See also: Juda
The Judaea (in Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah ) was the Roman name for the country which the Jews called the Earth of Israel, roughly speaking. The origin of this name, according to the historian Felix Abel, is in the word araméen Yehoudaya יהודייא (= Jews), from where it passed to the Greek in the form of Ioudaia and to Latin in the form Iudaea (in inscriptions IVDAEA) from where the French form Judaea . The Hadrian emperor changed the name of the province of Judaea into Syria Palaestina (Syria Palestine), Palestine, in year 135. In New Testament, the name Judaea has two directions: 1) the territory of the old kingdom of Juda; and 2) the whole of the Earth of Israel, called Palestine after Hadrian by the Romans. Judaea in the first direction, narrowest, was located at the south of the area of Samarie. These two areas --roughly speaking-- are indicated today collectively under the name of the West Bank. The term of Judaea is used today by the Israeli government and sometimes also by people speaking Hebrew or attached to Israel to refer to a broad area of the south of the West Bank and Israel, or more specifically in the West Bank in the term “Judaea-Samarie”.
The territory of Judaea in the narrow direction was covered by the Royaume of Juda. After the fall of this kingdom in 587 av. J. - C., Judaea was invaded by the Babylonian , then the Perse S and the Séleucides. The resistance of the Hasmonéens - Macchabées (cf Books of the Stiffs) gave place a time to an independent kingdom, the kingdom of Judaea, controlled by Ethnarque S, high priests hasmonéens.
Judaea fell then under Roman domination in 63 av. J. - C.: Hyrcan II and Aristobule, wire of the queen Alexandra, disputing the throne, Aristobule called upon Pompée. The behavior of Aristobule displeased in Pompée, and it put Hyrcan on the throne at its place. Judaea became a State-customer, independent of swears but dominated de facto . When Pompée was overcome by Jules César, Hyrcan was put on side and the effective capacity was given to Antipater, one of its ministers, who controlled until his death in 44 av. J. - C. In 40, Hyrcan II was killed and its nephew, Antigone, went up on the throne. The last of Hasmonéens, it was killed in 37 av. J. - C. on the order of Hérode (wire of Antipater, Tétrarque of Judaea since 41 named by Rome), and of Marc Antoine.
In -37, Hérode took the title of king, it is known for us under the name of Hérode Large the. The Romans called it king, allied and friend of the Roman people ( rex socius amicusque populi Romani ). With its death in -4, it divided its kingdom between its children, among which Hérode Archélaos, which controlled so badly that he was deposited in the year 6 of the Christian era by Auguste, with the call of its own population, and Hérode Antipas, husband of Hérodiade, of which he is question in the New Testament. From now on, Judaea was directly under Roman control: it becomes a district depend on the governor of Syria and managed by a prefect, equestrian Ordre only because of the least importance of the province. Pontius Pilate was one of these prefects, in load probably of 26 with 36. In obviousness of the title praefectus of Pilate, there is a discovered stone inscription with Caesarée. The capital passed from Jerusalem to Césarée, built under Hérode the Large one.
Judaea regained a little independence between 41 and 42, when Hérode Agrippa accepted the title of king of the emperor Claude Ier, then when his/her son, Hérode Agrippa II, assembled on the throne in 48. During its reign the first great revolt of Judaea took place, in 66 - 70: she was subdued by Titus, which made shave the Temple of Jerusalem. With died of Hérode Clutched II, the province returned under direct Roman control. Two revolts still took place:
Following this last revolt which made undergo heavy losses with the Roman armies, Hadrian changed the name of the province into “Syria Palestine”, Syria Palæstina , and Jerusalem was renamed in Ælia Capitolina , to humiliate the Jews. According to the Christian historian Eusèbe, Hadrian prohibited the Jews from living the polished or colonia of Ælia Capitolina, although the Jews continued to live the other parts of the country, under its new name of Syria Palestine. It is erroneous to believe that Hadrian expelled the Jews of all the parts of old Judaea. The Dominican brother and historian, fire Felix Abel, from the Biblical School to Jerusalem, fact authority over this period of the history of the country, as well as the Israeli historian Michael Avi-Yonah.
- Histoire of Judaea in an approach set of themes and chronological
- the Romans how did they call the Earth of Israel and which were its borders? (in English)
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