See also: Monnet
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (1888 - 1979) is a French statesman, craftsman of the victory of combined during the Second world war, father of planning to the Frenchwoman and one of the founding fathers of the European Union, with Robert Schuman.
Jean Monnet was born the November 9th 1888 with Cognac and died the March 16th 1979 with Bazoches-on-Guyonne (Yvelines). He is resulting from a family of traders in cognac and began his career in the family company. Its formation is primarily due to the conversations which he listened to, as of childhood, with the family table, between his/her foreign father and his customers, on the trade of the cognac, one of the first French companies completely mondialized. It stops its studies after its vat and settles in London, initially, then voyage several times in North America, always for the family company. Jean Monnet will draw from it a perfect control from English, rare thing at the time for a French and a deep knowledge of Anglo-Saxon mentality, which will enable him to obtain their confidence immediately: there will remain always mister Monnet off Cognac .
In 1914, after the Battle of the Marne - it was reformed - hardly 26 years old, extremely from its experiment of maritime shipper, it obtains a discussion with the President of the Council, Rene Viviani, folded up in Bordeaux: it describes the waste to him which the disordered use of the merchant fleet represents Frenchwoman and English and explains the need to him for creating a Franco-English maritime pool to optimize transport of vivres, ammunition and raw materials.
He becomes interallied high-civil servant in 1916, for all the remaining length of time of the First World War and person in charge of the coordination of the allied resources. He is confirmed in his functions by Clemenceau. In 1919, it works with the creation of the Société of the Nations, and carries out missions in Silesia, in Austria, Poland and Romania. In 1920, it is called at the assistant position of secretary general of the new international organization.
Resigner in December 1923, to join some time the company of his father, Jean Monnet engages in a career of business man and international financier and works in France, with the the United States, where it directed an American large bank to San Francisco, then in China, as to advise Tchang Kaï-chek which wanted to insert its country in the 20th century. In 1929, it meets Silvia de Bondini, which it marries in 1934 with Moscow.
The Second world war
Returned to France, in 1938, it chairs, as of December 1939, at the beginning of the Second world war, the coordination committee aiming at sharing since London, production capacities of France and the United Kingdom in order to prepare and to coordinate the effort of armament.
When Hitler lance its offensive on May 10th 1940, and before the French capitulation, it manages to convince Churchill, in a note entitled Anglo-French unity, interest of an immediate fusion of the France and the United Kingdom with only one Parliament and only one army, to be stronger vis-a-vis the Germany. The Général de Gaulle is charged to make sign the treaty with Paul Reynaud, the President of the Council. On Sunday, June 16, De Gaulle, on mission in London, dictates itself on the telephone the annotation text to Paul Reynaud. The same day it arrives at Bordeaux, learns that Paul Reynaud is dislocated of its functions the evening even, and that Philippe Pétain became President of the Council. June 17th at the evening, Jean Monnet receives in his London residence the Général de Gaulle, which prepares its broadcast call of the following day. Jean Monnet cooperates temporarily with him to try to maintain the government of France at the sides of the Allies. Nevertheless he refuses to join him for the launching of the free France. Paradoxically, de Gaulle and Monnet were very different but immediately had the same analysis on the world nature of the war and its victorious exit thanks to the unquestionable intervention of the USA. During their political life, they will continue to clash: for the General, Monnet will be always the inspirer.
In August 1940, Jean Monnet is sent to the United States by the British government, to negotiate the purchase of supplies of war. The United States was isolationist, but it succeeds in persuading president Roosevelt to start again the industry of American war, in order to be able to counter-attack very quickly and very extremely at the proper time. It is the installation of the “Victory program”. Until 1945, it will get busy to coordinate the effort of war between the the United Kingdom and the the United States. As of 1942, it was envisaged to build 60 000 planes, 45 000 tanks and eight million tons of warships. Jean Monnet will summarize this policy by a famous sentence: " It is better 10.000 tanks of too that only one of less (that necessary) " John Keynes said of him that it had shortened the one year old war.
In 1943 with Algiers, he becomes successively member of the civil and military Command of Giraud, which he exhorts to give up the legislation of Vichy (see Régime of Vichy in released Africa (1942-1943), then member of the French Comité of the national Release instituted to unify the effort of war of the French authorities of London and Algiers. In 1944, it is charged to evaluate the needs that France will have after the release, and negotiates near the US government, the first loans and the first agreements of credit. But however it is not any responsible in launching for the Marshall plan.
The plan of rebuilding
For him, the saving in war was planned, and it is natural that the economy of the rebuilding is it also, but its goal is not to adopt the philosophy of planning to Soviet and especially to transpose to France their authoritative methods. Its goal is to insufflate dynamism, not to impose objectives. With the release, it is in charge of the plan to start again the economy, as a Commissaire in the Plan, of December 1945 with 1952. He is the father of planning to the Frenchwoman. The work of its services consists in studying the situation, highlighting the priorities, evaluating desirable volumes of production, launching the discussions on the means of putting them in work, and especially at launching the rebuilding and the modernization of the apparatus of production.
In January 1947, after long talks with nearly a thousand of people (owners, trade unionists and civils servant), secrecies and one-to-one, to avoid the formalism and the lobbyism , a plan is presented to the government of Leon Blum. This plan is the business of all and is supported by all the Syndicat S workmen (CGT, CFTC), the agricultural trade unions and CNPF.
As of 1950, reports/ratios announced that the Germany is raised much more quickly than the France, some fear that overcome are again tried by a revenge. Moreover it is necessary definitively to integrate Germany in the Western camp whereas the Cold war begins and that the center of Europe is likely to become a space of instability and East-West war. France must take the initiative, of tightening the hand to the enemy of yesterday and proposing to bind the destinies of the two principal countries of continental Europe.
Jean Monnet works in secrecy on a project of pooling of the coal and Acier, independent sources of a possible industry of war. In spring 1950, it proposes its project with Robert Schuman, this one after being assured the agreement of the chancellor Konrad Adenauer, makes the May 9th 1950, a solemn declaration to invite all the interested countries to pose first concrete bases of an European Federation . In a speech of 1950, he says: The prosperity of our European Community is indissolubly related to the development of the international exchanges. Our Community will contribute to regulate the problems of exchange which arise in the world. We are determined to seek without delay in direct conversations, the means of implementing the intention stated of the British government to establish the narrowest association with the Community. We are convinced that we can consider a close cooperation and profitable with the United States, which since the proposal made by Mr Schuman on May 9th, 1950, gave us repeated evidence of their active sympathy. We will ensure any useful connection with the United Nations and the European Organization of Economic cooperation. We will develop with the the Council of Europe all the forms of collaboration and mutual assistance provided for in the treaty. But, we are only at the beginning of the effort which Europe must make to finally know the unit, prosperity and the paix.
The treaty of Paris of 1951, ratifies the creation of the High ranking authority, the Parliament of the Six, a Court of justice which takes care of the respect of the Treaty, and the Council of Ministers which ensures the harmonization of the policies of the Member States. It is the prefiguration of an European Federation. ECSC is created and Jean Monnet becomes, of 1952 with 1955, the first president of this High ranking authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), installed with Luxembourg, the August 10th 1952. As of 1953, coal and steel circulate freely in Europe for the greatest advantage of the consumers as well as of the producers.
For him, this Europe of the six in becoming, is the means of binding the Germany and the France and of defusing the rebirth of a secular competition, while placing the productions of steel and coal, within the framework of a delegation of sovereignty. But he wants to go further, because as of this time he is considered a German national army, which seems to be a dangerous flashback. He thus proposes the creation of a European army, presented by Rene Pleven within the framework of a Plan of European Community of defense (CED). A first treaty will be signed but under the government Mendès France, the French Parliament rejects it in 1954.
Following this first European serious attack, Jean Monnet resigns of the High ranking authority and founds the Comité of action for the United States of Europe, in order to continue his activity in favor of the European unit through him. This committee gathers the trade-union and political forces of the six countries and represents more than ten million people. He preaches an European Federation and proposes to place the seat of the Community institutions in one federal district escaping national sovereignties. Jean Monnet animates it until 1975, and works on the draft treatys de for the Common Market and Euratom, which lead to the the Treaty of Rome, the March 25th 1957, and on the project of enlargement of the Community to the the United Kingdom.
In 1963, it creates with European Lausanne the Research institute histories with an aim of gathering significant files and of devoting research to them. It will take the presidency of this institute until in 1965.
In 1975, at the 87 years age, it takes its final retirement in its house of Houjarray to write its Mémoires . He dies the March 16th 1979, at the 90 years age. Its funerals take place the March 20th 1979 with Montfort-l' Amaury in the presence of the president Giscard d'Estaing and of the Chancellor Schmidt.
Jean Monnet will use for the installation of ECSC, then, of the Common Market, the experience gained during the two World wars: to give capacities limited, but real, at supranational institutions, in essential sectors; the essential nature of the sectors concerned makes it possible these institutions to increase slowly but, constantly, their capacities of influence.
Jean Monnet will remain one of the statesmen French most important of the 20th century, even if it forever elected at the Parliament, nor minister. He belongs to this kind, very rare, of politician who exerts to provide it by anybody interposed. Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Soljenitsyne, Jean-Paul II, until 1990 for this last, will influence considerably the history of their country and that of the world, without being titular elective functions in their respective states. Jean Monnet will use his official functions, almost always supranational and for rather short durations, like lever to promote his ideas in favor of the European unit.
He was established Docteur Honoris Causa by many universities: University of Cambridge (June 8th, 1961), Dartmouth (June 11th, 1961), Yale (June 12th, 1961), University of Oxford (June 26th, 1963). On the whole, about thirty price and distinctions were allotted to him.
See also: S: Speech of the transfer of ashes of Jean Monnet to the Pantheon
- We do not unite States, us unisons with the men.
- Modernization is not a state of affairs, but a frame of mind.
- We have only the choice between the changes in which we will be involved and those that we will have known to want and achieve.
- If I am convinced, then I make my to better convince the others, but not with the light one. I concentrate, and I think that if I myself were not convinced, I would not act.
- The great European revolution of our time, the revolution which aims at replacing the national competitions by a union of people in freedom and the diversity, the revolution which wants to allow a new blooming of our civilization, and a new rebirth, this revolution started with the European Coal and Steel Community.
- When an idea corresponds to the need for the time, it ceases belonging to the men who invented it and it is stronger than those which have the load of it.
- Europe and the organization of peace , First Edition, Lausanne, 1964.
- Memories , Beech, Paris, 1976,642 pages.
- the United States of Europe , Robert Laffont, Paris, 1992.
- Reference mark for a method: matter on Europe to make , Beech, Paris, 1996.
- In 1978, the professor Henri Rieben creates with Lausanne, the Fondation Jean Monnet for Europe to which Jean Monnet yields his files.
- Merry Bromberger
- Jean-Monnet University of Saint-Etienne
- French College of Brussels (Belgium), college with Montpellier
- College Jean Monnet of Saint-Jorioz
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