See also: Bertrand
CareerChild prodigy, it follows at eleven years the courses of the Polytechnic school as a non-registered student. Between eleven and seventeen years, it obtains two baccalaureat S, a license and the Doctorat science with a thesis on the mathematical theory of the electricity, then is allowed first with the entrance examination 1839 of the Polytechnic school. It is then received with the contest of aggregation of mathematics of faculties and first to the first contest of aggregation of mathematics of the colleges with Charles Briot, like with the School of the mines. He was mathematics professor with the Lycée Saint-Louis, repeater, inspector then professor of analysis in 1852 at the Polytechnic school, university lecturer of differential and integral calculus to the National university and full professor of the pulpit of Physique and Mathématiques with the Collège de France in 1862 to replace Jean-Baptiste Biot.
Joseph Bertrand was the son of the doctor Alexandre Bertrand (1795-1831), the younger brother of the archeologist Alexandre Bertrand (1820-1902), the brother-in-law of the mathematician Charles Hermite, and the father of the geologist Marcel Bertrand.
In 1845, by analyzing a table of prime numbers until: 6000000, it makes the conjecture that there is always at least a Prime number between N and 2n-2 for any N larger than 3. Pafnouti Tchebychev showed this conjecture, the Postulat of Bertrand, in 1850.
For the study of the convergence of the numerical series, it developed a comparison criterion finer than the criterion of Riemann.
In Economic scenes, it was interested in the problem of Duopole.
- Treated differential calculus and of integral calculus (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1864-1870) (2 volumes)
- Report/ratio on the most recent progress of the mathematical analysis (Paris: Imperial printing works, 1867)
- Treated arithmetic (L. Hatchet, 1849)
- Thermodynamic (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1887)
- Method of least squares (Mallet-Graduate, 1855)
- Lessons on the mathematical theory of electricity/professed at the Collège de France (Paris: Gauthier-Villars and wire, 1890)
- Probability theory (Paris: Gauthier-Villars and wire, 1889)
- Arago and its scientic life (Paris: J. Hetzel, 1865)
- Blaise Pascal (Paris: C. Levy, 1891)
- founders of modern astronomy: Copernic, Tycho Brahé, Képler, Galileo, Newton (Paris: J. Hetzel, 1865)
- Member of the Academy of Science (1856), it succeeds Charles Sturm.
- perpetual Co-secretary of the Academy of Science (1874), it succeeds Élie de Beaumont.
- foreign Member of the Royal Society (1875)
- Member of the French Academy (1884), it succeeds Jean-Baptiste Dumas
- Large officer of the Legion of honor
- Biographical note of the French Academy
- Biography on the site of Annals of the Mines
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