Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
See also: Dirichlet (homonymy)
He was high in Germany, then was then sent in France to follow his higher learning. He was in liaison with the largest French mathematicians of the time, following the example Legendre, Laplace or Fourier. He then turns over in 1825 to Germany where he works with Gauss, of which he will take again the pulpit with the Université of Göttingen, and Jacobi. He had amongst other things as raises Riemann.
The work of Dirichlet especially concerned the Fourier series and the Arithmétique, where one owes him the essence of the demonstration of the last theorem of Fermat using the whole of Dirichlet for the case where the parameter is equal to five. One also owes him of work on the Intégrale S and the search for discontinuous Fonctions. A famous problem of Analyze bears its name: the Problem of Dirichlet. Dirichlet also worked on the Théorème of Fermat-Wiles, by showing it for the case where N is equal to 14, and while contributing to the demonstration of Legendre for the case where N is equal to 5. One owes him the Noyau of Dirichlet which is used to study the convergence of Fourier series.
One owes him also the Principe of the drawers, which is stated as follows: if one arranges N +1 socks in N drawers, there is a drawer where it there at least two socks! In spite of its simplicity, this result makes it possible to prove noncommonplace results. Lastly, it proved the Théorème of Dirichlet conjectured originally by Legendre and Gauss.
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