The judo (柔 道 or way of the flexibility ) is a Martial art and a Sport of combat of origin Japan ease ( Budo ), founded by Jigoro Kano in 1882. It is composed essentially of techniques of projection, of control on the ground, throttlings and keys.
The place where one practices the judo calls the Dōjō or dojo (place of study of the way). The practitioners (the judoka ) carry a cotton behavior wrongly reinforced called judogi , often called Kimono , which is the generic name of the traditional behavior Japan ease. The judogi is generally white, but to facilitate the distinction between the combatants in the competitions, a judoka can have a blue judogi on all the levels of competitions (if the judoka does not have a blue judogi, the distinction will be done using red or white belt). For the competitions starting from the national level, one of the two judokas must cover a blue judogi. The judo is practiced barefeet on a tatami. The judo is an Olympic sport.
DescriptionThe judo term is composed of 2 roughly meaning Kanji:
- Jû (to pronounce djou ): Flexibility
- C : Art, the way
Judo can thus result in the way of the flexibility .
The wish of Jigoro Kano, its founder, was to popularize a method aiming to better using its physical and mental resources by taking as starting point the Ju-jitsu schools takenouchi ryu and kito ryu that it had practiced during 6 years. The legend says that he discovered the principles of the judo at the time one rigorous winter, by noticing that the branches of the cherry tree reacted differently under the weight of abundant snow. Largest broke whereas most flexible folded and got rid of “the attacker” with flexibility. The way of the flexibility had been born.
The " légende" , in its simplicity, is not far away from the initial wish to popularize a method aiming to better using its physical and mental resources. Jigoro Kano was aware that Ju-jitsu such as it was practiced was not adapted more at the time modern. The techniques were sometimes very dangerous to learn and the majority of the Masters were is inefficient pedagogically or taught a declining and ineffective ju-jitsu. While taking as a starting point the methods of various Western gymnastics, Jigoro Kano decided expurger ju-jitsu the dangerous movements and to codify the remaining techniques in order to facilitate teaching in the forms of Kata. It was obvious that the art of the flexibility, removed from its warlike vocation, was not any more of the ju-jitsu, but a new martial art with callisthenic vocation. The Judo had been born.
The judo was a success which extended largely beyond the Japanese borders and largely contributed to popularize Japanese martial arts, while involving confusion between martial art and sport of combat. Thus, the judo of the origins was directed more and more towards the sporting aspect when the champions of the Kodokan had definitively beaten the majority of the schools of Ju-jitsu during organized combat. The economic capacity of Kodokan was thus definitively installed in the world of Japanese martial arts.
The judo starts to be taught in Japan in 1882 with the Kodokan, in France since 1935 per Maitre Mikinosuke Kawaishi. Moshe Feldenkrais creates the Jujitsu-Club of France , then the French federation of judo is founded in 1946. It is as at that time as will develop the sporting side and that the first competitions will appear. The number of practitioners all over the world increases then considerably.
The judo is the discipline most practiced in France, in front of the Karaté and the Aïkido. It is the third sport more practiced in France in 2000 with nearly 550000 bachelors and 5.547 clubs. It became officially Olympic discipline at the time of the Plays of Tokyo in 1964. The female judo made its entry in the Olympic program with the Plays of Seoul in 1988 like sport of demonstration before being definitively accepted starting from the Plays of Barcelona in 1992. In 2006, the International federation of Judo counts 189 Member States.
Moral code of the Judo
the Courtesy, it is the respect of others
- Courage, is to make what is right
- Sincerity, is to be expressed without disguising its thought
- the Honor, is to be faithful to the word given
- Modesty, is to speak about oneself without pride
- the Respect, without respect no confidence cannot be born
- the Self-control, it is to know to keep silent when anger
- the friendship assembles, it is purest of the human feelings
The sporting judo differentiates explicitly:
- techniques of projection aiming at unbalancing the adversary to make it fall on the ground: stroke waza in which one finds
- upright the group of the techniques, tachi waza
- techniques of legs: ashi waza
- techniques of arm: you waza
- techniques of hips: koshi waza
- the group of the techniques of sacrifice, sutemi waza where the practitioner decides to sacrifice his balance to make fall his adversary.
- techniques of sacrifice in the axis: mae sutemi waza among which one finds famous the " small plank japonaise"
- techniques of sacrifice on the side: yoko sutemi waza
- techniques applied to the ground: waza
- technique of immobilization: osae-komi waza
- technique of throttling: shime waza
- technique of key: kansetsu waza
Some Kata S (forms) of judo require to also practice the techniques of striking ( atemi waza ). One finds there
- the kicks ( geri ),
- the punches ( tsuki )
- the blows of the edge of the hand ( shuto ).
Forms of driveThe youngest judokas practice their sport in a ludic way thanks to the drives in the form of plays suggested by the trainer who helps them to take confidence in them and to discover their body which will evolve/move. One of the stages essential being the appentissage fall, the Ukemi. They will become sure them, the more flexible and more forts in order to prepare for the next competitions and the next passage of rank.
Tendoku-Renshu : is only practiced, the technical movements are repeated in the vacuum, it is a work of mental modeling of the space placement of the body and of that of the imaginary partner.
- Uchi-komi : mean " to return dedans". Is practiced to two to work in repetition the entry of a projection (imbalance, placement of the body, launching of the technique) without making fall the partner.
- Stroke-komi : Is practiced to two, it is the obvious result of the uchi-komi puisqu'" it is a question of repeating several times a whole technique, with fall when one works the stroke-waza . It is possible to work in stroke-komi in -waza (on the ground).
- Yaku-soku-geiko : in the same spirit as the stroke-komi , this exercise is carried out in permanent displacement, at the time from which Tori benefits from opportunities for launching attacks. Uke falls each time, does not dodge nor does not block the attacks. (it is a kind of randori of study).
- Kakari-geiko : , the kakari-geiko is a kind of randori in which one imposes a topic. Onpeut to give like example: Tori has an offensive role, it constantly attacks Uke which must be defended without however blocking tori completely in order to enable him to work.
- Randori : results in " drive libre". The randori is the flexible shape of combat, in which more the two judokas are partners than adversaries since they must make it possible the other to work. The other thus should not be blocked, while opposing a resistance moderated to simulate the conditions of a combat. It is a exercise difficult to realize accordingly.
- Shiai : it is about combat as in competition.
These Katas represents exercises of style, concentration particularly difficult and constitutes the source even principles of the Judo. The good execution of these Kata requires of this fact of long years of practice to make it possible to the judoka to seize the deep sense of it.
Most known of the Kata S are:
- forms of the Kodokan :
- Stroke-No-kata (form of projections) composed of 5 groups (you-waza, koshi-waza, ashi-waza, mae-sutemi-waza, yoko-sutemi-waza).
- Katame-No-kata (form of controls) composed of 3 groups (osae-komi-waza, shime-waza, kansetsu-waza).
- Kime-No-kata (form of the decision).
- Goshin-jutsu (No-kata) (form of the defense of oneself).
- Ju-No-kata (form of the flexibility).
- Itsutsu-No-kata (form of the five principles).
- Koshiki-No-kata (form of the old techniques).
- Seiryoku-zenyo-kokumin-taiiku-No-kata (form of the physical drive and mutual prosperity) - this kata contains the kime-shiki (form of the decision - bound for the women).
- Joshi goshin-Ho
- other forms :
- Go-No-SEN-No-kata (form of the against-catches)
- Nanatsu-No-kata (form of the seven techniques)
- Stroke-Ura-No-Kata (another form of against catches creates by Maïtre Mifune)
Contest of kata: for a few years of the competitions of kata have been organized throughout the world, and in particular in Belgium (more information here http://judokatas.googlepages.com)
Ranks or belts
See also: Belt in the budo
The Grade S are allotted to a practitioner and make it possible to evaluate his technical level, its effectiveness in combat, its degree of seniority like its morals qualities, which corresponds to the absolute respect of the moral code as well as a sufficient investment in practice. Without the minimum of compliance with the rules required, no judoka can claim with obtaining a rank.
The belts of colors were invented in England in the middle of the years 1920 then introduced in France by professor Kawaishi. One finds in the order the belts white, yellow, orange, green, blue, maroon, the famous black belt like two higher belts (a red and white of 6th with the 8th daN, a red for 9th and finally for the 10th daN as to close a cycle it obtains a white belt). There exist also alternative ranks to evaluate and reward young people (white-yellow, yellow-orange, orange-green). It can also have bars in the place of a belt white-yellow. One thus obtains a white belt with a yellow bar to sew, so on until sometimes three bars (in Belgium).
the belts of colors white to chestnut correspond to named ranks kyu : 6th kyu represented by the white belt until the 1st kyu by the belt chestnut.
- In France, the ranks lower than the black belt are delivered by a professor of graduate judo of State, generally following a passage of ranks organized by the club.
With the top of the kyu , the levels are named daN ( degree): 1st daN with 5th daN , the belt is black; the 6th , 7th and 8th daN are represented by a belt with broad band red and white alternated, the 9th and 10th daN by a red belt. After the red belt, there is a belt which was obtained only by Jigoro Kano, the broad white belt (11 and 12th daN, 12th daN that Maitre Kano did not obtain that has posthumous title)
the 2nd and 3rd daN correspond to the Japanese name of Deshi which means disciple .
- 4th and 5th daN with the Renshi ( external control )
- 6th and 7th daN with the Kyoshi ( interior control )
- 8th and 9th daN with the Hanshi ( unified controls interior and external )
- 10th daN with the Keijin ( alive treasure ).
Obtaining the levels starting from the black belt can be done in two manners:
- an examination of Kata S in front of a official Jury regional or national
- to gain points at the time of official combat (44 in a tournament or 1 shiai or 100 on several and 120 for the third and fourth daN) between belts black and maroon (for obtaining the first daN
- to take part in a training course concerning the organization and the arbitration of the competitions
- UV1 Katas
- UV2 Techniques upright/ground
- UV3 Exercices of application Judo
- UV4 Techniques of defenses Ju-jitsu
Very often, while speaking about “yellow belt” or “black belt”, one not indicates by Métonymie the belt in itself, but the holder of the associated rank. It is thus possible to say: “This judoka is a black belt”.
Ranks of the belts of colors (Kyu)
However, in France, it was of use to use the green-blue belt, which adds a kyu. This one is not however valid any more with the eyes of the federation.
Higher ranks (daN)
Course of a competition
The referee S in judo have the role:
to grant the advantages or the victory to the combatants following completely successful techniques partially or;
- to maintain the interest of the combat and to ensure the safety of the combatants while stopping and while making take again the combat when it is necessary;
- to inform the combatants and the table (and if possible the spectators) of the unfolding of the combat, for example when there is beginning of immobilization;
- to make comply with the rules and to apply the suitable sanctions if necessary.
In the official competitions, three referees ensure the arbitration of a combat: a referee says “central referee” in position upright and which moves with the combatants, and two referees known as “judges of corner”, who are sitted with the two opposite corners of the surface of combat. The central referee makes the decisions by giving the decision of the majority. The role of the judges of corner is to deliver their opinion in the event of dissension with the decision of the central referee. For that, they use the same gestures of arbitration as the central referee. When only one of the two judges of corner delivers his opinion, it must or not modify its decision according to whether it is in agreement with the majority. If the two judges of corner are of agreement against the opinion of the central referee, this one must modify its decision. In the other cases, the central referee always has the possibility of reconsidering his decision, if he thinks of being himself misled. The judge of corner also determines if an action is validated or not according to whether it were carried out within or out of the limits of the carpet.
One distinguishes the arbitration from the combat in the phases of tachi waza (combat upright) and of waza (combat on the ground), the techniques employed not being the same ones. To render comprehensible itself, the referee uses terms of precise arbitration often accompanied by a gesture, in order to be included/understood by far in a noisy environment. Here a list of the terms of arbitration employed in competition and their significance:
Terms of arbitration
- Generic terms
- HAJIME - begin
- MATTE (arm tended towards the sporting police chiefs, palm forwards) - stop
- HIKI-WAKE - null combat
- SOREMADE - fine of the combat
- SONOMAMA (by touching the two combatants) - do not move more (when the referee wants to check something without modifying the exit of the combat)
- YOSHI (by briefly touching the two combatants) - take again the combat (after SONOMAMA )
- HANTEI - decision of the judges
- KOKA 3points (arm folded, palm forwards with the square) - small advantage
- YUKO 5points (arm tended on the side below horizontal, tended fingers) - average
- WAZA-ARI 7points favors (arm tended on the side to horizontal, tended fingers) - almost the victory
- WAZA-ARI AWAZETE IPPON is equivalent to ippon (arm tended then to raise, only in competition FFJDA to France) after a second WAZA-ARI, the technique is worth ten points and it is the end of the combat
- IPPON 10points (arm tended above the head, fingers tended) - acquired victory (not), end of the combat
- Combat on the ground
- OSAE-KOMI - beginning of immobilization
- TOKETA - exit of immobilization
- SHIDO - light fault penalisable of a koka
- CHUI AND KEIKOKU does not exist any more, the faults which were sanctioned by a chui from now on are sanctioned by a shido and the faults which was sanctioned by a keikoku, are sanctioned by hansoku maké , to be more precise all the faults are sanctioned by shido and are automatically incremented of a notch, the first shido is equivalent has koka for the adversary, the second with yuko etc… on the whole the fourth warning corresponds to Hansoku-Make, that is to say the loss of the combat for disqualification, but it can continue the competition if its adversary fishes out it, attention nevertheless certain techniques considered to be dangerous for the attacker (Tori) or the defender (Uke) can be sanctioned by Hansoku-maké directly and then it is excluded from the competition because it is considered that it does not respect the ethics of the judo.
- HANSOKU-MAKE - serious error (disqualification of the competition) or accumulation of four light faults (disqualification of the combat)
Sporting police chiefsThe sporting police chiefs are elements essential to the behavior of a competition. They are in load of the logistics of the demonstration. The functions of the police chief are:
- To time:
- To mark:
- To hold the table:
- It deals of the weighing and the inscription of the combatants.
- without forgetting most important, it takes care of the hen sheet or the table, i.e. which it takes care of the order and the sequence of the engagements.
Right before the combat itself, the two combatants carry out the entry on the tatami and the greets. They greet first once towards the carpet while going up above, then they return while passing behind the judges of corner, to go to position in the center of the carpet, face to face behind the zone of danger (the red band). From there, they await the signal of the referee, who will make sign by bringing closer his arms tended opposite him. They then greet first once the surface of combat (this safety is not obligatory any more since 2004 for the competitions, but it was maintained for the “demonstrations”), then when they are remote of combat, that is to say approximately three meters, they are greeted mutually, take a step, left foot ahead initially, and await the starting signal HAJIME .
When the referee gave the signal of end and designated the winner (while advancing of a step towards the winner and while raising the hand by introducing this same judoka), the two combatants leave while carrying out the reverse the entry: They are greeted, can tighten the hand, then move back out of the zone of combat and greet the carpet at their exit there.
The ultimate goal of the judo was always the research of IPPON , that is to say the direct victory by an effective technique. Into judo upright, that is translated according to four criteria: fall largely on the back with force, speed and control. However, the competition being what it is, it is necessary to be able to judge the effectiveness of a partially successful technique, by allotting more or less important advantages according to criteria of success, that in order to be able to decide between the combatants at the conclusion of the combat. These criteria are the quality of projection and the position of reception of the adversary in combat upright, and the downtime in combat on the ground (an abandonment gives the victory and very often makes following a technique of throttling or key to the elbow succeeded).
The advantages to distribute are KOKA , YUKO , WAZA-ARI and IPPON . It is always the advantage most extremely which carries it, which wants to say that a WAZA-ARI is stronger than any number of YUKO , and a YUKO is stronger than any number of KOKA . An exception however: when the same combatant marks two WAZA-ARI , it gains by WAZA-ARI AWASETE IPPON . When the strongest advantage is the same one for the two combatants, the winner is that which has some more. If it is an equality, one takes into account the lower advantage and so on until the smallest advantage.
The attribution of advantages upright, even on the ground, always asks for a share of personal judgment of the referee, which wants to say that the decisions which it makes sometimes contestable and are disputed. This problem is solved in theory thanks to the assistance of the referees of corner, but it is unfortunately not always the case. In practice, according to the official rules (and as in the majority of the sports) the referee is right always. More precisely, the decision validated by at least two of the three referees on the carpet is undeniable.
KINZA : This advantage is not entered, nor not announced, but must be taken into account by the referee to decide between the combatants in the event of equality. It corresponds to a frank attack, followed or not fall of the adversary on the belly or the knees.
KOKA : It is given when the adversary falls on the thighs or the buttocks. The impact must be on the buttocks; if the adversary rolls on the back in the same movement, the advantage given will be higher.
YUKO : It is given when it misses two of the four elements of IPPON . It corresponds to a fall on the side (falls side), or a fall on the buttocks with the impact on the bottom of the back. If the falling speed is raised and immediately followed by a contact of the back to the carpet, that is worth a WAZA-ARI .
WAZA-ARI : It is given when it misses one of the four elements of IPPON . It corresponds to an impact on the back, but where the force and the speed of projection are insufficient. It can also be given following a fall on the buttocks or the bottom of the back followed immediately of a contact of the shoulders to the carpet.
IPPON It is given following a projection with impact on the back with force, speed and control, and gives the victory.
Fights on the ground
An advantage is given in combat on the ground after an immobilization of the adversary. So that there is immobilization, it is necessary that the two shoulders of the adversary touch the carpet and that control is made the bust turned towards the carpet. The referee shouts OSAE-KOMI then by advancing the tended arm and the foot posed in direction of the combatants, and the stop watch of immobilization is started. It is judged that the adversary succeeded in leaving the immobilization when its exit is total: either it is on the belly (two shoulders turned towards the carpet), or it reversed its adversary completely, or it falls through unfavourable control by wrapping the leg or the bust of its adversary with its legs. The referee shouts TOKETA then by laterally agitating the arm tended in direction of the combatants. One then stops the stop watch and one counts the number of seconds that it indicates. During this time, the combat continues until the referee gives the signal of stop MATTE , when there is no more interesting technical continuation. The advantages are given according to the downtime:
KOKA : between 10 seconds and less than 15 seconds
- YUKO : between 15 seconds and less than 20 seconds
- WAZA-ARI : between 20 seconds and less than 25 seconds
- IPPON : 25 seconds
A KINZA can be taken into account on an immobilization of less than 10 seconds.
These values are not true that for the categories with the top of tiny, i.e. the 12-13 years and above. In lower part, for the youngest children thus, the downtimes and their values are slightly different:
KOKA : between 5 seconds and less than 10 seconds
- YUKO : between 10 seconds and less than 15 seconds
- WAZA-ARI : between 15 seconds and less than 20 seconds
- IPPON : 20 seconds
The victory (by IPPON ) is given following an abandonment of the adversary. In combat on the ground, the abandonment is very frequently caused by a throttling or a key with the elbow (only authorized in judo). To announce his abandonment, the combatant strikes two short times his adversary or the carpet, with the hand, or the foot if its hands are inalienable.
Various penalties accumulated:
- the first, SHIDO , gives a KOKA to the adversary;
- the following one, 2 SHIDO , gives a YUKO to the adversary by eliminating preceding KOKA ;
- the third penalty, 3 SHIDO , gives a WAZA-ARI to the adversary by eliminating preceding YUKO ;
- the fourth penalty, " 4 SHIDO" , combat is eliminatory if the faults are progressive ( SHIDO )
The various penalties are replaced by SHIDO which accumulate:
- the first gives a KOKA to the adversary,
- the following gives a YUKO to the adversary by eliminating the preceding KOKA ,
- in the same way, the third gives a WAZA-ARI to the adversary by eliminating preceding YUKO .
- the fourth penalty is it also a SHIDO , which is worth a victory of the adversary.
- It also can, in the event of serious error, to have there a HANSOKU MAKE , which means a direct elimination of the combatant.
The first three penalties are given mainly for faults of the type: not combativeness (passivity), refusal of combat (escape or voluntary exit of the zone of combat), attitude excessively defensive (arms tended, bust completely folded forwards, seized of the judogi the particular one not followed by an attack), distorts attack (and not fallen through attempt which belongs to the combat), prohibited gestures (fingers inside the sleeve, member on the face of the adversary,…).
HANSOKU-MAKE are thus given either by accumulation of 4 SHIDO , or after a contrary gesture with the spirit of the judo, which can mean not taken it into account of the referee, remarks made with this one; maybe after an action endangering the adversary or oneself. The dangerous gestures are many but easy to prevent if the practitioner seeks the effectiveness above all.
FranceThe Sport-studies intended for the young French judokas (as from 15 years) is divided into four categories:
- the National institute of the Sports and Physical education;
- the poles France: INEF, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Orleans, Strasbourg;
- the poles Hope: 25 in Metropolitan France and 1 overseas;
- the classes study or departmental classes of judo (approximately 35 in France).
Current (in 2007)
The judo makes its appearance within the Olympic program at the time of the Jeux of Tokyo in 1964. Very popular in Japan, its introduction into the Olympic event is due to the fact that the organizing country can choose to add a new sport to the list of the Olympic sports. Four tests were then organized in four different categories of weights, which tests were exclusively male, female judo not being developed yet. During the competition, the Japanese judokas took down three of the four gold medals last the ghost with the Netherlander Anton Geesink who asserted in the category open (or all categories). This victory contradicts the critics relegating the judo like a Japanese exclusive domain.
Notes and references of the article
|Random links:||Saint-Sebastien - Froissart (subway of Paris) | Kählérienne variety | Sunidhi Chauhan | County of Coryell | In Legal Matter | Aedile|