Leonard James Callaghan (““ the very honourable ””) is a British politician born the March 27th 1912 with Portsmouth (Hampshire) and dead the March 26th 2005 close to Lewes in the county of East Sussex.
An autodidactResulting from the working class and deprived of any university degree, James Callaghan begins his career in the public office and is civil servant with the taxes at 1929 to 1937, before resigning about it in to become trade union official until 1947 full-time. During the Second world war, he is volunteer in the Royal Navy. He takes the sea with the fleet of the Eastern Indies stationed in Ceylon.
First weapons under Clement Attlee
Entered in 1935, with the workers party, he is elected appointed of Cardiff in 1945. “He is an English with an Irish name which seeks to occupy a Welsh seat”, ironically points out him one. In 1947, he is parliamentary secretary with the Ministry for Transport at the time of the nationalization of the railroads. It is him which creates the pedestrian Passage streaked. In 1950, it occupies the function of parliamentary secretary and fiancier with the Ministry of Finances until the fall of the government of Clement Attlee in 1951.
Opposing during 13 years then minister
He occupies thereafter various stations in the “shadow governments” of the Labor opposition (transport, energy and colonies and finally finances), before becoming Secretary of State in the cabinets of the Prime Minister Harold Wilson. He will be in particular Chancellor of the Exchequer of 1964 with 1967, Secretary of State inside 1967 with 1970 and is secretary of foreign affairs of 1974 with 1976. He introduces the tax on the companies and on the capital gains and he must devaluate the pound sterling in 1967 whereas he belongs to the first Wilson government. He negotiates the maintenance of the United Kingdom in the European Community and is confronted with the Irish crisis and the problem of immigration and the inter-racial relations in the second Wilson ministry.
Short passage to the 10, Downing Street
In April 1976, after the surprised resignation of Harold Wilson, it succeeds to him as chief of the workers party and Prime Minister. It is maintained with the capacity thanks to an alliance with the liberals (Lib-Lab). It incarnates the moderate wing of this social democrat party, eternally in hillock with trade unions until - boutists. The economic crisis and monetary mark its passage to the head of the government. Its project of internal autonomy for Scotland fails in March 1979.
In 1979, it will not resist the “preserving revolution” and will be inclined initially during a vote of confidence to the Communes then at the time of the elections of May 3rd, 1979 in front of the “Iron Lady”, Margaret Thatcher. The wave of social movements which agitate the United Kingdom during the winter 1978 - 1979 him is fatal.
After its defeat at the polls, it becomes again leader of the Opposition for a short period until the election of Micheal Foot, chief of the left wing, with the head of the Ploughing. It remains appointed until 1987. It takes off the title of Lord Callaghan Cardiff when it enters to the Upper House.
Three times in a ministry-key
Single case in the United Kingdom, it occupies the four most important stations of a British government: Prime Minister, chancellor of the Exchequer (Minister for Finance), secretary in Foreign Office (Foreign Minister) and secretary with the Home Office (Minister of Interior Department).
It died out in its residence of the south of L `England the day before sound 93e birthday and eleven days only after the death of his wife Audrey with whom it had been married for 67 years.
James Callaghan was knight about the Jumper.
- Biography on the site of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Simple: James Callaghan
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