Jujuy is a province Argentine, located at the North-East of the country, limited to the east and the south by the province of Salta, to the west by the Chile and to north by the Bolivia. Its capital is San Salvador de Jujuy.
At the beginning of the Spanish conquest, the current territory of Jujuy was populated various native-born people. The Omaguaca S prevailed, and were divided into partialities or tribes. Among these last the principal ones were the Ocloya S, the Purmamarcas , the Yavis , the Yalas , the Churumatas and the Jujuy S, which gave their name to the province. However, in the area of the Puna, the Atacamas were prevalent, and particularly the tribe of the Lípe S.
Omaguacas were a ethnic synthesis of Diaguita S and Atacamas with a strong genetic component Arawak.
The tough resistance of these populations made difficult the advance of the invaders, initially Quechua S, then Spanish. In 1536, Diego de Almagro traversed the Puna of Jujuy, and the conquest of the province started. The resistance of Omahuaca or Omaguaca S belonged to that of the Diaguita S, so that in the Guerres Calchaquies the indigenous people of Jujuy took part fully and produced famous chiefs like the chiefs Juan Calchaquí, Kipildor (Quipildor) and Viltipoco. It was as precisely in the province as Spanish buckled the surrounding of the Vallées Calchaquies in revolt, when was founded the city and the fort of the town of San Salvador de Jujuy by Francisco de Algañaraz, with the confluence of the rivers Río Grande of Jujuy and río Xibi-Xibi, in 1593.
In 1810 during the release of the Revolution of May, Jujuy as Tarija in current the Bolivia formed the septentrional part of the governorship of the Salta del Tucumán . At the time of the wars of liberation, the royalists undertook eleven invasions from Peru and High-Peru, so that the situation of the patriots became critical in the zone of Lípez, Tarija and Jujuy. This is why in 1812, Manuel Belgrano ordering Ejército del Norte (Armed with North) directed the Éxodo Jujeño (exodus of Jujuy).
One of the royalist main leaders (the last viceroy of Río of Plata and autoproclamé viceroyalty of Peru|viceroy of Peru) was the ultra-conservative Pedro Olañeta who precisely was a landowner established in Jujuy.
Jujuy was one of the fourteen provinces founders of Argentina.
In 1836 most of the province was invaded by the troops of the Confederation Peruano-Bolivian.
In 1876 an indigenous rebellion dependant at the request of grounds in the departments of Rinconada, Cochinoca and Yavi was brutally repressed by the provincial government after the rebels were overcome with the battle of Quera. In 1943, the Government of the territory of Los the Andes was dissolved, and Jujuy accepted the Département of Susques.
San Salvador de Jujuy (to 1.259 Mr. of altitude)
- San Pedro
- Quiaca (to 3.442 Mr.)
- General Libertador San Martín
- Tilcara (to 2.461 Mr.)
- Humahuaca (to 2.939 Mr.)
- El Carmen
- Abra Pampa (to 3.484 Mr.)
16 departments of Jujuy
- Cochinoca (Abra Pampa)
- El Carmen (El Carmen)
- Manual Doctor Belgrano (San Salvador de Jujuy)
- Humahuaca (Humahuaca)
- Ledesma (General Libertador San Martín)
- Palpalá (Palpalá)
- Rinconada (Rinconada)
- San Antonio (San Antonio)
- San Pedro (San Pedro)
- Santa Bárbara (Santa Clara)
- Santa Catalina (Santa Catalina)
- Susques (Susques)
- Tilcara (Tilcara)
- Tumbaya (Tumbaya)
- Valle Large (Valle Large)
- Yavi (Quiaca)
Geography and Climate
The province located at the Argentinian North-East, develops an eminently mountainous relief. Altitude increases gradually is in the west. The south-eastern zone is raised, and corresponds to the valley of the Río San Francisco, affluent abundant of the Río Bermejo.
Three great geographical areas are distinguished:
- the Sierras Subandines
- the Eastern Cordillera, where is located celebrates it Quebrada de Humahuaca.
- the Puna.
One distinguishes three Biome S in Jujuy; initially that of the Altiplano, a plate of 3.500 meters altitude which covers the major part of the territory with peaks (volcanic) of more than 5.000 meters, of which the Tuzgle. Then the area where runs the Río Grande of Jujuy through the cañon of the Quebrada de Humahuaca, and which goes from a height of 1.000 up to 3.500 meters. Finally in south-east the sierras dropping towards the plain of the Gran Chaco determine a hot area of less than 1.000 meters.
The great differences of altitude and pluviometry produced arid zones like the Salar S or Salinas Grandes with their mines of salt, but also of the very sprinkled zones of subtropical jungles, the yungas as in the close Bolivia.
On the whole however the climate is mainly arid with semi-desert, with the very notable exception of the broad valley El Ramal of the Río San Francisco.
The differences in diurnal and night temperature are important in the raised areas, and precipitations are reduced apart from the area of Río San Francisco.
Jujuy and the Axis of the Capricorn
These last years the countries of South America have great projects of work of road infrastructure and communication to be realized or already realized, having to make it possible to connect itself between them, and to stimulate their economies thus, but also to connect the two large banks the Atlantic and peaceful to stimulate and facilitate the international business (towards Asia especially).
Among these projects, that called " Center of Capricorne" ( Eje de Capricornio ) sponsored by IIRSA, must allow to connect the industrialized south of Brazil with the ports of north Chile in Antofagasta and of Mejillones, while crossing the Andes on the level of the provinces Argentine S of Salta and Jujuy. Large investments are envisaged in Argentina in these two provinces, and also in those of the Chaco and Formosa towards the Paraguay and Brazil.
With regard to Jujuy, a first stage was already inaugurated by presidents Kirschner of Argentina and Lagos of Chile in 2005. It is the construction of the trunk road 52, ultramodern road between San Salvador de Jujuy and Antofagasta on the Pacific Ocean, crossing the Andes with the Paso de Jama with more 4200 meters of altitude and empruntable all the year (not of snowing up). This road must be used with many trucks for transport since and towards the Asia and especially the Popular republic as China whose trade literally exploded with the countries of the Mercosur at this beginning of XXe century.
Other work will follow. It is in particular about the modernization of the railway " General Handbook Belgrano " who connects the Bolivia to the capital of the province of Jujuy, and the provincial portion of the Jujuy-Formosa way (towards the Paraguay).
Source: Site of the IIRSA (in Spanish)
Among many tourist attractions of the province is the Quebrada de Humahuaca, which is characterized by sumptuousness from its landscapes and its rich person cultural heritage. It is also recommended to traverse the zone of the Yungas and the Puna, with landscapes which go from the exuberant forest to desert territories. Let us underline inter alia:
- In Yunga is the National park Calilegua.
- In the area of Puna one can visit National Natural reserve Laguna of los Pozuelos.
- Always in the puna, is the Provincial Reserve of the Laguna de Guayatayoc.
- the Quebrada de Humahuaca was declared in 2003 " Natural heritage and Cultural of Humanité" by UNESCO.
- the site of the Lagunas de Vilama, together of water parts of the puna (close to the Bolivian border) declared site Ramsar in 2000.
- superb a salar or desert of salt, the Large Salinas of Jujuy.
- Among the less important cities let us quote the small jewel than constitutes Purmamarca and its church dedicated to Santa Rosa of Lima, classified national Historic building .
- the Pucará de Tilcara
- detailed Chart of the province of Jujuy
- administrative Chart - departments of the province
- Chart of situation of the principal localities of Jujuy
- the project of the axis of the Capricorn (Eje del Capricornio) according to the IIRSA
- Diaporama of the province of Jujuy
Beats-smg: Žužujė provincėjė
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