See also: History of Kenya
The colonial history of Kenya began with creation from a German protectorate on possessions from the Sultan from Zanzibar, then the arrival of British East Africa Company in 1888. The competitions between these two countries ceased when Germany renonça with its coastal possessions in favor of the the United Kingdom in 1890.
The British government establishes in 1895 British East Africa, and in 1902 allows the white colonists to reach the high fertile plains. These colonists had an influence in the government before even as he is not officially declared colony of the Crown in 1920, but the African S were excluded from direct political participation until 1944.
From October 1952 in December 1959, the rebellion Mau Mau combat the British colonial law. The British decision makers then made take part more and more of the Africans in the governmental processes, in order to cut the rebels of their support. The first direct elections for Africans at the Legislative council took place in 1957.
Although the British hoped to transmit the capacity to a moderated group, it was Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta, member of the tribe of the Kĩkũyũ and former prisoner under the martial law, which formed the first government shortly after the independence of the country on December 12th, 1963. One year later Kenyatta became the first President of the Republic.
In 1964, the minority party, Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU), coalition of small tribes fearing the domination of largest, car-dissolves and joined the KANU.
In 1966 is created Kenya People' S Union (KPU), left warping small but playing a great part. It was directed by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, ex vice-president and wise Luo. After an animated visit of Kenyatta in the province of Nyanza, the KPU is prohibited and its imprisoned chief.
With died of Kenyatta the August 22nd 1978, the vice-president Daniel Arap Me becomes president by interim, then officially president the October 14th after being elected with the head of the KANU and being designated as its only candidate.
In June 1982 the National Assembly registers in the Constitution the sole party, but this clause is rejected by the Parliament in December 1991. In December 1992, of the elections multi-parties give the KANU and its chief the majority of the seats, and Me is re-elected for a five years mandate, while the opposition parties seize approximately 45% of the parliamentary seats.
The number of political parties passed from 11 to 26 following a liberalization in November 1997. After a short victory with the elections of December 1997, the KANU preserved its parliamentary majority, and Me was again elected.
Constitutionally not being able to represent in December 2002, Me tried without success to make of Uhuru Kenyatta, wire of the first president of Kenya, his successor. A disparate coalition of opposition parties gained the elections, and its chief, Mwai Kibaki, former vice-president of Me, were elected President with a vast majority.
See also: Political of Kenya
The current president is Mwai Kibaki.
See also: Geography of Kenya
General dataKenya is located in the Black Africa of the East and has as countries bordering the Somalia, the Ethiopia, the Sudan, the Uganda and the Tanzania. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean and has a surface of 582 600 km ². Its capital is Nairobi.
ClimateThe climate of Kenya is very diversified. The coasts have a hot and wet climate while the dry and cold areas are also present.
Two seasons ago of rain: - abundant rains: April and May - weak rains: October and November
Kenya is crossed in its central part by the equator. The areas located at the north of this one (that is to say two thirds of the country) have a desert or semi-desert climate. On the coast, subjected to the hot and wet monsoon of the Indian Ocean, the average temperature varies from 24,4 °C in June - July with 27,8 °C from February to April. The high plateaus are more moderate (of 11 °C with 21 °C in Nairobi in July; of 13 °C with 26 °C in February). The area of the Lake Victoria is tropical, with two rain seasons from October at December and April at June.
Altitude in Kenya rises of is in west thanks to the Vallée of the Rift, which created these mountains and these lakes. The Mount Kenya (5199 m) which is more the high summit of the country is an extinct volcano at the snow-covered top all the year. The Mont Longonot rises to approximately 2700 m. On the sides of these mountains are forests known as primitive and equatorial. On average altitude are the zones of cultures like the The and the Café.
PlainsThe plains are on the part is country and are occupied mainly by the Savane S.
Lakes and littoralsThanks to the valley of the Rift of many lakes were formed along this fault, the such Lac Turkana in the north of the country. This lake is bordered by the Désert of Chalbi and is of a great ornithological interest, where one can find inter alia pink flamingos, marabout S and Pélican S. the Lake Victoria, which Kenya shares with the Tanzania and the Uganda, which is one of the sources of the the Nile.
The Indian Ocean borders more than 500 km of Kenyan coasts, made up of sand beaches end. The islands Funzi extend to the broad one. The town of Mombasa is actually an island connected to the dry land by bridges.
All the grounds slightly in withdrawal on the littoral are arable lands where one cultivates many Banane S, of mangos, Cocotier S and Frangipanier S.
Natural parksThe national park of Meru is in complete restoration currently within the framework of an integrated development project: reconstitution and reinforcement of the ecosystem, reimplantation of new animal populations, rebuilding of the tourist infrastructures. The objective being to allow a rapid financial autonomy and a local development which profits with the populations from the area… the project from the Meru park is the fruit of a close cooperation between the Kenya Wild life Service and of the French organizations, the French Agence of development and the French Fonds for the World Environment and must much with the energy and the eagerness of a man: Mark Jenkins.
The parks which attract the tourists are numerous today, with in particular largest, the Tsavo, Amboseli in which each one must begin its safari with the dawns to see the animals on bottom of turning pink Kilimandjaro, and especially the Masai Mara Park. This last, which holds its name of the Mara river which it cross-piece is the natural prolongation of the Serengeti, on the other side of the border with the Tanzania. One can admire the pride of Kenya there, " The Big Five" : Lion, elephant, Buffalo, Rhinoceros and leopard. The center refuge of the wild animals is found in the town of Mombasa. It is useful has to look after the wounded animals and has artificially to hold them in life during a certain time. It is also useful has to carry out test of health on the animals " of attraction" , i.e. those which are reproduced on the list of the park faunal.
The local government is divided into eight provinces. With the head of each one a provincial Police chief named by the president is. The provinces ( Mkoa ) are subdivided in districts ( Wilaya ), themselves subdivided of divisions ( Tarafa ). Each division is made up in localities ( Mtaa ) and under-localities ( Kijiji ). The zone of Nairobi is equipped with a special statute and is included in no district or province. The government supervises the administration of the districts and the provinces, which are:
- central Province
- Province of the coast
- Eastern Province
- Zone of Nairobi
- north-Eastern Province
- Valley of the Rift
- Western province
to also see the list of the Subdivisions of Kenya
See also: Economy of Kenya
Monnaie: Schilling of Kenya (KES) = 100 Hundreds Foreign exchange rate (avril.2007): 1 euro = 91 KenyaShillings (August 2007) 1 $USA = 78.6 KenyaShillings
GDP (at the current prices of the market): 19,04 billion $ (OECD 2005) GDP per capita: 555,8$ (OECD 2005) Growth rate of the GDP: 4,8% (OECD 2005) Rate of inflation: 17,9% (OECD 2005) Budget balance: -1,8% of GDP (OECD 2005) Trade balance: - 2,1 billion $ (OECD 2005) Main customers: Uganda (12,8%) the United Kingdom (11,6%), the Netherlands (8,3%), Pakistan (5,1%), Egypt (4,7%), Tanzania (4,3%) Leading vendors: WATER (13,2%), Saudi Arabia (9,6%), South Africa (9,3%), the United States (8,0%), United Kingdom (7,2%), China (6,7%), Japan (5,4%), India (4,9%)
Leaves the principal branches of industry in GDP (OECD 2005):
agriculture: 31% industry: 18% services: 51% Exports of France towards Kenya: 104 M€ in 2005 (retreat of 2,2% between 2004 and 2005) French Imports of Kenya: 92 M€ in 2005 (growth of 27,6%) (economic mission)
Consulate (S) of France: Nairobi (embassy), Mombasa (arranges consular) the French Community in Kenya: 893 registered (2005) the Kenyan Community in France: 630 residents (December 2005)
Kenya is a country which has little or not mineral resources; energy sources limited to the hydroelectric exploitation of the basin of Tanned; an agricultural potential limited to a fifth of the territory and completely exploited; a physical space not facilitating transport. Agriculture employed 19% of the Active population and accounted for 15,8% of GDP.
Kenya reaches self-sufficiency for the whole of the basic foodstuffs. The first food crop is the Maïs, which covers 62 p. 100 of the cultivable grounds (2,20 million tons in 2005). The sorghum, the potatoes, the beans, the groundnuts and the tobacco are also cultivated on the high plateaus, principal area agricultural. The cane with sugar, the corn, the manioc, the pineapple, cotton and the cashew nuts are produced on the coastal plains.
The principal commercial culture is the The (Formatnum: 295000}} tons in 2005), followed by far by the Coffee. An industry of the cut flowers (production, transformation and sale) developed. It makes live: 500000 Kenyans and reports to the nation's economy 200 million dollars per annum, constituting the third source of entry of currencies of the country, after the and tourism. It accounts for 15% of its exports. Thus, Kenya became the first supplier of pinks of the European Union.
The breeding for the meat and the dairy products is important. In 2005, Kenya had approximately 12 million heads of Bovin S, 10 million Ovin S and 12 million Caprin S. the fishing, primarily practiced in the rivers and the lakes of the interior, is enough to satisfy the local market.
The mining sector occupies a very weak place in the Kenyan economy (soda, salt, fluorine and ores). Important layers of Lead and Argent however were discovered close to Mombasa. Although expanding, the industrial sector occupies a modest place within the local economy: in 2003, it occupied 20% of the Active population and accounted for 19,6% GNP. It relates to primarily the Agroalimentaire, whose production is intended for local consumption.
The hydroelectric production of the dams Kiambare and Turkwell constitutes the greatest industrial richness of the country. Kenya is heavily involved in debt, its rough foreign debt representing about half of its GNP (47,5 p. 100 in 2003). The currencies brought by tourism (339 million dollars in 1999) are not enough to balance the balance of payments.
The foreign trade remains overdrawn (- 36,4 p. 100 in 2003). The main customers are the countries African, in particular the Uganda, followed those of the European Union, in particular the the United Kingdom and the Germany. The imports come primarily from the United Kingdom, of Germany, of the United Arab Emirates and the Japan (crude oil, machine tools, car, iron and steel, medicinal products and manure).
The service sector employed 62% of the population and accounted for 64,7% of GDP in 2003.
See also: Demography of Kenya
The majority of the Kenyans is of language Bantou E (Kikuyu, Kamba S and Luyha S).
See also: Culture of Kenya
- Moslem: 36%.
- Protestant: catholic 24%.
- : 21%.
- Corinne Hoffmann wrote the book with success Massaï white .
- Ngugi wa Thiong' O is the author of an excellent novel Weep not, Child ( Enfant, does not cry ) on the revolt of Mau Mau.
- the Association of Calao is a non-profit-making association which created a school system adapted to the life of Samburus of Kenya North, http://www.calao-africa.org
CodesKenya has as codes:
- EAK, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- HK, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- KE, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- KE, according to the standard ISO 3166-1, alpha 2, (code list country),
- .ke, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- KEN, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- KEN, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- KEN, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3
- List of the islands of Kenya
- Country of the world
Beats-smg: Kėnėjė (Afrėka) Be-X-old: Кенія Simple: Kenya Zh-min-nan: Kenya
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