Joséphine Baker , of its true name Freda Josephine royer (born the June 3rd 1906 with Saint Louis, Missouri, and deceased the April 12th 1975 with Paris), is famous a Chanteuse, Danseuse and driving of review. Of métissée Afro-American and Amerindian origin of the the Appalachian Mountains, it is often regarded as the first star black. It takes French nationality in 1937.
The artistGirl of Carrie McDonald and Eddie Carson, Joséphine leaves the family hearth at the 13 years age, and starts to work as waitress. She gains its first contest of dance at 10 years, then begins with Broadway with the Plantation Club.
The October 2nd 1925, it passes in first part in the negro Revue to the Théâtre of the Fields-Elysées. Vêtue of simple a Loincloth of bananas, it dances with a suggestive fury on a rate/rhythm of charleston - a still unknown music then in Europe - the interpretation of a table baptized the wild Dance . The scandal makes place with the general passion quickly. Joséphine becomes the egery of the Cubistes which venerate its style and its forms, and causes the enthusiasm of Parisian for the Jazz and the negro musics. At that time, it meets Georges Simenon, engaged as secretary. In spite of reserved success with Joséphine Baker, the negro Revue falls under the colonial vision of the black world and Africa that in France of the time: Without ill will but reducing and condescending. After a round in Europe, Joséphine Baker carries out the review of the Folies Shepherdess of 1927 accompanied by a leopard, whose odd mood terrorizes the orchestra and makes quiver the public.
Some roles are proposed to him with the cinema by scenario writers, such Marc Allégret. Its two principal films, Zouzou and Princess Tam Tam , do not meet hoped success. On the boards of the Variety, on the other hand, it comes from there to make shade with large the Mistinguett.
Its round of 1936 to the the United States does not meet either the discounted success. America is skeptic and certain reproach him for speaking sometimes in French, or English with a French accent. It returns in France and acquires French nationality in 1937 by marrying a French, Jean Lion.
The womanAt the beginning of the Second world war, as 1939, Joséphine act for Resistance, while becoming an intelligence agent, treated by Jacques Abtey (chief of military against-espionage in Paris). For this purpose, she attends the Parisian high society, then mobilizes herself for the Croix-Rouge. Its popularity remains such as Göring, says one, not daring to stop it, made it invite to a dinner show where one tried to poison it.
Seeing its life threatened in occupied France, she flees and gains the Morocco where she places at the disposal of the Intelligence services of the free France, then of the Air force. She discharged during the war of important missions, and remains known to have used her musical partitions to dissimulate messages. With the Release, it continues its activities for the Croix-Rouge, and sings for the soldiers and resistant close to the face. Its activities during the war will be worth the to him Légion of honor after the hostilities.
The greatest misfortune of its life is not to be able to have of child, following a pregnancy at the conclusion which Joséphine was confined of a child still-born child, which was worth to him to undergo a Hystérectomie.
With OJ Bubble, which she marries in 1947, she buys the field of Milandes in the Dordogne. She accommodates there the children of any origines which she adopted and which she calls her “tribe rainbow”. In this field where it employs a large staff, it absorbs all its fortune and multiplies the concerts to continue its work.
It takes part in 1963 in the Marche towards Washington for work and freedom organized by Martin Luther King. At that time, it is committed since one moment in the action of LICRA. Whereas Joséphine is practically ruined, the princess Grace of Monaco, friend of the singer, American origin and artist like it, then offers to him a housing for the remainder of her life and invites it to Monaco for spectacles of charity.
All its life, it will have had to fight against of the racial prejudices. But its perseverance and its courage are greeted by all. It makes to figure today “great lady” and of example of tolerance and integration. Democratic France of post-war period owes him much. It is the first woman of American origin to have received the French military honors with its funeral. It counted, moreover, among the great figures of the Franc-maçonnerie.
Bertrand Delanoë, mayor of Paris, decided in June 2006 (one century after the birth of the artist) to give its name to the first floating public swimming pool on the Seine, inaugurated in July 2006 in the 13th district, with the foot of the new footbridge Simone-of-Beauvoir.
Catalog of films
- 1927 : Die Frauen von Madnesses Shepherdesses of Joe Francis & max Obal
- 1927: the Review of the reviews of Joe Francis
- 1927: the Siren of the tropics of Henri Etiévant and Mario Nalpas: Papitou
- 1928 : Fireman of the Madnesses Shepherdess
- 1929: the Madness of the day of Joe Francis
- 1934: Zouzou of Marc Allégret: Zouzou
- 1935 : Princess Tam Tam of Edmond T. Gréville: Aouïna
- 1940 : Moulin-Rouge of Yves Mirande: Princess Tom-tom
- 1940 - 1945: False alarm of Jacques de Baroncelli: Zazou Bugle
- 1954: Year Jedem Finger Zehn of Erik Ode: a singer
- 1955: Carosello LED varietà of Aldo Bonaldi and Aldo Quinti
- 1930 : I have two loves , words of Géo Koger and Henri Varna on a music of Vincent Scotto. While listening to the recordings of the time attentively, one realizes that it modified the first towards refrain of its song fetish ( I have two loves, my country and Paris… ), which became after the war I have two loves, my country, it is Paris… .
- 1930 : Small Tonkinoise , words of Georges Villard, adapted by Henri Christine and music of Vincent Scotto. Resumption of a song created by Polin in 1906.
- 1934 : It is him , drawn from the film Zouzou .
- 1934 : Haiti , drawn from the film Zouzou .
- 1935 : Under the sky of Africa , words of Andre de Badet and music of Jacques Dallin, drawn from the film Princess Tam Tam , with the Comedian harmonists.
- And also: Tell me Joséphine (Bleated - Lelievre - Henri Varna - Marc Cab), Chant of love of Tahiti , Doudou , My heart is a bird of the islands , Nuit of Algiers , Without love , Bye Black Birds …
- “Since I personify the savage on scene, I try to be as civilized as possible in the life. ”
- “One day I realized that I lived in a country where I were afraid to be black. It was a country reserved for the White. There was no place for the Blacks. I choked in the United States. Much among we left, not because we want it, but because we could not support that any more… I felt released in Paris. ”
Truths and false husbands…
- Willie Wells : 1919-1920 (divorce). It left the family home at 13 years to marry with this workman founder and to work as waitress. Their union finished with the bottle that Joséphine crashed to pieces to him on the head.
- William Howard Baker: 1921-1923 (divorce). According to in the north of the the United States the troop of “Dixie Steppers”, it married (at the 15 years age) William Baker, boy at Pullman, with Philadelphia. It left it to leave to Paris, preserving its name which passed thus to the posterity.
- Giuseppe (known as “Pepito”) di Abatino: 1926-1936. The union between the actress and this Italian mason stone claiming itself count never had legal base. It organized for it a world tour which began in March 1928. Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Netherlands, Argentinian, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil: everywhere, its passage caused the controversy, sharpening its popularity and strongly contributing to the sale of its discs and its Memories. The failure of the Ziegfeld Follies precipitated their rupture.
- Jean Lion: 1937-1940 (divorce). While marrying, the Crèvecœur-the-Large on November 30th, 1937 with (60), this 27 year old industrialist who had made fortune in refined sugar, Joséphine accepted French nationality.
- OJ Bubble: 1947-1957 (separation in 1961). This leader originating in Montpellier accompanied Georgius, Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier and Joséphine in Paris and in rounds. She lived with him in Milandes. They formed and carried out their project together to adopt 12 children of different nationalities, this in order to prove that the cohabitation of " races" different could admirably function.
- Robert Brady: 1973-1974. With this collector of American art met at the time of stays in the United States, it exchanged wishes of marriage in an empty church at the time of a voyage to Acapulco (Mexico). They separated at the end of one year.
- the British Song writer and performer and Francophile Bill Pritchard pays homage to Joséphine Baker in two of its songs: Invisible The State (1986) and Sheltered Life (1987). In particular for its combat against racism with the the United States and to have courageously assumed its life of woman released, well in advance over its time.
- Memories of Joséphine Baker , collected by Marcel Wild and supplied with 29 drawings of Paul Hake - Dilecta Editions, 2006, ISBN 2916275053
- Brian Bubble-Baker, Joséphine Baker. The glance of a son (work coécrit with Gilles Trichard by one of adoptive wire of Joséphine Baker) - Patrick Robin Editions, 2006, ISBN 2-35228-005-2
- Das fabelhafte Leben der Joséphine Baker ( fabulous Life of Joséphine Baker ) - audio Joining of Peter Eckhart Reichel, in German language - Duet-Phon-Records, 2006, ISBN 3-937127-10-0
- Angelica of Labarre, To visit the Castle of Milandes , Western Southern Editions, 2006, ISBN 2879016673
- Castle of Milandes
- Account and photographs of the marriage of Joséphine with Jean Lion
- Joséphine assembles to Paris
- Joséphine Baker to the service of Free France
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