See also: Marat
Jean-Paul Marat is a French journalist and politician, deputy with Convention at the time of the Révolution. He was born with Boudry, principality of Neuchâtel Prussian at the time (today Canton of Neuchâtel, in Suisse), the May 24th 1743, died in Paris, the July 13rd 1793, assassinated in his bath by Charlotte Corday.
ChildhoodHis/her father, Juan El Salvador Mara (Jean Marat on the Swiss official documents) initially knew a religious career in his country, the Sardinia - the administrative language was Spanish there - where it is a famous pedagog of the Ordre of Mercy. Whereas he makes an effort, with the assistance of the local population, to establish a college with Bono, in the center of the country, Juan El Salvador Mara is in hillock with tax annoyances which compromise all the company like its future. It ends up leaving Sardinia to take refuge with Geneva.
Admitted like proselyte, convert with the Calvinism, this cultivated man who speaks several languages, has good concepts of medicine and chemistry, and shows also a real artistic talent, meets and marries a French young person huguenote, Louise Cabrol, whose family originating in Castres “did not derogate by making trade”. Last nine children will be born from this stable and happy union: Marianne-Francoise, born in Yverdon in 1742; Jean-Paul, Henry, and Marie born in Boudry, respectively the May 24th 1743, the July 25th 1745 and the September 5th 1746.
Their father earns his living as draftsman in a factory of Indian, without giving up for as much teaching functions. With Peseux, where a time the family settles, are born Pierre in 1753 and Pierre-Antoine-Jean in 1754 (this little boy dies in 1756). Thanks to the intervention of the governor George Keith, Marat will be able to then settle with Neuchâtel. There, Jean Marat postulates by twice being a professor with the college, where Jean-Paul makes his studies. He becomes also right-hand man of the typographical Société. In Neuchâtel are born still David (in 1756), Charlotte-Albertine (in 1760) and Jean-Pierre (in 1767).
David becomes an eminent pedagog and grammairien in Russia, where he teaches in prestigious schools, of which the famous college of Tsarskoïé Sélo, where he has Pouchkine as raises. The Charlotte-Albertine, undoubtedly most known of the sisters of Marat, settles in Paris after the assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday and, in company of the woman of Marat, Simone Évrard, the memory of his/her brother defends there. Like Jean-Pierre, the junior, it has a training specialized in clock industry.
The Marat family carried out a simple life, without sophistication, which attracted to him the sympathy of men of good, who sometimes gave not involved supports to him. For small Marat, competences and knowledge of their parents are an aubaine, which Jean-Paul enjoys to point out: “By a common happiness not very, I had the advantage of receiving a very neat education in the paternal house. ”
Doctor and scientistJean-Paul Marat leaves Neuchâtel and his family in 1759, after his studies with the college. Reasons of good sense can be called upon to explain this décision : need for helping this big family, her desire to continue studies, work appropriateness, but no documentary evidence makes it possible yet to follow it with precision. The historians imagine it with Bordeaux like tutor of the Nairac family, in Paris or Montpellier, studying medicine. Only Alfred Bougeart states extremely by the way that one loses his trace between his 16 and 31 years. And Marat, which does write? “I lived two years in Bordeaux, ten with London, with Dublin and Edinburgh, with $the Hague, Utrecht and Amsterdam, nineteen in Paris. ” What is proven by the publication of many works in its various fields of interest:
- 1771 - 1772: Adventures of the young count Potowski . A novel of heart, which will be known only in 1843
- 1772: Year Essay one the Drunk Human in London, without name of author.
- 1773 : has Philosophical Essay one Man , in two volumes (the first takes again An Essay ), in London, always without indication of author. The work knows one second edition in 1775.
- 1774, Marat makes appear off its famous Chains Slavery , preceded by an address To the Electors off Great Britain . Published in London without name of author, this work appears in French in 1793: Chains of slavery , under its name this time and with a text very appreciably modified following three years of Revolution.
- 1775 : Year Essay one gleets ( Test on the blennorrhée ).
- 1775 - 1776: Of the Man or the Principles and the laws of the Influence of the heart on the body and the body on the heart , signed, published in Amsterdam, at Marc-Michel Rey. Philosophical work.
- 1776 : Natural Year Enquiry into the, Cause and Cure off has singular Disease off the Eyes . Ccet test on the accidental Presbytie is translated into French only in 1891). The same year, Marat remains in his/her parents in Geneva. It has just obtained (1775) its diploma of medicine of the Université of Saint Andrew (Scotland) and decided to settle in Paris.
- 1777 : It occupies the load of doctor of the bodyguards of the Count d' Artois, it also opens in Paris a cabinet of physical experimentation.
- 1779 : Discovered on fire, electricity and the light .
- 1780 : physical Research on fire (translated into German); Discovered on the light (translated into German)
- 1782: physical Research on electricity (translated into German); Plane of criminal legislation . First publication of this work of Marat written before and which is republished with alternatives in 1790.
- 1784 : Memories on medical Electricity (crowned by the royal Academy of Sciences, the Humanities and Arts of Rouen); Concepts elementary of Optics .
- 1785 : Observations of Mr. the amateur, With Mr. the abbot Without, on the need for having a solid & luminous theory, before opening shop of medical electricity ; Letter of the Observer Good-Direction to Mr. of *** on the fatal catastrophe of unfortunate Pilâtre de Rozier and Romain, the aeronauts and ballooning .
- 1786 : Memories on the true causes of the colors which have the blades of glass, the bubbles of soap and other diaphanous matters extremely thin (crowned with Rouen); Memory on the explanation of the rainbow given by Newton .
- 1787 : Optical of Newton. New translation . This excellent translation of Marat is still used nowadays.
- 1788 : academic Memories, or News discovered on the light, relating to the most important points of Optics .
At the beginning of the Revolution
In 1789, Marat is 45 years old. It has behind him a career of doctor and physicist and published about fifteen works. In its central book of political theory, written in England, The Chains off Slavery (1774), the principal thesis is that the to be able emanates from the people as a sovereign, but that through the ages and under all the modes, the executives attempted to turn over this capacity against those which had made him the honor entrust it to him.
For the period of upheavals which opens, where the people seek to return in this role of “sovereign”, Marat will follow events and protagonists step by step, supervising the attempts at recovery permanently, of resumption in hand of this sovereignty.
At the end of December 1788, it writes the Offrande with the Fatherland , where it develops the complex reality of the Tiers state before even the convocation of the General states. Its Supplément with the Offering is a direct reaction to the royal letter of convocation and its payment (January 24th 1789). It already warns against the traps tended to the patriots and the minister Necker, still praised in the first text, is held remotely.
If the historians do not agree on the methods of the participation of Marat in the assemblies of its district at the beginning of 1789, it is however through its implication - he says in his newspaper to have written a great number of letters to the hottest patriots of the Parliament and it is proven that he is a large épistolier - which is worked out, stage by stage its design of the role of a patriotic journalist.
July 25th 1789, the committee of Constitution presents to the Parliament, by the voice of the deputy Mounier, a first project. At this time precise, Marat decides to intervene in the fray, publishing, beginning August, a sheet in-8° 8 pages the patriotic Monitor , very whole devoted to the criticism of this constitution project, critical nourished, inter alia, by its English experiment.
Marat does not await all the Parliament. Its text 'Project to delude the people and to prevent the Constitution is with counter-current of the triumphalism which surrounds so-called “abolition of all the privileges” of famous the Nuit of August 4th. But this text still appears only in September because of the attitude very fuzzy of the authorities as regards press. The advertisement of the General states caused a political surge of writings well that the General Bookstore of France “tolerated”, but without granting official authorization, which left the free field to the arbitrary one.
The Constitution in any case worries Marat. At the end of August, it publishes the Constitution, or declaration plan of the Human rights and the Citizen, follow-up of a plan of Constitution right, wise and free . This text is to be brought closer to sound Plan of criminal legislation . Referring to Rousseau, writing enracine also in its Praise of Montesquieu (1785). By analyzing the three texts the Offering , its Supplement and the Plane of Constitution , in connection with its former writings, one has a good approach of the political position of Marat with the beginning of the Revolution.
At the beginning of the month of September 1789, Marat appears on the political scene with face discovered. The 12, it publishes the first number of the Parisian Publiciste, political, free and impartial newspaper , with forward the currency of Rousseau: Vitam impendere vero ( to devote its life to the true ). And this time, Marat obtained a “license to make circulate” committee of police force. The September 16th, 1789, the newspaper changes title to become the Friend of the people, political, free and impartial newspaper, published by a company of patriots . It is especially under this term of Friend of the people that Marat will pass to the posterity.
the Friend of the people is a daily newspaper, a true challenge. It comprises normally 8 pages in-8°, sometimes 10 or 12, some times 16. Of September 1789 to September 1792, Marat will thus make appear 685 numbers (publication continuous during these three years but not being subjected to interruptions). Who are the partners of such a company? Advisers gather documentation and sort the mails which arrive soon from whole France, they transmit them to Marat, only writer. The manuscript passes between the hands of the printer which provides the specimens printed to an editor who diffuses them in Paris in a series of bookstores whose names appear at the end of the newspaper. The diffusion in province is done mainly by subscription and to Paris, the hawkers and “the small post office” enter also concerned. It is known that the price of the subscription is of 12 pounds for 3 months, port included/understood.
As of the first numbers, the transitions are fast. Marat is addressed initially to the Parliament. With number 6, it modifies the title. With number 8 appears the first Discours to the people . This time, it is the interlocutor who changes. As of on September 24th, Marat attacks one of the new executive powers: the municipality of Paris, which he shows of ruinous and ineffective management. These contentions cause its first decree of catch of body. But October 5th and 6th 1789, the women of Paris undertake their walk on Versailles to bring back the king in the middle of his people. Popular effervescence is with its roof. And it is only on October 8th that ushers, dispatched by Châtelet, present themselves to the residence of Marat to stop it. Marat passes then in a quasi-clandestinity and must cease the publication of its newspaper. All this period is marked by ambivalence, according to the social power struggle: sometimes the vice is tightened, sometimes reign a certain laxism. the Friend of the people reappears on November 5th. Marat, always in clandestinity, removes title “the company of patriots” and the “free one” and recomposes a series of numbers of which it is dissatisfied.
It also realized that nothing is done to stop the food shortage which overpowers Paris, whereas the harvest of the summer was very generous. It thus writes a first Dénonciation against Necker , in which it implies the minister in the monopolization of the grains. This text does not find an editor. The December 12th, Marat is led to the committee of research and is questioned within the framework of its conflict with the Municipality. The social situation being calmer and after an interview with Fayette, Marat recovers freedom. If the continuations in its opposition always follow the curve of the social movements, it is also necessary to take account of the distortions which can exist between the various capacities. Marat will be aimed by Fayette only in January, at the moment when it is caught some with all the executive, when it finally makes appear its made Dénonciation with the court of the public by M.Marat, the Friend of the people, against M.Necker, Prime Minister for Finances .
As of this moment, it is also advisable to follow the movements which oppose the districts, and in particular that of Cordeliers - it is not a question of the Club - to the Municipality. The meeting between Marat and this district is concretized at the time of the contentions of October. And after December 12th, 1789, it is in this district, just beside the body of guard, with 39, rue de l'Ancienne Comédie, that Marat installs its residence and printing works. As an assembly legally made up, the district intends to exert popular sovereignty on the extent of its territory.
Thus, in January 1790, when the continuations begin again against Marat, the district puts the Friend of the people under his protection. In this respect, the January 22nd revêt an importance in the course of the events, not only for the immediate fate of Marat, but also because on the political scene a personality of scale appears, the lawyer Georges Danton, who takes makes and causes for the Friend of the people. The deployment of troops will be impressive, but Marat will remain untraceable. Once again, after having made parade of all this repressive arsenal, the Commune of Paris will not continue and there will be no lawsuit. No reaction either on behalf of the Necker minister following the Denunciation . Measurements of intimidation and refusals alternate.
But Marat does not have any more presses and all its papers were seized, that at the time when the Parliament votes the martial law and, meeting after meeting, speaks to impose to the “brigands” greatest terror, Prêt to take refuge in England, Marat still writes a Appel with the Nation , where it takes stock of the events and concludes that a “public censure”, a “court of State” and, in the extreme cases a “dictator temporary” (with the ancient direction of the term) must be taken into account in policy, this “still embryonic science”.
The absence of Marat of mid-February at the beginning May 1790 does not imply disappearance on the market of newspapers entitled “the Friend of the people “. On the contrary, more than 140 numbers appear, works of forgers who are presented initially in the form of “continuators “then, competition intensifying, are made pass without shame for Marat. The Parliament, it, puts at the day order important financial questions: the red book of the pensions, the sale of the goods of the clergy, assignats…
From London, Marat publishes a Nouvelle Denunciation against Mr. Necker (April 1790). It tackles there the strategy of monopolization of the cash and all the financial policy which leads the nation at the edge of the pit. Then, alerted by a serious threat of war, it returns precipitately to Paris. He writes at once mail on mail: Letter addressed to several members of the National Assembly , Letter with Mr. President of the National Assembly . This question of the war will remain during all the Revolution a fundamental line of demarcation of the Friend of the people which will always see there worst scenarios for the population. Marat is also on the point of taking again its newspaper, but he is dismayed by carried out falsifiers who completely canted his ideas. Finally, to reconquer its identity, it takes again to the Friend of the people and launches a second newspaper, French Junius .
Before its departure in London, Marat had emphasized the importance of the police force. Not better rampart for freedom that these national militia, born of July 14th, welded, trained, fraternal. However, it notes that all is implemented to divide them. The situation is thus very serious and from May in July 1790, with all the patriotic press which tightens the elbows, Marat is very present on the Parisian scene, with Camille Desmoulins and its Révolutions of France and the Brabant , with Stanislas Fréron which has just launched the Speaker of the people . June 24th, Marat publishes its famous Supplique with the conscript fathers, or very serious complaints of those which do not have anything with those which have all and on June 28th, the hawkers shout the principal title of the Friend of the people : Denunciation of Mr. of Fayette! . Marat still publishes its Plan criminal legislation , always hoping to inflect the walk of the Parliament. But, as of the end of the month of June 1790, it is not centered any more on the continuations to give to the Revolution of 1789, but already on a new dash necessary against the new mode. And it is again in clandestinity that it publishes in August - September its extraordinary Feuilles : It is done by it us! there , One deadens us, take guard , It is a beautiful dream, parks with the alarm clock! , the dreadful alarm clock .
Also, when “the unhappy business of Nancy bursts” (the national guard of Metz, under the direction of the marquis of Bouillé, brother-in-law of Fayette drew on the regiments from Nancy), Marat, the only one to have envisaged such a drama, passes for Cassandre of the Revolution. It still describes these events in two texts: faithful Relation of the unhappy businesses of Nancy and authentic Relation from what occurred to Nancy . The funeral service for the victims of Nancy day for day the death of one of the very large journalists of the first years of Revolution answers, the young person Elisee Loustalot, talented writer of the Révolutions of Paris .
After this takeover by force of the new mode, the topic of the reorganization of the police force stresses the decline of the Revolution, while the Parliament is more and more with the drag of the executive power, of which characters - keys: Mirabeau and Fayette has as a central objective to restore the full powerss in the hands of the king. Always in clandestinity, Marat then carries out a fight baited against the mode of the “informers” set up by the general in order to gangrener the national guard and the army. The newspaper the Friend of the people is the permanent monitoring object and its publication is stopped on several occasions.
But here is that the popular movement is restructured, around the clubs of sections. In the patriotic camp, new personalities appear: the lawyers Buirette de Verrières and Parein, of which the action highlights the deficiency of the judicial power, submitted to the Executive, Santerre and Sergent, organizers of the clubs. In January 1791, Marat has new contentions with justice, but in February, it receives the support of the Club of Cordeliers and can take again its publications. All the parts change again on the chess-board. April 18th 1791, the people, anxious of the movements of the royal family, prevents the King from gaining Saint-Cloud. Fayette tries to intervene, but the national guard refuses to obey to him. Fayette makes mine resign. In May and June 1791, the Friend of the people does not release the general of a sole and continuously warns the citizens against a departure of the king. This escape intervenes finally on June 21st, 1791. But the 22, the royal family, however disguised, are intercepted in Varennes and are brought back to Paris, under the popular hootings.
Failures in starts, the events are forwarded to a new drama: the massacre of the petitioners who met on the furnace bridge of the Fatherland, at Field-of-March, on July 17th, 1791, to protest against a decree which the Parliament is on the point of voting “to excuse” the king. The incurie of the Parliament, royal treason, the violences made to the citizens, generalized irresponsibility put France at the edge of anarchy. After the massacre of July 17th, the distress is total in the patriotic camp. Marat itself is at the edge of despair. Only the certainty that such a situation must burst is due it to its station.
It introduces in the Friend of the people a very thorough criticism of the Constitution of 1791, “this go completely missed Revolution”. In the form of twelve letters with Camille Desmoulins, it draws also a picture of the methods of those which it sees like the new men of being able (Brissot, Condorcet) and of which it denounces in its booklet the modern Charlatans the ambitions and especially the adhesion with the project of external war. The approval of the new Constitution by the King then the proposal made with the Parliament by the Foreign Minister of concrete measures for this inescapable war from now on involve a suspension of the publication of the newspaper and the silence of Marat of December 1791 in April 1792.
It however makes this period profitable by undertaking two works which draw up an assessment of the Revolution: Chains of Slavery (version more extended and written in French) and the School of the Citizen , from which the manuscript disappeared. The publication of these two volumes is announced as of the month of March 1792. It is also a very significant period in the personal life of Marat which met Simone Évrard, his/her partner until the end of her life.
In April 1792, supported by his wife, encouraged by the Club of Cordeliers, Marat takes again its publications, its daily newspaper continuous to follow the events but it also more and more often delivers texts to the paces of lampoons and the significant titles: the Revolution all in pantalonnade , the fatherland lends to perish and populates it singing victory , the plan of the Revolution absolutely missed by the people , the last resource of the citizens , invincible Obstacles who oppose among us the establishment of freedom , the French, of all the people of the world, the least realized for freedom . The publication is discontinuous, because of new decrees of arrest. But Marat compensates for it by other forms of publications.
A few weeks before August 10th, 1792, he addresses mails given full details to federate, to the patriotic French… As of on August 14th, the diffusion of the Friend of the people begins again. From August 26th to September 20th also texts appear which deserve all the attention and are often badly indexed: 8 wall cupboards folios affixed in the capital and that Marat intends “to the Parisiens brave men”, “with its fellow-citizens”, “with the friends of the fatherland”, “Louis-Philippe-Joseph of Orleans”, “the good French”, “its fellow-citizens voters”, “with the friends of the fatherland”, “Maître Jerome Pétion, mayor of Paris”. September 2nd, 1792, Marat is named assistant of the inspection committee of the Commune of Paris, created on August 12th. People of Paris east in very great boiling. The persons in charge of slaughters of August 10th remained unpunished and one recruits the men to leave at the borders, leaving their families without defense. An uncontrolled movement then carries masses of citizens in the prisons, where they make justice themselves. The legislative Parliament, the Minister of Interior Department and the mayor of Paris do not intervene. Afterwards, it was a little simplistic to put on the back of the Friend of the people, the responsibility for events which it itself described as “crimes”, even if it could see that it was about a general insurrection all the more difficult to repress the national guard refused to obey. But this period remains, today still, one of the least explored Revolution.
Appointed MaratIn second about fifteen September 1792 the transition between the legislative Parliament and Convention starts. The elections take place on two levels, according to the regulations of the Constitution of 1791.
September 9th, 1792, Marat is elected appointed of Paris to Convention, the seventh on twenty-four, by 420 votes out of 758 voters. The register of inscription carries that it remains street of Cordeliers then and that its election is recorded on September 20th.
September 21st appears to the last number of the Friend of the people and on September 25th, the first number of the Journal of the French Republic, by Marat, the Friend of the people, deputy to national Convention .
The journalist is not any more in the foreground, it became the feather of the deputy. With Convention, Marat intervenes with energy, generally with counter-current, in a climate of keen fights. To the continuity of the newspaper from now on that of the Speeches is added, whose its memorable intervention of September 25th remains a model. Though member of the legislature, Marat remains permanently threatened of proscription. He will be constrained to keep away prudently from the Parliament in October - November 1792, and the proposals for decrees for its arrest still follow one another of December 1792 in April 1793.
Its role in the lawsuit of the king central and is often badly interpreted. In the argumentations of his/her colleagues, partisans they as of the maximum sentence, Marat often sees an attempt to rather mask their own compromisings with the executive power as a serious analysis. Marat is then the author of the proposal for a vote personal and motivated each member of Convention to the platform. It thus appears follower not judgment of monarchy, but of the detailed judgment of a monarch for crimes against the Nation. In a first Speech on the judgment of the king , he insists on the central concept of responsibility for the executive power, without which this one in remainder with the despotism. In the second Speech , it delivers a basic reflection on the exercise of sovereignty, the role of the people and the various capacities.
The shortly after died of the king, Marat takes the offensive against the faction known as of the “Statesmen” and against those which are the voluntary or unconscious agents: “The Mad ones” or “patriotic Turkeys”. This fight, it carries out it with weighting, inviting the deputies mislaid to vote, with the Mountain, the great state security measures and to be opposed to those which want to prevent the good performance of Convention. It is at the time when he plays a part of point to the Mountain and where he has just been elected president of the Société of the Jacobins that Marat is put in charge. With Louis XVI, he will be the only man of the Revolution to be the subject of a justified nominal vote. Discharged, it is renewed in triumph with Convention.
One month later, it supports the rehabilitation of Convention by the ousting of the “Statesmen”. June 3rd, it voluntarily suspends its activity with Convention then must take a retirement forced because of a new access of an inflammatory disease undoubtedly hereditary - on the death certificate of his/her father the same disease is reproduced - of which it already had several attacks. the Publicity agent of the French Republic is not stopped besides by it for all that. He will be it only by the assassination of Marat, on July 13rd, by Charlotte Corday. The last number of the newspaper thus dates of July 14th, 1793.
The assassination of MaratSince June 3rd, 1793 Marat is not presented any more to convention. The evolution of its disease prevents it from appearing in public. According to Doctor Souberbielle, the origin of the evil was herpetic, Doctor Cabanès has advanced the probability of a serious form of eczema or consequences of a diabetes. From the June 20th its state worsens and obliges it continuously to take bath to relieve it.
Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d' Armont resulting from the nobility of Caen and downward in right-hand side line of Pierre Corneille takes note of the revolutionary events by meeting several Girondins deputies who took refuge in Caen after their committal for trial by Convention.
July 11th it arrives at Paris in the intention to assassinate Marat in the assembly, but must re-examine her plans while having learned its absence with Convention. The Marat July 12th receives the visit of deputies Jacobins, of which the painter Jacques Louis David, which is the last to see it alive. July 13rd Charlotte Corday arises first once to the residence of the powerful orator at the end of the morning but Simone Évrard his/her partner refuses to let it enter, it tries second once to come into contact without success, but it makes communicate by the chambermaid, a letter that it with written giving information on an alleged plot. She arrives at the end of the third attempt, to be made receive by Marat.
After a maintenance which according to Simone Évrard lasts approximately fifteen minutes, Charlotte Corday leaves a knife and strikes Marat with the chest, the way of the blade which cross the right lung, the aorta and the heart, results in her death.
Charlotte Corday is stopped on the spot of the murder, after her judgment by the revolutionary tribunal, it is carried out on July 17th, 1793.
After the assassinationIt is Jacques-Louis David which is charged to orchestrate the funeral of Marat. Large organizer of the festivals, it envisages for on Tuesday, July 16, 1793 an impressive procession which leaves around 6 p.m. The convoy leaves the street of Cordeliers, passes by the street of Thionville, the Pont-Neuf, the quay of Scrap and goes up to the French Theater, to go to Cordeliers, where the burial takes place. Immense people will ravel all the night, with the gleam of the torches. The Club of Cordeliers required to deposit in the place of its meetings the “heart” of Marat. In the weeks which follow, of the hundreds of homages will be made with the Friend of the people through France and of the statues of the “martyrs” (Marat and Lepelletier are frequently plain) are inaugurated a little everywhere.
Convention required of David to represent the death of Marat. The painter gives officially the original of his table to Convention on November 14th, 1793. Convention promulgates a decree then, in virtue of which the table will be hung in the room of the meetings, by hanging that of Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau. After the assassination, in Paris, Albertine Marat, the younger sister by Jean-Paul, and Simonne Evrard, his wife, settle together, to take care on the memory of the Friend of the People.
Marat is pantheonized on September 21st 1794, but as of February 1795, a new decree stipulates that the image of any citizen will not appear any more in the Parliament or in an unspecified public place that ten years after its death. The table is returned to David who will preserve it until his death, in Brussels. Its family will then bequeath it to the royal Museums of the Art schools of Belgium.
Into 1795, the course of the history changed, the political power struggles also. The Friend of the People turns over in the black legend. February 8th, its coffin is withdrawn from the Pantheon, the busts the representative are broken. Its tomb is now in the cemetery of the church Saint-Etienne-of-Mount beside the Pantheon.
Following its assassination, several towns of France, as Saint-Nazaire baptized Marat. One finds, today still, some traces of these denominations, a college bears his name. In 1921, the Soviet mode baptized a battleship of the name of Marat, the Marat first name is used in Russia (for example, Marat Safin), and one locates of Marat (proper name) in France, in Sardinia (country of origin), in Italy, in Spain.
|Random links:||Appleton (Minnesota) | Chiloscyllium | Concrete jungle | Twilight of glory | Comté_de_Craig,_l'Oklahoma|