The Kazakhstan (in Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, API /q ɑzɑqˈstɑn/ ; in Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, API /k ɐzəxˈstɐn/ ), is a Pays mainly located at north of the Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe (in the west of the river the Ural). Country of steppes populated formerly of wandering riders, it was annexed little by little by the Russian Empire then integrated into the USSR. It is independent since 1991.
See also: History of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan, area of vast steppes, was since the oldest times, traversed by populations Nomade S. At the beginning of the modern time, it is populated Turkish-speaking nomads - Kazakh -, hunters and stockbreeders, whose social traditions are based on a clannish structure which perdure until our days. These territories, bitterly disputed between the Russia and the China, finish by sets of alliances and pressures military, by passing under supervision, then under direct domination, of Moscow.
Proclaimed Soviet republic (initially, " of Kirghizes" , with borders rather different) at the conclusion of the Revolution from October in 1917, Kazakhstan is incorporated in the Soviet Union during its creation. Following attempts at sedentarisation of the wandering populations which populated the area historically, a terrible famine decimates the population during the years 1931 - 1933. In the following years of the Stalinist mode , Kazakhstan, partly within the framework of the correctional complex " Steplag", is a destination for many deportations (and evacuations of war), and in particular, during and right after the Second world war, of sometimes whole ethnicities: Tatars of the Crimea, Polish, Tchétchènes, German of the Volga, and others. Later, Kazakhstan becomes the site of several ambitious successful Soviet projects: the Site of tests of Semipalatinsk and its nuclear laboratories, the Cosmodrome de Baïkonour and the Countryside of the virgin lands.
Following the agreement of the leaders of the three Slavic republics to dissolve the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan proclaims its independence in December 1991. The hard following years see an important emigration, in particular many not-Kazakh which feel isolated situations with responsibilities; but gradually the economic situation is stabilized these last years, with a significant growth, and a migratory balance tending to become again positive. The Head of State in exercise since 1990, Noursoultan Nazarbaïev, is always President of the country, re-elected for 7 years in 2005.
In 1997, the capital of Kazakhstan is moved of Almaty (old Alma-ATA), in the south-west of the country, Akmola (Akmolinsk, Tselinograd), renamed Astana (" capitale" in Kazakh) on this occasion, a city being located in the steppes of the north of the country (more close to its geographical center), developed like principal urban center for the Countryside of the virgin lands.
9th century: Islam isation of the Kazakh territory.
- 13th century: invasion of Gengis Khan and the Mongolian S.
- of 18th at the 18th century: invasions come from the east.
- 1820 - 1850: annexation with the Russian Empire .
- Towards 1850: Russian surges of peasants.
- 1920: autonomous Republic Socialist Soviet.
- Starting from the December 5th 1936: Soviet socialist republic.
- October 25th 1990: Kazakhstan proclaims its sovereignty (independence the December 16th 1991).
- March 2nd 1992: adhesion with UNO.
- May 1992: becomes member of UNESCO.
- May 27th 1994: adhesion with the Partnership for peace of NATO.
- August 30th 1995: adoption of a news Constitution.
- December 1995: legislative elections and creation of a Parliament with two rooms.
See also: Political of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan has a Presidential regime considered as authoritative. Current the Constitution of Kazakhstan was adopted by national Référendum the August 30th 1995. It replaced the first Constitution of the January 28th 1993.
The Head of the State is currently the President Noursoultan Nazarbaïev (elected for seven years with 91 % of the voices to the first turn). The chief of the government is the Prime Minister Karim Massimov.
The President of the Republic is alone to have the following rights:
- to propose amendment S with the Constitution;
- to name and relieve the members of the government;
- to dissolve the Parliament;
- to propose referendums;
- to name and relieve the governors of the areas (oblystar) and the towns of Astana and Almaty.
- Majilis is composed of 77 Député S elected with the Vote for all, the Scrutin is partially proportional.
- the Senate comprises 39 seats. 7 senators are directly named by the President of the Republic. The others are elected by the Great Electors of the 14 oblystar and the two cities with particular status (Astana and Almaty). It should be noted that these Great Electors themselves are named by the president of the Republic.
Administrative divisionsExcept for some modifications, the administrative cutting of the Republic of Kazakhstan corresponds to that of the Soviet socialist Republic kazakhe. The system of administrative division of the territory remained that of the Soviet Union. The greatest administrative unit is the oblys (into Kazakh, plural: oblystar ) or oblast (in Russian) which one can translate by “area” or “province”. Kazakhstan is divided of 14 areas or provinces and 3 cities with special statute.
The three cities with special statute are:
- Almaty (in the past Alma-ATA), the old capital.
- Astana, the new capital
- Baïkonour or Bayqongyr , city of the cosmodrome
See also: Geography of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is often described as " country of Asia centrale" because of the historical links, linguistics, cultural and policies which bind it to the four other Soviet ex-republics of Asia. However, in Kazakhstan, in Russia and in other countries of CEI, the geopolitical unit formed by Kazakhstan, the Kirghizstan, the Ouzbékistan, the Tadjikistan and the Turkménistan is frequently called “Central Asia and Kazakhstan.” The septentrional part of the country is generally not regarded as geographically forming part of the Central Asia but of Europe (according to a generally allowed convention, the continent of Europe stops with the mounts the Ural). Kazakhstan is thus located on two continents and not only in Asia.
- Overall length of the borders: 12.012 km, of which:
- 6.846 km with the Russia;
- 2.203 km with the Ouzbékistan;
- 1.533 km with the China;
- 1.051 km with the Kyrgyzstan;
- 379 km with the Turkménistan.
- Kazakhstan is bordered of two closed seas:
- the Caspian Sea (1 894 km of coasts);
- the Sea of Aral, from now on separate in three parts (1 070 km of coasts): the Northern part (Small sea) seems saved draining, the Southern part (Large sea) was divided into two, the Western part being in process of draining very fast and unresolved viable in the long run.
- Culminating point: the Khan Tengri with 6.995 meters.
See also: Economy of Kazakhstan
The economy of Kazakhstan rests primarily on exports of Pétrole, which account for 56% of the value of exports and 55% of the budget of the State. According to certain estimates, the country has oil resources equivalent to those of the Iraq but present in deeper tablecloths, which explains the relatively recent beginning of its exploitation.
See also: Demography of Kazakhstan
Five times larger than France but populated only few 15.000.000 inhabitants, Kazakhstan with the one of the lowest population densities of the world.
Demographic dataSource: The CIA The World Factbook
- Population : 15.233.244 inhabitants (estimate, July 2006)
- Population pyramid : 23% of the population have less than 15 years, 68,8% have between 15 and 64 years and 8,2% is 65 years old or more.
- Middle Age : 28,8 years (27,2 for the men and 30,5 for the women).
- Natural increase : 0,33% (estimate, 2006).
- Birth rate : 16 ‰ (estimate, 2006).
- Death rate : 9,4 ‰ (estimate, 2006).
- infantile Death rate : 28,3 ‰ (boys: 32,88 ‰; girls: 23,45 ‰).
- Life expectancy : 66,89 years (men: 61,56 years; women: 72,52 years).
- Fertility rate : 1,89 (estimate, 2006)
- Migratory balance : -3,33 ‰.
The population of Kazakhstan is estimated at Kazakh 53%, 30% Russians, with several other groups represented: Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Koreans, Germans, Tchétchennes… For a surface as large as Eastern Europe, the population is relatively weak, the density being only of 5,5 hab. /km ². The majority of the population speak Russian; only half of the population speaks Kazakh, language which currently knows a revival, they are the two only official languages.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the German population of Kazakhstan started to emigrate in mass.
Gentilé of KazakhstanOfficially, the inhabitants of Kazakhstan are called in French of the Kazakh . It should be noted that this Gentilé recovers in fact two distinct terms in Kazakhstan: that of Kazakh (E) and that of " Kazakhstanais (E) " , to which two different realities correspond.
- the Kazakh term of (E) designates exclusively the members of the ethnos group Kazakhe .
- the term of Kazakhstanais designates all the citizens of Kazakhstan, whatever their ethnic membership.
According to a distinction inherited the Soviet administration, the State of Kazakhstan recognizes the " indeed; nationalité" of its citizens (their ethnic membership), concept distinct from that of citizenship. Thus, the cyclist Alexandre Vinokourov it is not considered in his country of origin as a Kazakh but as a Russian kazakhstanais . Gentilé the Kazakhstanais is not officially recognized in French, but is used by the diplomats or the geographers.
See also: Culture of Kazakhstan
Festivals in Kazakhstan
a certain number of festivals are inherited the Soviet era: the March 8th (international Day of the Woman) was already non-working in the USSR (and is also always in Russia); the May 9th (and not 8 as in Europe) celebrates the allied victory of 1945; May 1st, celebrates very first importance at Soviet times was preserved but was seen granted another significance ( Journée of the Unit of the people of Kazakhstan ). However sometimes the other Soviet festivals (Day of the Red Army , etc) do not have any more an official existence but continue to be celebrated, by practice, in an abstract and deprived way.
- the days of Religious holidays, as well Christian women as Moslem, are not officially non-working.
- the festival of Nauryz is celebrated the first day of the Kazakh lunar month of the same name which corresponds to the vernal equinox. It is a festival which goes back to the period chamanist of the Peuples Turkish and which is celebrated in all the Central Asia.
Religions of KazakhstanThe two principal religions of Kazakhstan are the Islam Sunnite (practiced by the Kazakh as well as minorities such as the Tatars, the Bachkirs, the Uzbek or the Ouïghours) and the orthodoxe Christianisme (practiced by the Russians, and some Ukrainian and Belorusse). The religion Catholique is practiced in some areas (mainly in the north of the country) but the number of faithful, of Polish or German origin, tends to be reduced, the latter gradually leaving Kazakhstan to join their country of origin (the Pope Jean-Paul II paid a visit with Astana from September 22nd to 27th 2001). The same applies to the Judaïsme: even if a Synagog, were recently built with Astana, the citizens of Jewish confession in majority emigrated in Israel.
Since the independence of the country, a relative rebirth of the religions was born. A big number of Mosque S but also of church S were built. The religions tend for some to fill the ideological vacuum left by the disappearance of the communist dogma; they are also a means of affirming its cultural membership: the return to Islam constitutes an element of the assertion of the identity kazakhe and the practice of Christianity (orthodoxe or catholic) offers a point of regrouping to the Slavic populations of which the number does not cease yet decreasing.
In parallel, one attends a fast development of the religious movements (evangelic and Témoins of Jéhovah). These religions gather their faithful as well among the population Christian women as Moslem. They are imported by a rather significant number missionaries, often come from the Anglo-Saxon countries and are not very well seen capacity places from there which sees in them the hand from abroad.
Islam in Kazakhstan
- Soviet Union
- Nationalities in the USSR
- Central Asia
- Soviet socialist Republic kazakhe
Kazakhstan on Asie-centrale.com
- High places and evil hauntes of Kazakhstan on Cairn
the Kazakh ones in France. AKFT - Association of Culture and Kazak-France-Turkey Mutual aid.
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