Jose de San Martín
Youth of San Martín in EuropeJose de San Martín was born at the edge of the Río Uruguay, in the current province of Corrientes which belonged to the Vice-royauté of Río of Plata. It goes in Spain, with his parents in 1786, where it enters to the Seminar of Noble of Madrid. In 1789, it begins a military career in the regiment of Murcie. It takes share in the countryside of Africa as a combatant with Melilla and Oran. In 1797, it obtains the rank of under lieutenant in reward of his actions vis-a-vis the French in the Pyrenees. In 1808, the troops of Napoleon invade the Peninsula and King Ferdinand VII is made prisoner. At this point in time bursts the rebellion of the Spanish people against the Emperor and his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who had just been proclaimed King d' Espagne. Noticed by its feats of arms against the French, it reaches the rank of captain of the regiment of Bourbon. The army attacks the French troops and beats them during the Bataille of Baylen, the July 19th 1808. San Martin is distinguished there.
It continues the fight vis-a-vis the French in the army of the allied ones: Spain, Portugal and England. It fights under the orders of the general Beresford with the Bataille of Albuera. He was in addition freemason.
He becomes acquainted with Lord Macduff, a noble Scot, who introduces it near the secret cabins which plotted for the independence of South America. In January 1812, San Martin embarks for Buenos Aires.
Return to Buenos AiresIn the town of Buenos Aires, the May 25th 1810, a Junte had been formed according to the model of the juntas in Spain, which opposed the French occupation of the Peninsula, and controlled in the name of the King Ferdinand VII prisoner in France. The town of Montevideo did not recognize the Junta of Buenos Aires and undertook hostilities to the capital. With the Chile, the Council decided against the authority of the viceroy. In the Top Peru, the current Bolivia, the royalists occupy the province of Salta and advance on Tucuman, defended by the Army of the North which order the general Manuel Belgrano. The Paraguay had been already declared independent.
In January 1813, the military positions are consolidated: the general Jose Rondeau directs the seat of Montevideo. The royalists of Montevideo dominated the rivers with their fleet, they devastated the coastal cities and made frequent unloadings to obtain herds and other food. In January, one learns in Buenos Aires that a royalist squadron, directed by the corsair Rafael Ruiz and the captain Juan Antonio Zabala, was on the point of unloading. The January 28th, the Triumvirate orders to colonel San Martin to protect the coasts from the Parana of the royalist unloading. The pomegranates follow the progression of the enemy fleet which counts 11 ships and approximately 300 soldiers. The ships drop anchor with Rosario and Spanish exchanges shots with the troops of Caledonio Escalada, commander military of the city. It is in the night of the February 2nd that the pomegranates of San Martin arrive and hide in the Monastery which dominates the city. In the morning of the August 3rd the royalist boats of forwarding land and Spanish assembles cliff. The victory is acquired in a few minutes. The royalists are flee by cliff by giving up their weapons, guns and will hear. The overcome fleet is gone back from there to Montevideo and will never return on the Parana. San Martin returns to Buenos Aires in triumph.
With the head of the Army of northLittle time after one learns the victory from the general Belgrano vis-a-vis the royalists with the Bataille from Salta, where the army went directed by Pio Tristan.
Manual Belgrano, after the battle of Salta, entered on the grounds of High Peru to the continuation of the royalists, but it must move back until its preceding positions, in the Vallée of Lerma, after the defeats of Vilcapugio (October 1st) and Ayohuma (November 14th). The royalist army, directed by the general Pezuela, starts to threaten the provinces of Salta and Jujuy. The northern border is defended by Gaúcho S with horse, under the command of the lieutenant colonel Martín Güemes, originating in Salta and very quite well informed on the ground. This army causes damage among the royalist troops by raising the people against the enemy. In same time, on the Río of Plata, the fleet directed by the commander Guillermo Brown demolishes the royalist armada vis-a-vis Montevideo and manages to establish the maritime seat which will oblige the city to go to the general Alvear (June 1814). By teaching to this defeat the royalists, who tried to conquer the Plain Provinces by the northern border, start to withdraw itself, concentrating their forces on High Peru. Shortly after its arrival with San Miguel de Tucumán, San Martin realizes of impossibility of joining Lima, which at this time is the center of the royalist capacity, by the way of High Peru. Each time a royalist army went down from the altiplano towards the valleys of Salta, it was overcome; and each time an army of the Plain Provinces ventured in High Peru, it was destroyed.
Governor of CuyoAt this point in time the general San Martin had the idea to cross the cordillera and to attack Lima by the sea. To ensure the borders of north, the troops of the Güemes general will be enough. The plan to conquer Peru by the Pacifique is what San Martin even calls him " its secret" , divided with some of his/her friends of the Lautaro Cabin. San Martin is in a favorable position to begin its plans which will lead it to release half of the continent. When the future Libertador settles with the Cuyo, on the other side of the Andes cordillera, the revolution of Chile is in danger: the country is invaded by the royalist forces of the Vice-royauté of Peru and after several battles, the independence forces under the command of Bernardo O' Higgins and Jose Miguel Carrera are defeats during the battles of Rancagua (October 1st 1814), where the Chilean armies are destroyed, leaving the road towards the open Santiago capital. The Chilean general Carrera with the remainder of the armies crosses the cordillera and takes refuge on the territory of Cuyo, controlled by San Martin.
With Buenos Aires, one learns that Napoleon was overcome and exiled on the isle of Elba. King Ferdinand VII returned to Madrid after six years of captivity. The first act of the government was to abolish the constitution of Cadiz and to condemn to dead all those which are opposed to its sovereignty. The Tribunal of the Enquiry is restored. At this time the American southern revolution seems overcome on all fronts. Chile and High Peru are lost, with royalists strongly established in Lima; the revolution vénézuélienne is overcome and its chiefs, Bolívar and Mariño, took refuge with Carthagène; the Spanish liberals are continued. Only in Río of Plata the standards of Freedom and Independence ondoient. San Martin then decides to create the Armée with the Andes .
It was learned that in this moment, Spain prepares a forwarding of ten thousand men, under the command of the Murillo general, who moves towards the Río of Plata to subject the rebels to the royal will. We arrive at the end of the year 1815 with the new décourageantes of the defeat of the Army of North, directed by Rondeau, with the Bataille of Sipe-Sipe, the November 29th. The forces of the viceroy of Peru, ordered by the general Osorio, dominate Chile. The army of Murillo, which was to arrive at Buenos Aires, unloaded in Venezuela and overcame the troops of Bolívar. San Martin, with the head of the small army of Cuyo, then remains the only hope of the Plain Provinces. It is in these circumstances that it brings together its officers and exposes his plan of the crossing of the Andes and the reconquest of Chile.
With the preceding end of the year, the authority of the King Ferdinand VII was practically restored, and already the royalist generals exert their cruelty towards the rebellious populations, especially with the Venezuela and in High Peru. During this year several naval battles are undertaken by corsairs beating house of Río of Plata. They capture the loadings of the ships which make the crossing between America and Spain, releasing the slaves, which is worth to them the recognition of the liberal opinion in Europe. Even the confidential correspondence is intercepted, which enables them to know the true state of the royalist troops in the Caribbean and Venezuela. Thus one learns in Buenos Aires progress from Bolívar and the independence troops from the Mexico.
After the defeat of Sipe-Sipe in High Peru, San Martin thinks that it is time of sets up his plan of conquest of Lima by the Pacific. San Martin makes believe that his army made walk to the top Peru. He wants to make accept the royalists that Mendoza remains without protection to push them to pass on other side of the cordillera. San Martin insists near his delegates of the Congress on the need for declaring independence. The July 9th 1816, the Congress proclaims the independence of the Plain Provinces of Río of Plata. There is no more possibility of reconciliation with Ferdinand VII.
Forwarding liberator in ChileThe supreme director Juan Martín de Pueyrredón named it commander-in-chief of the Armée with the Andes and the January 12th 1817 began since Mendoza the crossing from the Andes in direction from the Chile. The patriotic forces overcame the royalists with the Bataille of Chacabuco the February 12th, which allowed the entry of the troops of patriots in the capital of the Chile, Santiago. The February 14th, the cabilde of Santiago made up of the notable close buildings named it Supreme Directeur of Chile. San Martín knowing that the acceptance of this load would prevent it from taking part in the release of Peru refused this charge. Thus, two days later the cabilde of Santiago named Bernardo O' Higgins Directeur Supreme.
In March, San Martín went back to Buenos Aires to request the assistance of the Directory to continue its forwarding liberator of Peru. The government of Buenos Aires promised to him in theory to collaborate, but being given the chaotic situation and of civil war which Buenos Aires with the provinces faced, he lives himself later in impossibility of holding word. Thus it will be the Chile which will assume all the expenses of the company and will give to San Martín mandate to conclude it, with the rank of General Captain of Chile. It thus went back to Chile, where the initially beaten troops with Cancha Rayada, the March 19th 1818, obtain a victory with the Bataille of Maipú the April 5th.
Independence and Protectorate of PeruSan Martín and O' Higgins, with the assistance of Lord Thomas Cochrane, organized a forwarding by sea route which left the August 20th 1820 the port of Valparaíso. As forwarding was completely paid by the Chile, that was done under Chilean banner, but under the command of the General San Martín. The September 8th, it unloaded with an army of 4.000 men (made up of Argentinian, the Chilean ones and other nationalities) in the port of Pisco to the Peru, to arrive finally at Lima in July 1821. The July 28th, San Martín declared the Independence of Peru and was named Protecteur of Peru with civil authority and military. This same year, it founded the National library of Peru to which it gave its personal collection of books. It created also the Peruvian Ordre of the Sun. It thus controlled Peru since the August 3rd 1821 until September 20th 1822.
During its protectorate, it accepted a request for assistance of the general Antonio Jose de Sucre, lieutenant of Simón Bolívar, for the countryside in Ecuador. San Martín sent soldiers who took part in the victories of Riobamba and Pichincha, which ensured the rendering of Quito. Between the 26 and July 27th 1822, took place the Interview of Guayaquil, where it meets with Bolívar. Shortly after it decided to give up all the loads and to turn over in its country.
Of return to Mendoza, he asked for the authorization of go back to Buenos Aires in order to join there his wife who was seriously sick. Bernardino Rivadavia, Minister for the government of the governor Martín Rodríguez, refused it alleging that it would not be sure for San Martín to return in the city. Its support with the caudillos of the interior and disobedience to an order which it had received from the government to repress the federalists, had made so that the unit ones wished to make it pass in judgment.
Exile and died of a Hero
On his arrival in Buenos Aires one showed it to be become a conspirator. Discouraged by the internal struggles between unit and federalistic, it decided to leave the country with his only daughter Merceditas. The February 10th 1824, it embarked for Le Havre, in France. It was 45 years old and was Généralissime of Peru, General Capitaine of the Republic of Chile and Général of the Plain Provinces of Río of Plata. After a short period with London, they settled with Brussels and shortly after with Paris.
In 1825 it wrote the Maxims for Merceditas, where it made a synthesis of its educational ideals.
During its years of exile, San Martín kept the contact with his/her friends of Buenos Aires. With the news, in 1827, war that the Argentine carried out against the Brésil, it proposed to return to take part in the fight, but never one did not invite it.
In 1828, it tried to return to Buenos Aires, but did not manage to unload. For three months, it remained with Montevideo. The rising of his/her former companion Juan Lavalle against the governor Manual Dorrego, the posterior execution of Dorrego, the competitions and the deep disappointment which it felt of the political events occurring in its country were the reasons for which it decided to be established definitively in Europe.
In 1831, it thus settled in France in a property of countryside close to Paris. Three years later he moved for a house with Évry in the district of Large-Borough, where he resided until in 1848. Finally, in March it left for Boulogne-sur-Mer, where it died the August 17th 1850.
Will of San Martín
Other clauses were:
- That its saber curves is delivered to Juan Manuel of Rosas.
- Its will was that its heart rests in Buenos Aires.
Here an extract concerning the legacy with Manual Juan of Rosas:
the saber which accompanied me in all the war by independence by South America will be delivered to the general Juan Manuel of Rosas, like proof of satisfaction that, as Argentin, I had to see the firmness with which it supported the honor of the Republic against the unjust claims from abroad who tried to humiliate it.
source: Biography speaking about the legacy of San Martín in Rosas (in Spanish)
In 1861, its ashes were transferred to the family vault González Balcarce, in the cemetery of Brunoy, in France. Later on several attempts were made repatriate them with the country. During the presidency of Nicolás Avellaneda one created the " Charged commission to repatriate the remainders of Libertador" , fact which occurred finally the May 28th 1880. Its skin rests in the cathedral of the town of Buenos Aires, vis-a-vis the Plaza of Mayo, taken care by soldiers of the prestigious body of Pomegranates of Horse.
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