- - Form: 形 étymologiquement “ to trace with the brush an exact resemblance ”
- - Mould: 型 étymologiquement “ original form made out of ground ”. This ideogram also has the direction of left trace , ideal form , law , practice .
The kata is only practiced or in group. The purpose of its study, in the martial arts as in the traditional dramatic art, is work of the technique, the kime (power)…
The movements carried out in the katas only can then be applied with a partner. These exercises are called Bunkaï .
The katas are found in various Japanese martial arts like the Judo, the Karaté, the Kendo or the Aïkido (which are taught almost only in the form of katas, that it is with naked hands or the weapons), and the theater in the No , the Kabuki or the Bunraku .
If one compares a budo with a language, then the Kihon are the basic vocabulary, the kata are done everything sentences and the “applications” ( Bunkai and drives with two types Kumite ) are practical applications in the current language.
In martial arts, the kata represents a real combat against an adversary, which possibly can be imaginary. Being codified in a rigorous way, it is carried out without surprised and in particular makes it possible to work in full safety of the techniques which would be dangerous in drive of combat, or then to work under conditions closer to the reality of the combat - conditions potentially mortals, such as for example the kata of saber carried out with a Bokken (saber out of wooden). This weapon, at first sight as not very dangerous as a wood stick, can appear lethal between expert hands.
The goal of the kata is double:
- On the one hand to make work gestures, postures… in situations given, in order to have a training “with calm” and more applied than at the time of a combat;
- In addition to make discover basic principles of martial arts, as the management of the distances (my A) , the attitude and the management of balance (shisei) , the coordination of the movements…
At the time medieval where the schools maintained their secrecies, the kata were a manner coded to transmit teaching: work appeared banal outside, but its repetition made it possible to the advanced pupils to discover by them-even the hidden and mystical principles ( Mikkyo , transmitted to the level Okuden ).
There exist various types of katas: “the respiratory katas combat”, “katas” and “artistic katas”. “The katas combat” aim at the work of the technique to then be able to use it in combat. The “respiratory katas” propose work on breathing. The purpose of they are “to make circulate energies”. Lastly, the “artistic katas” are spectacular executions of techniques putting amongst other things ahead the flexibility. In other Asian martial arts, this codified work is called:
- in Burma: Aka - to see Burmese Martial arts
- in China (Wushu): CAT or taolu
- with the Vietnam (Vietnamese soldier vo CAD): Quyen
- in Korea (Taekwondo, Hapkido): Poumsee
Example of “forms” in martial arts
Tekki (warlike armed overlapping its horse): kata in the position known as “of the rider” ( Kibadachi : foot parallels drawn aside, low hips)
Kata of Shotokan
See also: Kata Shotokan
Kata of the Gōjū-ryū
This style comprises 12 katas, of which 9 were brought back in right-hand side line of China by Master Kanryo Higaonna at the end of the 19th century. They preserved all their labels of origin in Chinese of Fujian, although pronounced at the Japanese woman. These katas is: Sanchin, a respiratory kata of reinforcement and internal work, like Saifa, Seiyunchin, Sepai, Shisochin, Seisan, Sanseiru, Kururunfa, Suparinpei, which are, them, of the katas of engagements. Later, Maître Chojun Miyagi modified, in fact, the kata Sanchin, which is practiced fist today closed. In addition, Chojun Miyagi created 3 others katas: Gekisai dai ichi and Gekisai dai nor which are katas for the lower belts and the kata Tensho, inspired by another Chinese kata (Rokkishu) that it had seen at the time of a voyage in this country and which works opened hands, as for Kakie (exercise of sticking hands). Tensho stresses fluidity in the techniques and is regarded as the kata complementary to kata Sanchin. Displacements from these two katas are quasi similar besides. The Katas of Goju-Ryu made these last years (between 1995 and 2005) the success of many candidates at the time of the championships of the World of karate WKF
The shitei kata
In 1986, to facilitate the competitions “all styles”, was created the Shitei-Kata : each of the 4 principal styles of Karaté then indicated 2 katas regarded as most representative.
Shotokan : Jion and Kanku-Daï
- Wado-ryu: Sei Heian (equivalent with Hangetsu in Shotokan) and Chinto (equivalent with Gankaku in Shotokan)
- Shito-ryu: Sei Hei Shin and Based
- Goju-ryu: Seipai and Saifa
With the judo
The Jūdō Kōdōkan comprises seven kata . The first kata , stroke No kata , is gradually taught girdles orange with the belt chestnut, at a rate of three movements per level.
The kata are:
- Randori No kata , codificatrion of the free drive:
- * Stroke No kata , forms of projections,
- * Katame No kata , forms of immobilization, control;
- Kime No kata or shinken shobu No kata , the shapes of the decisions, combat;
- Kōdōkan goshin jutsu , forms of personal Defense;
- Jū No kata , forms of flexibility;
- Itsutsu No kata , five forms;
- Koshiki No kata , old forms;
- Seiryoku zen' yō kokumin taiiku No kata , forms of physical education based on the principle of “maximum effectiveness”.
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