Josué (in Hebrew: יהושע - yehôšua `, which means " Yahvé sauve") is a biblical character delivers Exodus and especially Livre of Josué whose texts belong to the Tanakh of the Jews and the Old Testament of the Christians.
Josué is the successor of Moïse in the control of the Jewish people towards the Promised land. It carries out the conquest of the Pays of Canaan then installs the Tribus of Israel.
Josué is called first of all Hoshea, wire of Noun, which gives Hebrew הושע. It is Moïse which re-elects Hoshea:
- Nombres 13.16 Such are the names of the men whom Moïse sent to explore the country. Brace gave to Hosée, wire of Nun, the name of Josué.
Josué is written in Hebrew יהושוע Yahoushua as in Deuteronome 3.21. After the appearance of the MATER lectionis, the traditional orthography tends to remove the second Waw, to give יהושע, Yohshea.
The significance of the word comes from ישע, " sauver".
The Hebrew and French dictionary of Sander and Trenel translates it God is his assistance, because it contains יה (yah), like Yehouda יהודה, praise with god or Abadiah עבדיה, servant of God.
The transliteration in Greek of Yehoushua gives ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, Ἰησοῦς. It is the title of the Livre of Josué in the Seventy. In the Acts of the Apostles, it is called of the same Ἰησοῦ (Acts 7.45), just as Jesus Ἰησοῦ (Acts 7.59).
This article rests on the Bible which is not a book of history.
- For historical and archaeological information to see Given archaeological on the conquest of Canaan
- For epigraphic information to see History of research on Pentateuque
Succession of Brace
Josué is the son of Noun, member of the Tribu of Éphraïm. It was born in Egypt at the time of slavery of the Hebrew . It is pilot left Egypt of the Jews under the direction of Moïse. It is distinguished as a military commander when the Tribus of Israel are attacked by the people of Amalek to Réfidim. (Exodus 17:8 - 16).
It assists Moïse and accompanies it in the rise by part of the Mont the Sinai to receive the Ten commands (Exode 32:17). It also forms part of the twelve explorers that Moïse sends as scouts in the Pays of Canaan. It is on this occasion that, previously named Osée, it becomes Josué (Nombres 13:16, 17). Only Caleb and Josué will bring back encouraging news in their report/ratio near the people. They will be thus the only ones of this generation to enter on the promised land after the people had wandered 40 years in the desert.
Before dying on Eastern bank of the the Jordan, Moïse indicates Josué like its successor to cross the river, to lead the people and to enable him to conquer the Pays of Canaan.
The conquest of the Pays of Canaan is described in the Livre of Josué. According to the text, God encourages Josué to be strong and to be based on the laws of the Torah to lead the people.
Crossing of the Jordan
Josué obtains the support of the two tribes and half (Tribu of Ruben, Tribu of Gad and half of the Tribu of Manassé) which settled in the East of the the Jordan to help the other tribes Jews to conquer the country.
The first obstacle is the river of the Jordan. Josué advances the Ark of the Covenant carried by the priests cohanim in front of the people. The river stops miraculeusement its course and allows the crossing of the conquerors Jews. Josué then sets up a monument made up of twelve stones on western bank with Guilgal. Guilgal will constitute the base since which all the conquest will be carried out.
Josué made to circoncire all the men Jews born in the desert and who could not there have been circoncis, in order to celebrate Pessah, commemoration of the exit of Egypt.
Conquests of Josué
The old town of Jericho is the first conquest of the Jews under the direction of Josué. It sends spies to it. The account tells how the walls of the city crumble after the priests had turned 7 times during 7 days around the city by sounding Schofar. The city is shaven and a curse is marked against all that existed in Jericho. All the inhabitants are killed, except for the family of Rahab which had sheltered the spies Jews.
The troops of Josué undergo a reverse in the town of Have. The fault is put on the person of Akan which is punished to have subtilized goods dedicated to be destroyed in Jericho. Josué is made main then of Have (the military strategy used consists of an attack surprised on two faces), which opens to him the road of the mountains in the west of Jericho. Josué reads the blessings and the curses with the people, on the Mont Garizim and the Mont Ébal.
In front of the fear inspired in the area by prestige of the military victories against Jericho and Have, the inhabitants of Gabaon manage to obtain by the trick a peace treaty with Josué. They will be used in the service of the gate vault. Learning this alliance, five kings amorites (of the towns of Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron and Débir) decide to attack together the town of Gabaon to punish it. The troops of Josué, related to Gabaonites by the peace treaty, put in rout the armies amorites on which God makes fall from hail. It is there that, in order to destroy these armies, Josué completely exclaims: Sun, stops with the top of Gabaon! the Moon, is immobilized on the valley of Ayalon! Josué makes condemn the entry of the cave where the five kings amorites took refuge. Then after having overcome the runaways, it makes reopen the cave, humiliate the five kings by the chiefs of tribes Jews then it makes them hang with five trees until the evening.
Installation of the tribes
After the conquest of the near total of the Country of Canaan, Josué manages the installation of the tribes and the division of the territory. It starts with the tribes of Juda, Éphraïm and Manassé. Caleb obtains the town of Hebron. The Ark of the Covenant is moved of Guilgal where it was since the crossing of the the Jordan, to Silo (it will be moved again only after the conquest of Jerusalem by the King David).
Josué creates city-refuges for the Lévites. It receives itself the town of Timnath-serah. The two tribes and half turn over on their grounds to the east of the Jordan.
At the end of its life, Josué convenes the old ones and the chiefs of tribes Jews. It exhorts them not to fraternize with the local population. There publicly asks the people to remain faithful to God who of time appeared so much with them. Josué dies at the 110 years age (bibliquement) and is buried in Timnath-serah.
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