See also: Jean Bart (homonymy)
Jean Bart or Jan Bart , born the October 21st 1650 with Dunkirk, dead the April 27th 1702 with Dunkirk, is a Dunkirk Corsaire which made famous for its exploits during the wars of Louis XIV for the account of which he worked.
Dunkirk passes to the hands of the Spain, the September 16th 1652. At the time of the battles of the Dunes the June 23rd 1658, the army of Turenne takes again Dunkirk with the Spaniards. The evening even, Louis XIV gives the city to the English, then combined France. At 12 years, Jean Bart, then prone British, (Dunkirk being an English city which concerned the Flemish linguistic zone) engage like foams on a ship of Contrebande. The December 2nd 1662, Louis XIV which has just repurchased Dunkirk with Charles II of England, enters the city. In 1666, France is combined with the United Provinces against England. Cornil Bart (the father of Jean) finds death with the service of the Dutchmen in the attack of an English vessel. The crew of the Fatty Cochon , on which Jean Bart is embarked as lieutenant, is charged to supervise English. In Jean summer engages as sailor on the Seven Provinces , ship of the Dutch fleet, under the orders of the Vice-amiral Van Ruyter. The fleet of the United Provinces goes up the the Thames in 1667 and besieges London. The English and the Dutchmen sign the treaty of Breda. Ruyter entrusts to Jean Bart the command of a brigantin: the Duck Gilded .
When Louis XIV enters in war against the Holland (Guerre of Holland) in 1672, Jean Bart regains France and takes on board like second on board the Alexandre under the orders of the caper Willem Dorne, to practice the war of race. The following year, it orders the King David , galiote armed with two guns. The April 2nd 1674, it seizes its first catch: a Dogre Dutch. The February 17th, England signs peace with the United Provinces already combined of Spain. The April 6th, Bart seizes a English Pinasse, the May 16th of a dogre. This year there, eight other catches supplement the table. In April 1676, it embarks on Royal the , armed with eight guns, with which it seizes four fishing vessels. Then on board the Grand Louis it captures twenty-eight vessels. In September, France declares the war with the Hanseatic League. With Hamburg Royal the is seized. The corsair can however regain Dunkirk. On board the Palm , Frigate of twenty-four guns, Jean Bart takes the sea with the head of a Flotille of six ships in 1677, flotilla which seizes a score of vessels. On board the Dolphin , frigate of fourteen guns, Jean hails a Dutch four-master. With broad of the island of Texel, in 1678, the small squadron of four ships ordered by Jean Bart, attacks the Shiedam , powerful warship of the Dutch fleet. Jean is severely wounded with the hands and with the face by the explosion of a grenade, a ball of gun carries scraps of flesh of its legs. The Shiedam nevertheless is towed to Dunkirk. On Board the Mars , corsair of twenty-six guns, it still hails some ships, when the August 10th, France and Holland signs the Traité of Nimègue, putting thus fine at the Guerre of Holland. The January 8th 1679, Louis XIV names it Lieutenant. France, England and the United Provinces are in peace. Jean Bart is désœuvré.
In 1681, Three frigates leave Dunkirk to drive out the pirates Barbaresques who haunt the Mediterranean basin. Jean Bart orders the Viper , frigate of twelve guns. He captures some pirate boats, but soon those sign a truce with France. The mother of Jean Bart dies, a few months later her daughter, and at the end of the ann his Nicole wife, old of twenty-three years. In 1683, France is in war against Spain. Jean Bart captures one or two vessels on the side of the the Mediterranean, but the Spanish navy does not make the weight vis-a-vis the French navy; Charles II of Spain sign well quickly a truce. The August 14th 1686, it is named commander of the royal marine, and orders Curves It , frigate of twenty-four guns. In 1688, allied France in Denmark and the Ottoman Empire, enters in war against the league of Augsburg which joins together England, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Savoy and Suède.En company of Forbin in 1689, it attacks two English ships supérieurement armed to protect a convoy. Captured, they are imprisoned with Plymouth. They succeed in escaping and gain Erquy after three days of oar. In 1691 Jean Bart takes part in the Countryside of broad the under the command of Tourville. The same year, whereas a fleet the thirty-five one with forty English ships makes the blockade of the wearing of Dunkirk, Jean Bart manages to take the broad one, of night, with seven frigates and a scathing attack. As of the following day, it seizes four buildings charged with goods for Russia and two ships with English escort. Putting its catches safe from a wearing of Norway, then in peace with France, Jean Bart takes again the sea to seize a fleet Dutch fishermen and warship which accompanied it. In the tread, it still makes a raid on the coasts of Scotland, where it plunders a castle and sets fire to four villages. In France, each one heard of the exploits of the corsair, also Louis XIV invites it Jean Bart at the court of Versailles in order to honor its maritime victories. In 1694, the Blocus of the Ligue of Augsburg raises the price of the grain, the traders speculate, France is famished. With broad Texel, the Dunkirk one seizes of more than one hundred Dutch ships charged with corn; the news of this capture makes fall the prices and puts an end to all speculations. Thus Jean Bart “… saved France by giving him bread” ( Cantate in Jean Bart ). For this exploit, on April 19th, Jean Bart receives hands of Louis XIV, the cross of knight of the Ordre of Saint-Louis. The June 17th 1696, it still gains a great victory with the Dogger Bank over the Dutch, taking or destroying eighty trading vessels. For his control with the Dogger Bank, Jean Bart is named Chef of squadron of the province of Flanders, April 1st 1697. The April 27th 1702, Jean Bart, however solid strapping man of almost two meters, dies in its bed of the continuations of a pleurisy.
Marriages and descentThe February 3rd 1676, it marries Nicole Goutier, or Gontier (? - 1682 sixteen year old). From this marriage will be born:
- François-Cornil (June 17th 1676 -?), Vice-admiral
- Anne-Nicole (May 15th 1680 -?)
- Jeanne-Nicole (July 21st, 1681 -?)
- child still-born child (June 16th, 1682)
- Jeanne-Marie (July 8th, 1690 -?)
- Magdeleine Francoise (June 6th, 1691 - September 26th, 1691)
- Jean-Louis (May 18th, 1693 - May 18th, 1696)
- Paul (June 26th, 1694 - June 27th, 1694)
- Nicaise-Francoise (May 26th, 1695 - August 10th, 1696)
- Magdeleine-Marie (October 15th, 1697 -?)
- Antoine (October 12th, 1698 - December 2nd, 1698)
- Marie-Francoise (January 18th, 1701 -?)
- Marie (January 14th, 1702 - January 18th, 1702)
A family of sailors and corsairs
- Michel Jacobsen vice-admiral on behalf of Spain - great-grandfather of Jean Bart
- Jan Jacobsen on behalf of Spain, is made jump with his ship, the Saint-Vincent , rather than to go, - great-uncle of Jean Bart
- Gaspard Bart, foam on board the Saint-Vincent it survived the scuttling of the ship, and will die later in the combat, - uncle de Jean Bart.
- Michel Bart, corsair, died in the combat against the Dutchmen - brother of Gaspard and uncle de Jean Bart
- Jean-Cornil Bart, died in the combat, against the English, for the account this time of the Dutchmen, - father of Jean Bart
- Cornil, Gaspard, and Jacques Bart, all three corsairs - brothers of Jean Bart
- François-Cornil named Vice-admiral by Louis XIV - wire of Jean Bart
- Pierre-Jean Bart and his son Benjamin, will find the same day, death with the combat with the service of France - nephews of Jean Bart
A Dunkirk heroIn order to honor the memory with Jean Bart, the town of Dunkirk inaugurated, on September 7th, 1847, a statue with its effigy, works of the sculptor David of Angers. Trônant in the center of the city, Jean Bart remains still alive in the hearts of people. Each year at the time of the carnival, the Dunkirk ones sing with knee in front of its statue the Cantate in Jean Bart
- “… And the city which gave you the life, will set up your statue in furnace bridge…”
Ships having borne the name of Sailor-hatMore than 27 building S, in less than two centuries, bore the name of Jean Bart, in particular:
- a Vaisseau of 74 guns builds with Lorient in 1788
- a vessel of 74 guns builds in Lorient in 1811, disarmed in 1833.
- a vessel transformed on hold builds in 1849, launched in 1852. In 1864, it is school of application. Renamed Donawerth in 1868, he is condemned on January 18th, 1869 and is demolished in Brest in 1870.
- a vessel of 4100 tons, built in Lorient in 1827 baptized Jean Bart in 1868 (ex Donawerth). He is condemned in 1880.
- a Croiseur of first class of 4800 tons builds with Rochefort in 1886. This steel building, was armed in 1892. In 1897, it is reclassified cruiser of second category and affected to the Naval Division of the Far East until 1902. Of return to Lorient, there remains disarmed until 1906. The following year, it is sent to the Antilles. This building is failed in 1907 on the coast of Africa near the course Blanc.
- a armoured of 23500 tons, built in Brest in 1910. First " Dreadnought " French, it leads, in July 1914, the president of the Republic at the time of an official visit in Russia. December 21st, 1914, an enemy submarine torpedoes it in the channel of Otranto. He however manages to rejoin Malta where he is repaired. After the war, it is renamed Océan. It runs on March 15th, 1944 following tests carried out by German. Reinflated after the 2nd world war, it will be demolished in 1947. (23500 tons, 29000 CV, 21 nodes, 12 guns of 30cm, 22 of 14cm).
- a building of line of 35000 tons in construction since 1936 when the 2nd world war bursts. In June 1940, he manages to escape from St-Nazaire and to rejoin Casablanca. In this port it is attacked, in November 1942, by American buildings and planes which damage it and causes its failure. In 1950, it rejoins the Squadron of the Mediterranean. It will take part in the operations of unloading in Egypt. Put in reserve in 1957, he is condemned in 1970. See Jean Bart (building of line)
- a anti-aircraft frigate. Put on hold in Lorient on March 12th, 1986, it is put at flood on March 19th, 1988. Armed for tests on October 21st, 1989, the frigate Jean Bart is allowed with the active service on September 21st, 1991. Building equipped with many prototype materials, the anti-aircraft frigate Jean Bart has a twin, Cassard.
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