Benjamin of a phratry of 6 boys, James Dewar loses his parents at the 15 years age. He makes his studies with the Université of Edinburgh which he leaves graduate. He works there then as assistant of Lyon Playfairs, before leaving for Ghent to work under the direction of Friedrich Kekulé von Stradonitz. He is named professor with the Université of Cambridge in 1875, then member of the Royal Institution in 1877. Its work relates to in particular the products of Oxydation of the Nicotine, the transformation of Quinoline into Aniline, constant physics of the Hydrogène as well as the physiological effects of the Lumière. He also proposes a chemical structure (distorts) for the Benzène. In 1891, it develops a process production of Oxygène Liquide on an industrial scale. In 1893, it develops an insulating container, the Vase of Dewar or more simply dewar , in order to study gases at low temperatures. In collaboration with Henri Moissan, he manages in 1897 to liquefy the Fluor in of the 1898 Hydrogène. In 1898, it uses in particular this container to transport Hydrogène liquid. In 1905, it observes that the Fusain cooled makes it possible to produce Vide, very useful technique then for the experiments in the field of atomic physics. Dewar is regarded as the inventor of the insulating Flacon (Thermos bottle).
James Dewar was prize winner many distinctions among which
- the Médaille Rumford in 1894 for its work on the properties of the matter at the low temperatures
- the Davy Médaille in 1909 for its work on the low temperatures
- the Médaille Copley in 1916 for its work concerning the liquefaction of the gases
- the Franklin Médaille in 1919.
June 7th 1877 -->
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