Jerusalem-Is represents the oriental party of Jerusalem which was managed by the Jordan and which was conquered then occupied and annexed by Israel in 1967. This part includes the holy old city and its places (the the Holy Sepulchre, the Esplanade of the Mosques/Mont of the Temple and the Wailing Wall). The population is mainly there Arab since the Jordanian domination at the conclusion of the Israeli-Arab Guerre of 1948 and the expulsion of the Jews of the old city. The Jordan NS lost the control of the holy places and all the the West Bank after its conquest by Israel at the time of the war of 1967. The Israeli leaders then announced officially the " reunification " town of Jerusalem and proclaimed it " Capital eternal and indivisible of Israel and the Jewish people ". The Loi of Jerusalem is adopted by Knesset in 1980. Name " Jerusalem-Est" is since then used by UNO.
The Israeli government does not recognize distinction between the two parts of the city. One however finds in certain Israeli official documents the English terms of east Jerusalem or eastern Jerusalem . This portion of the city is regarded as " occupied territory " by UNO and the majority of its Member States (including by the United States, but not by Israel). For UNO, its annexation by Israel east " illegal " (Resolution 478 of the Safety advice presenting the annexation like violation of the international law), like for the majority of the countries.
Jerusalem-is often quoted by the representatives Palestinians like being able to constitute the " capital " of a independent State asserted. PLO had a semi-official representation to with it, the " House of Orient" , closed of force by Israel during the the Second Intifada.
The Plan of division of Palestine envisaged a State of Jerusalem independent of the two other States (Jew and Arabic) and placed under international jurisdiction. This project was never carried out. At the time of the Israeli-Arab conflict of 1948, Israel extended its sovereignty on Jerusalem-West, and the Jordan on Jerusalem-Is. In 1950, Jerusalem-Was annexed by Jordan, as well as the remainder of the the West Bank. However, this annexation of the West Bank was recognized only by the the United Kingdom, except for Jerusalem-Is. This territory is then conquered by Israel at the time of the war of 1967, which annexes then 6,4 km ² ground of Jerusalem Jordanian, like 64 km ² of other grounds of the West Bank, to of which many villages and Palestinian properties close.
Richnesses of the old city
Jerusalem-is particularly rich:
On a level religious, symbolic system and historical :
- For the Judaism: they is there that are old the Cité of David, Sion; the Mount of the Temple and the Western Wall (or Wailing Wall); the cemetery of the Mount of Olives, awaited departure of the resurrection of died during the last Judgment; old the Jewish district of the old city.
- For the Christianity: it is there that are the the Holy Sepulchre (Golgotha and falls from the Résurrection); the Coterie (place of the Cène, the Pentecost, etc); sanctuaries of the Mount of Olives (Gethsémani, Dome of the Rise and, beyond, Béthanie); the basilica Holy-Anne and of the memories of a miracle of Christ; mariaux sanctuaries (nativity of Marie, dormition, assumption); the Mount of the Temple; the place of martyrdoms of Saint-Etienne and Saint-Jacob; the old districts " Christian " and " Armenian " old city.
- For the Islam: they is there that are the Esplanade of the Mosques, with the Mosquée Al-Aqsa (third holy place of Islam) and the Dôme of the Rock, places of prayers, memories related to Abraham or Mahomet, and place where is awaited the last Judgment.
On an economic plan and social : Jerusalem-is suffers from a considerable underdevelopment, compared to Jerusalem-West, because of practices and of discriminatory rules towards the population not-Israeli (local taxes, infrastructures, social services and schools, suppression of license of residence, etc) and because of measurements (loopings, Barrière of Israeli separation) which insulate Jerusalem-Is of its Cisjordanian back-country.
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