creation and representation of Contemporary dance.
TransportSeveral private companies whose Shipping company urban (STUCCO) and public company City train (12 buses in 2002) serve the city. The lines of bus are:
- Central station - Kingasani (common of Kimbanseke, reopened in September 2005);
- central Kingasani- Gone
- Matete - Royal (reopened in June 2006);
- Matete-UPN (reopened in June 2006);
- Roundabout Ngaba - UPN (reopened in June 2006).
- Roundabout Victoire - clinical Ngliema (open in March 2007)
Other companies ensure also public transport: Urbaco, Tshatu Trans, Socogetra, Gesac and MB Sprl. The buses of the city transport a maximum of: 67000 travellers per days. Several companies manage taxis and taxi-bus. The majority (95,8 %) of transport is ensured by private individuals.
The city considers the creation of a tram in collaboration with the Société of inter-commune transport of Brussels (the STIB), whose work could begin in 2009 to be completed about 2012-2015. The question of electricity remains in suspends.
ONATRA exploits three lines of the metropolitan railways connecting the center to common the peripheral, of which one goes to the Low-Congo.
- the principal line connects the Central station to the Aéroport of Ndjili, and counts 9 stations: Central station, Ndolo, Amicongo, Uzam, Masina/Petro-Congo, Masina without wire, Masina/Mapela, Masina/District III, Masina/Siforco, Badara Camp and the airport of Ndjili.
- the second line connects the Central station to Kasangulu in the Low-Congo, while passing by Matete, Riflart and Kimwenza.
- the third line the Central station with Kinsuka-Pumping in the commune of Ngaliema.
Port of Kinshasa
See also: Port of Kinshasa
Organized administratively in Department within the National office of Transport (ONATRA), the Port of Kinshasa is the starting point and the terminus of navigation on the Congo river enters, on the one hand, Kinshasa and Kisangani on the river, and on the other hand, between Kinshasa and Ilebo on the Kasaï.
It is also on departure and arrival of the goods to export and the importation since the port of Matadi which accommodates the ocean liners. For this reason, he was often regarded as the inner harbor of the Port of Matadi.
LanguagesThe population of Kinshasa coming from all the corners from Congo, several countries of Africa and World, several languages are spoken in the city as in any cosmopolitan city. The most important languages reflect the composition of the population. The French is spoken for the commercial exchanges, administrative management and teaching. The majority of the writings are written in French. It is also the principal language of the media. The Lingala remains the principal language of the city, and it often happens that kinois speak the lingala best that French. It is the language of the popular culture, the music, the churches, the popular theater, the army and the national police force since the colonial time. The Kikongo, the Swahili and the Tchiluba are also spoken by their communities respectively originating in the West, the East, South-east, and the center of the country. The lingala, already common language of the North of the river before and during the colonial period, was essential as majority language because a great number of kinois is originating in areas where the lingala was already a common language. It in particular replaced the kikongo like principal language of the area.
The majority of the children speaks the lingala, which consequently supplants the languages of the tribes of their parents.
SportsThe town of Kinshasa has several football leagues. The provincial Entente of football of Kinshasa (EPFKIN) is the high level league, each season 6 teams are relegated and 6 others are promoted with the urban Entente of football of Kinshasa (EUFKIN). The teams which gained the most once on the level provincial and national are in particular: L `ACE Vita Club, the Daring Club Motema Pembe (DCMP) and the ACE Dragons (ACE Bilima).
In basketball, the provincial Agreement of basketball of Kinshasa (EPROBAKIN) and the urban Entente of basketball of Kinshasa (EUBAKIN) divide the teams. Famous BC Onatra of Kinshasa was the first team of Dikembe Mutombo.
OthersCurrently, second agglomeration for a French-speaking country in the world, after Paris and before Montreal. Demography obliges, Kinshasa should exceed Paris in a few years|date= , becoming thus greatest agglomeration of a French-speaking country all confused continents.
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