Julius Evola (Rome, May 19th 1898 - June 11th 1974), of its true name Giulio Cesare Evola , is a thinker Italy N of the 20th century pertaining to the school traditionalist. He exerts a great influence within the contemporary radical line both in Italy and in the other Western countries.
First years and adolescenceGiulio Cesare Evola was born with Rome the May 19th 1898. Baron, it was downward of a family of the sicilian minor nobility . As he reports it in the Way of cinnabar , its childhood and its adolescence were filled by the reading. It was particularly marked by works of Oscar Wilde, Gabriele D' Annunzio and of Dimitri Merejkovski. It was also interested very early in philosophy and particularly in Carlo Michelstädter, Otto Weininger, and especially with Friedrich Nietzsche. It was also influenced by the work of Giovanni Papini, “champion of the primacy of the spiritual forces and the civilizing mission of Italy”.
It made technical studies and mathematics which will be stopped in 1917 by an engagement in the army as second lieutenant in artillery.
Meanwhile, it had started to be interested in the most modern forms of the artistic expression, in Eastern spiritualities and the political commitment, three lines of action which will structure its life until its death. Its ashes were dispersed in 1976 in a crack of the Mont Pink.
The artistIts first attempts as a creator in the artistic world are characterized by an adhesion with the most modern tendencies. Interested by the Dadaism, he contacts Tristan Tzara, and maintains with him a constant correspondence. He becomes one of the Italian first dadaïstes then, devoting himself to the Peinture and the Poésie. He also binds to the Futurisme and his creator Filippo Marinetti, whom he opposes nevertheless at the time of the battle for the entry in war of Italy, in 1914 - 1915, informant that the reasons called upon by this one to incite Italy to make the war with the central Empires are only “the quintessence of middle-class mentality and democrat that they claim to fight”. As of this time nevertheless at his place a tendency decides towards the religion, or rather the “monk”, in a very general direction, the transcendence.
In 1917 (it is then 19 years old), it takes part as artillery second lieutenant in the First World War. If it is not then nationalist, it knows a fascination for the great empires, including those which it must fight. This time marks the beginning for him of an existential crisis, which will upset its intellectual practices. It does not support any more the “ordinary life” which it then leads to Rome. At twenty-three years, it decides to put an end to its days.
The thinkerBefore carrying out the sentence which it itself had delivered, it reads a Buddhist text . What it feels then, it compares it to an illumination. “Which takes the extinction like extinction, and once this fact thinks of the extinction, reflects on the extinction, and is said: " mienne is the extinction" and is delighted by the extinction, that one does not know the extinction” said the text. This fallen through suicide will be a true death for Evola, died in art and the poetry which it gave up in 1921 and 1922; and a birth with the philosophy to which it from now on will be devoted. The interest of this Italian author for the traditions Oriental be appears then fully. In the uomo as potenza ( the man as power ) appears a design of “ego” inspired by the Tantrisme: “ego” is identified in the perceived world, and conversely, to melt itself in the Unit. The attachment in the sensitive world constitutes the “veil of Maya” already mentioned by Schopenhauer (Evola included/understood the Eastern doctrines undoubtedly better than the German philosopher), than it is necessary to remove to link itself with Self.
Evola at that time binds to many circles Roman “esoterists” of all edges. In 1924, it starts to be interfered policy and takes part in the writing of Lo Stato democratico ( the democratic State ), a text at the same time antifascist and undemocratic. It bases the “group of Ur”, in 1927, group of esoteric research on the non-European traditions. One year later, he writes a work which will make it famous to Italy: pagan Impérialisme ( Imperialismo pagano ). It there attacks very violently the Christianisme and turns to the Fascisme, in a will to find the ancient Roman size. It is besides in this spirit that it romanisé its name in “Julius”. This time is also marked for him by the intensive reading of the work of Rene Guénon. It is under this influence that it leaves the theses extremists of pagan Impérialisme to return to the consideration of the Tradition, and founds the review Torre . One can read in a leading article of this review which it is intended “to defend the principles which for us would be absolutely the same ones, that one is in a fascistic mode, communist, anarchistic or democratic. In them-even, these principles are higher than the political plan”. The review is hardly appreciated by the fascistic mode, and at that time Evola must be protected with a bodyguard during its displacements.
It is at this period that several tests appear on traditional symbolism: the hermetic Tradition ( Tradizione ermetica , 1931), Mask and face of contemporary spiritualism ( Maschera E volto dello spiritualismo contemporaneo , 1932), the Mystery of Graal ( It Mistero del Graal , 1937) and in 1936 the Myth of Blood ( It Mito del Sangue ), where he exposes the designs of the race in Antiquity and the theories racialists of the 18th century, and which will be followed of Synthèse of doctrines of the race ( Sintesi di dottrina beyond razza ) in 1941. It makes contact and makes take part in its review of great authors, like Rene Guénon, Paul Valéry, Gottfried Ben, etc
In 1934, Evola had published its most famous work, Révolte against the modern world ( Rivolta contro it mondo moderno ), where he describes the forfeiture of the modern world, announced by the ancient traditions.
Political doctrinesEvola is a anti-modern thinker who presents a vision of the history like decline, starting from the conviction that there exist castes according to a principle of hierarchy between the inferior and the superior. Its doctrines are deeply an elitism, anchored in a nourished political metaphysics of orientalism and esotericism. He is a thinker anti-Christian, pagan, who oppose the monotheisms Jew and to Christian, and an undemocratic thinker and it is on this basis that he rejoins Fascism and the Nazism. In the vein of Otto Weiniger he preaches a virile culture, against the female one, which is prégnant as well in Fascism as in national-socialisme.
The only notable difference with Fascism and especially with national-socialisme is that it does not share biological racism. Its racism is metaphysical and historical. He does not believe in the biological attempt at demonstration of a hierarchy of the races. For him they are a hierarchy cultures and civilizations.
But he preaches a more radical Fascism:
We are neither fascistic nor antifascists. The antifascism does not correspond to nothing for irreducible enemies of any plebeian policy and any nationalist ideology . As for Fascism, it is too little. We would like a Fascism more radical, more intrepid, a really absolute Fascism, fact of pure force, inaccessible to very compromised.
At the time of its lawsuit in 1951, it will support to have defended Fascism in what it defends the tradition like a higher principle. What he appreciates in Fascism and national-socialisme and that it greets in them is their anti-démocratisme.
In the Myth of blood exposes its anti-Jewish hatred, which is clearly a hatred of the Judaism. Evola remainder is proclaimed openly and explicitly racist. But for reasons metaphysics, its defenders and disciples say. The word of metaphysics does not attenuate of anything anti-Jewish hatred. That it is a metaphysical hatred, a hatred of the Judaism, is remainder only very traditional. It is this old hatred which prevailed in the history. For Evola, thinker of the tradition, i.e. defender of the tradition, it has only logical there there. “The Aryan and racist face regards the Judaism as a destroying force for any race or culture. ” he in the Myth of the blood writes where it develops what it calls “the indeed destroying characters of the Judaism””
Affinities with Germany and the NazismIn its works, Evola often stresses the spiritual unit between civilizations German and Italian (because of this love for Germany it had already changed its first name into Julius). It makes contact in 1938 with the Rumanian Cornelio Codreanu. The aristocratic figure of Evola is appreciated by the mode, even if its non-adhesion with the fascistic party creates problems to him. In 1940, that even prevents it from engaging on the Soviet face where he wanted to fight.
In 1942, it publishes the Myth of the blood where it develops its radical Antisémitisme, which is not racial, if one sticks only to the vocabulary, but which in has all the spirit and logic. Its racism is not biological but cultural and metaphysical. Its anti-semitism is “not-racial” in the sense that he considers that the Juifs do not form a pure Race, with the biological, modern direction thus, and not more than the European people, remainder, which were mixed during the history. But they however form according to him an entity with share, which deserves to be distinguished nevertheless, i.e. a cultural entity.
the Anti-semitism of Julius Evola is not exactly racial, with the traditional direction, being given the direction which it gives to the word of race, pure, which would be a business of blood. And although he opposes the Jews to known as the " aryens" and although he is a partisan of the establishment by the war of the superiority which he calls Aryan and although he is in favor of the destruction of the Jews, it is rather about a Anti-Judaism total, warlike, radical and total, quite as given as that of the Nazis, of which he shares and supports the project of elimination of the Jews. But less for reasons of race, that for reasons of identity cultural, religious, in a word: for the monotheism all in all, which they brought to the humanity and which it exècre. Thus it can claim to support the existence of a Jewish eternal, constant and harmful being since the origins, and whose characteristics are due to the Judaïsme, which was invented, affirms he, to dominate the other people and to destroy them. Evola is a modern anti-semite, all in all, since it is in favor of the total destruction of the Jews to the profit of known as the " aryens" , adopting a logic and a vocabulary racists, but for reasons traditional, historical, i.e. by antijudaïsme, but with the modern radicalism of racism.
Except this reserve on the word race by what it is distinguished from the racial Théories Raciste S Nazi be, it shares all the charges and all be delirious them on the Jews which were the batch of the Nazis and who are in the Protocole of Wise of Sion, celebrates false, work of the secret police of the Tsar, with the whole beginning of the XX° century, and which was the reference of propaganda Nazi. This one contributed to its systematic diffusion, most largely possible, after him to have begun again all its inspiration. Of this forgery he is not unaware of that it is one, Evola declares that it does not matter the authenticity, because he says the truth, namely a world plot, a secret capacity, a project of world domination, destruction of the companies which the Jews rotted of the interior, that they destroy as a virus corrodes a healthy body, which bring with them degeneration etc etc - is all these topics which provided exactly the inspiration of propaganda Nazi and which accompany biological racism.
Evola makes appear in 1943 the Doctrines of the Awakening ( dottrina LED risveglio ), a study on the Buddhist asceticism, in which it continues to be interested in parallel in its political concerns. To some extent, the Buddhist awakening and the alarm clock of civilization declining by the fault of modernity, are associated in its spirit. It is touched by a bombardment at the time of a passage to Vienna in 1945 which will leave it paralyzed lower extremities. It will spend several years to the hospital.
It should be said that if it were with Vienna at this time, it is that he had left the fascistic Italy which less interested it for its project and what he occurred there, that Germany Nazi , whose project was in its eyes more imposing and more promising, because more ambitious and more radical. Evola was in Vienna, also to fulfill a mission for the S and for Himmler, for which it had a great admiration, and that it served. Its thoughts on the respective interests of the Italy and the Germany, with regard to their respective traditions, and also as for the present, are exposed in a text of 1942 “ For a politico-cultural alignment of Italy and Germany ” where is clearly read the admiration of Evola for the National-socialisme, and superiority of this last on the Fascisme.
In spite of what is formulated in “ the Myth of blood ” the adhesion of Evola to the ideology Raciale Raciste of the Nazism is explicit in this text: one finds there an apology for the aryanity and an admiration for the audacity national-Socialist which dares to take again and reanimate the Aryan spirit and German of the origins. He says well, even, that the character have-scientist and ideological of the theses racialists and racists does not escape to him, but does not constitute therefore an objection which could be to them made - in spite of their character erroneous, consequently. What is to be included/understood in the line of what he thinks of the forgery that “the Protocole of Wise of Sion constitutes” but which must be held for truth, he affirms, even if its authenticity is not very probable. In other words its irrationalism does not hide, if it is about a practical need which must override the reason, according to its logic of thought - or its political logic would have it to be said rather which consists in supporting that a text, an idea, even contrary with science, the reason and factual knowledge, and although intolerable from these points of view, are in spite of very valid and must be held consequently for truths, with the measurement of their interest (or utility) political and for the action. Because “a quantity of ideas, which would be regarded as imaginations without scientific value by the “researchers” (word put between quotation marks by Evola) of our universities, play a very important, political and ethical part, in the new Germanic culture and inspire by the precise directives for the systematic formation of youth”.
An idea must be accepted with the height of its utility for the action and the conviction of the masses. In policy Evola professes a cynical pragmatism and a triumph of the force which decides truth.
For Evola the effectiveness in act applies to criterion of truth: if an idea is useful it is true, whatever the opinion of the erudite spirits and whatever the rational arguments which could invalidate it. Rational arguments, which one sees in which little of regard it holds them, compared with the apology for the force. One deals with thought of the pure force. The force takes precedence over the spirit. And it is the force of an idea which makes its truth. An idea is true because it is convenient and usable with the service of an objective which requires the force.
No restriction on the violence which triumphs under the reign over the Nazism, is under the feather of Evola. To tell the truth only criticism that Evola has to address to national-socialisme, it is that this one does not achieve its program, namely, in the legal field, the creation of a new German public Droit, anti Positiviste and inspired by the racial idea - which goes up, affirms it, at the Aryan origins and Germanic (mythical, that it assigns to them). But in truth, national-socialisme did not know to carry out its program, such is the only criticism which Evola formula vis-a-vis the triumphing Nazism. This is why the legal problems are finally tiny room to the simple racial hygiene, affirm it in its critic who would like to see to achieve a true Nazism, pure, and radical, i.e. radically turned towards the restoration of the origin (mythical).
For the State the same applies according to the critical idea of Evola. Its realization does not coincide with the proclaimed principle, namely that the legitimation of the Führertum by Führer should lie only in the Volk the people with the ethnic direction. Evola still deplores that what the Nazism carries out, - is a determined nationalism, by the means of a State hyper-authoritative and strong, does not correspond however to the forms originating Aryan and Germanic that he would like to see achieving, as a German revival. Because Evola identifies the German Droit to the Roman law old (this last which it distinguishes itself from its modern liberal version): and that it characterizes by the presence of Rex of divine origin, beyond the exceptional chief (Dux, Imperator, or Heretigo) elected by assent and acclamation. The political leader like incarnated god or appears divine of old theocracies, is all in all his ideal.
In short, as an intellectual having rejoined the Nazisme (more deeply still than Fascism) Evola adheres to the principles National-socialisme, and deplores its achievements, which according to him are always very in-on this side proclaimed principles, coherent enough, radical enough, not brought back to the principles.
One could define it as the theorist of “pure” national-socialisme, or as a partisan of ideal “national-socialisme” and more radical: who has the force to achieve his principles and to triumph to establish the culture Germanic, pagan, to which he aspires.
All in all, nourished Buddhism, it divides, but partly only, with Heidegger and Carl Schmitt the intention of the alarm clock of the Germany and the rebirth of the germanity, against modernity i.e. against the Americanism and Communism all at the same time. Between the Russian and the American , the National-socialisme is supposed to invent a third way, that of a Germanic and pagan European empire, neither Capitaliste, nor Socialiste, under the control of Germany. But with the difference of the two preceding authors, Evola, sees the destiny of Germany in a return to its mythical origins and its mythifiées old roots, Germany returned to its bases Germaniques and Romains Antiques, finding its foundation old Théologique, more than Théologico-policy (Chrétienne). In that, on the question of the théologico-policy, it is distinguished completely from Carl Schmitt to which it is opposed. And as it adheres to a Mythologie origins and a return to those, it is as distant as possible from Heidegger. Evola is nourished indeed, of a mythology of times of the apolitical Paganisme (not Greek), i.e. times of the theological figures on before the Judaïsme and the Christianisme, on before the policy to the Greek direction, and at side and apart from the Jewish and Christian tradition.
It adheres to a pagan mythology which it finds at ““old the Germains”” and in the Bouddhisme, trying a daring syncretism. Syncretism where at the same time its refusal of the policy leads to the Greek direction, is the democracy and the reign of the law, like its refusal of civilization resulting from the Judaïsme and the Christianisme, which teaches not to believe in the only man power, because justice is stronger than the force, and which consequently learns how to believe in the force of the weakness, if it has for it justice, and thus learns the possibility that there is for the weak one to overcome the fort. David against Goliath, or the figure of the Christ, summarize this wisdom.
Is Evola, reader of Nietzsche, inspired of the Buddhism, contrary to this wisdom and came from there to admire the Nazism and to believe in its future, carried out by its exacerbated paganism (or exalté?), its mythical desire of size, force, and revenge on the destiny, or rebirth, which accompanies and coming from its rejection by modernity in crisis.
Destiny of its thought
Evola is a thinker inspiring the radical line currents, the national line and revolutionist who preserved the topics of Fascism and national-socialisme still today.
the direction of the aryanityIn its works, Evola often stresses the spiritual unit between civilizations German and Italian. It is in 1934 that Evola goes for the first time in Germany, to give conference series to it. The aristocratic figure of Evola is appreciated in certain mediums, like Herrenklub of Berlin, with the second Congress of the Scandinavian Studies and in the universities. On the other hand, it is held in suspicion by the Nazi regime, because it criticizes the theorist of national-socialisme highly, Alfred Rosenberg, for his lack of “comprehension for crowned dimension and of the transcendence”. Moreover, the aristocrat who is Evola hardly appreciates the character outrageusement plebeian and vulgar of the mode hitlérien. In its Master works “Revolt against the modern world”, published in 1934, it had already stressed that a true chief imposes the respect by his only presence and not by the violence, which is always an indication of spiritual weakness. Its non-adhesion with the fascistic party also creates problems to him. In 1941, that will even retain it to engage on the Soviet face where it had been tempted to fight because Communism constituted the greatest threat for the re-establishment of a civilization of the traditional type in Europe. But it is especially its high vision of the aryanity as conceived in India traditional and taken again by the Bouddha which makes it suspect to the eyes of the Nazis. Evola affirms that the word Sanskrit “arya” indicates initially and before a a whole nobility of the heart, a spiritual rise, before being a question of blood. It even advances as one can be Juif and good Aryan at the same time. After the conferences that Evola pronounces in Germany in 1938, Reichführer S Heinrich Himmler approves the report/ratio of an officer proposing to prohibit in Evola any public activity in Germany and to bring any help to him, while maintaining it under monitoring. The baron Evola escaped from accuracy from the prohibition of stay thanks to the intervention of a close relation of Himmler, the S Brigadeführer Karl Maria Wiligut (alias Karl Maria Weisthor).
It is as in 1938 as Evola visits the Romania, where it makes knowledge with Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, that it describes like “one of the worthiest figures and best spiritually directed” than it was given to him to meet. He binds also friendship with the large historian of the religions, Mircea Eliade.
After the warWounded in Vienna during a Soviet air raid, Evola remained paralyzed until the end of its days, definitively losing the use of its two legs. There does not remain about it less one influential thinker of the extreme right-hand side Italian neofascist. It will be stopped within the framework of the business of the Face of action revolutionary and shown reconstitution of the fascistic Party. It will be bleached of any charge in this business. Thereafter, it will give weapons ideological to new the Ordre group and fraction of the Italian Social movement.
Starting from 1953, its influence will be growing and one will present it like a “Marcuse of right-hand side”.
He writes in 1958 Métaphysique sex ( Metafisica del Sesso ), where he resumes his studies on symbolism, here extended to many traditions with for point of anchoring the sex act.
In 1961, it publishes Chevaucher the tiger ( Cavalcare the tiger ) which contains many critics of the modern world, in continuation with its preceding works.
The principal books of Julius Evola were translated into French and are available to the Éditions Ars magna and the Éditions Pardès.
DoctrinesThe thought of Julius Evola is presented in the form of eminently magic and warlike. Adhering to the hyperborean Paramount Tradition, i.e. with the Metaphysical common to all the ancient traditions. Its writings identify the “heroic and warlike” aspect like factor of revelation of the higher or “solar” magic forces in the world. In a world which lost the presence of the divine beings (“magic kings”) of the origins, Evola, including in its analyzes symbolic systems, reveals the preeminence of the warlike element at the top of the social hierarchy, beyond the claims of a possible sacerdotal caste whom it describes as usurper of the magic rites. In this competition he sees an eternal fight between solar” and “lunar” forces “, or male” and “female” principles “, to dominate the History.
Its thought can be defined as close relation at the same time Plato, of Guénon and Nietzsche. Evola shares with Plato in particular the analysis of the decline of the companies as presented in the Republic . The principles of the traditional doctrines find the same importance fundamental in its writings as in Guénon. And with Nietzsche it there with the shared interest for the aristocratic and warlike values, and also a certain hostility with the Christianity, which it very considers limited on the spiritual and metaphysical level. But Evola further goes than Plato, Guénon and Nietzsche while offering in addition to the theoretical analysis, also a practical teaching making it possible to integrate evoked spiritual dimension. For the rare individuals “remained upright in this world in ruins” " , Julius Evola reveals in its work the Doctrines of the Awakening of the concrete techniques of spiritual release redécouvertes and, coming from the lesson of the Buddhist asceticism of the origins.
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