Jean Renoir is a Réalisateur of Cinéma, producer, Scénariste and Acteur French born with Paris (district of Montmartre) the September 15th 1894, deceased with Beverly Hills (California, the USA) the February 12th 1979 at the 84 years age.
Jean Renoir is the second wire of the impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
Its films, a long time misunderstood and low esteems, seem today having deeply marked the changes of the French cinema between 1930 and 1950, before opening the door with the New wave French cinema. François Truffaut will be particularly influenced by Jean Renoir.
After poor studies, Jean Renoir engages in the body of the dragons in 1912. Soldier in 1914, it is useful in aviation starting from 1916. He brings back First World War a wound to the leg which will make it limp all its life.
In 1920, it marries one of the models of his/her father, Andrée Heuchling, and settles as ceramist. The exit, in 1921, of film of Erich von Stroheim, Folies of women (Foolish Wives) decides continuation of its career.
Its first Feature-length film, the Girl of water (1924), is a bucolic fable with the impressionist esthetics, in which play its young wife - who had taken the pseudonym of Catherine Hessling - and her older brother, Pierre Renoir. The mitigated reception reserved for film does not discourage however the scenario writer, who launches out shortly after in an expensive production, Nana according to the novel of Emile Zola, in 1926, for the financing of which it will sell several fabrics inherited his father; then in a series of achievements to the very diverse inspirations ( the Small Commercial one of matches , according to Andersen, 1928; Work dodger , military comedy, 1928; One purges Bébé , according to Georges Feydeau, 1931) which could not always convince the public.
The realistic period
the Bitch (1931) mark a turning in the work of Jean Renoir. It one of first talking films, is adapted of a novel of Georges of Fouchardière; the Bitch offered to Michel Simon one of his more beautiful roles, that of a small jealous middle-class man, assassin and weak.
After the Night of the crossroads (according to Georges Simenon, 1932), in which Pierre Renoir the Maigret police chief, the realizer interpreted turns an impressive series of masterpieces: Boudu saved of water (with, again, Michel Simon, 1932), the Crime of Mr Lange (with Jules Berry, 1935), Outing in the country (1936, left in 1946) of which its nephew, Claude Renoir, signs photography, and the Hollows (with Louis Jouvet, 1936). Drawing his inspiration in the novels of Gorki or in the news of Maupassant, Jean Renoir shows an acute sense of the reality, which it puts at the service of a true poetic naturalism.
It calls little by little upon collaborators (Jacques Prévert, Roger Blin) who give to his production a dimension openly political, marked by the ideas of the Popular front: the life is with us , (1936), the Crime of Mr Lange , the Marseillaise , (1936). This tendency will open the way with the Italian neorealism. Before the Second world war, Jean Renoir tests, with the Great Illusion (1937), to promote a message of peace, making turn, of manner of homage, his spiritual father Erich von Stroheim at the sides of Jean Gabin. In the human Animal (1938), it endeavors to put in scene the social stakes of the time. In its masterpiece, the Rules of the game (1939), it envisages the collapse of the humanistic values and paints a picture without kindness of manners of the French company.
The American periodExiled in the United States in 1940 (leaving unfinished an adaptation of Tosca by Victorien Sardou, which will be finally turned by Carl Koch), Jean Renoir takes American nationality. If it adapts with difficulty to the system Hollywood IEN, it carries out nevertheless several films of order, in particular of propaganda films ( Vivre free ( This Land is mine ), with Charles Laughton in 1943; Hello in France! (Salute to France has) , 1944) and of the literary adaptations ( the Newspaper of a chambermaid ( The Diary off has Chambermaid ), according to the famous novel of the same name of Octave Mirbeau, 1946), before leaving in India to turn the River ( The River , 1951), color film, contemplative and serene, of a sometimes disillusioned humanism. This film will have a durable influence on the Indian cinema itself.
Of return in Europe to the beginning of the Years 1950, Jean Renoir still turns Fits with body It of gold (according to Prosper Mérimée, 1952), French-cancan (with Jean Gabin and Francoise Arnoul, 1955), Elena and the men (with Ingrid Bergman and Jean Marais, 1956) and the Corporal pinned (according to Jacques Perret, 1962).
Encountering difficulties increasingly important to produce its films, it turns then to television ( the Will of Doctor Cordelier , 1959; the Small Theater of Jean Renoir , 1969-1971) and is devoted more largely to the writing: he publishes a book on his father, Renoir, my father (1962), his autobiography, My life and my films (1974), a test ( Écrits 1926-1971, 1974), some plays (Slow worm, 1955) like several novels ( the Books of the captain Georges , 1966; the Crime of the English , 1979).
Catalog of films
On Jean Renoir
- Slow worm . - Paris: Gallimard, 1955.
- Renoir . Paris: Hatchet, 1962. (republication, under the title Pierre-Auguste Renoir, my father : Paris: Gallimard, coll “Folio”, 1981)
- Books of the captain Georges . - Paris: Gallimard, 1966.
- My life and my films . - Paris: Flammarion, 1974. - Corrected Republication: My life and my films . - Paris: Flammarion, coll “Fields” n° 501, 2005. - 265 p. 18 cm. - ISBN 2-08-081501-6.
- Written 1926-1971 . - Paris: Pierre Belfond, 1974.
- Carola , in the Apron Cinema , November 1st 1976.
- the Heart at ease . - Paris: Flammarion, 1978.
- Julienne and her love followed Ahead Rosalie . - Editions Henri Veyrier, 1978.
- the Crime of the English . - Paris: Flammarion, 1979.
- Genevieve . - Paris: Flammarion, 1979.
- Letters of America . - Paris: Presses of the Rebirth, 1984.
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