The father of Jacques, Amédée Hadamard, was professor of history, grammar and traditional literature to the Imperial Lycée in Versailles, then with the Lycée Charlemagne with Paris. The sister of Jacques died in 1870 before the head office of Paris. The episode of the Guerre of 1870 was disastrous.
Jacques studied with the Lycée Charlemagne, and paradoxically excelled except in mathematics. In 1875, Amédée became professor with the Louis-the-Large Lycée where Jacques continued his studies. It was accepted first with the open Competition in algebra and mechanics in 1883.
The following year, it returned first to the National university. It is Emile Picard which directed its research tasks there.
It obtained its doctorate in 1892, for research on the functions defined by Taylor series. The same year, it Maria with Louise-Anna Trénel. He taught with the Université of Bordeaux as an university lecturer of 1893 to 1897. He went back then to Paris as an university lecturer (Oct. 1897), then assistant professor (Feb. 1900) with the Faculty of Science of the university of Paris. In November 1897 he becomes also substitute for Maurice Levy with the pulpit of analytical mechanics and celestial mechanics of the Collège de France.
Following the Business Dreyfus (the woman of Dreyfus was the girl of David Hadamard, a cousin of the father of Jacques), it politically engaged in the Jewish recognition starting from 1897.
In 1906, he becomes president of the mathematical Société of France. In 1909, it obtains the pulpit of analytical mechanics and celestial mechanics to the Collège de France. Three years later, it succeeded Henri Poincaré with the Academy of Science and Camille Jordan with the Polytechnic school. In 1920, he becomes also professor with the central Ecole of Paris
In 1962, the death of its grandson in a climbing accident weakens it considerably.
Its most famous result is the proof obtained in 1896 (obtained independently the same year by Charles-Jean de la Vallee poussin) of the Théorème of the prime numbers. It also established the concept of Problème posed well in the field of the differential equations.
It left its name to the matrices of Hadamard used in the Transformée of Hadamard whose field of application is vast: quantum algorithms, treatment of the signal, data compression, etc the Pseudo-transformation of Hadamard is also used in Cryptographie.
Famous for its distraction, it would have been used as principal model for the character of the Savant Cosine.
Works and references
- Hadamard, Jacques, " Test on the psychology of the invention in the mathematical field ". Reprinting in 1993. ISBN 2876470179. Also: Hadamard, Jacques, " Psychology off Invention in the Mathematical Field ". Dover Pubns; November 1990. ISBN 0486201074.
- Vladimir Maz' ya and Tatyana Shaposhnikova, Jacques Hadamard, a universal mathematician , editions EDP Sciences, 2005.
- Life and Work off Jacques Hadamard , Vladimir Maz' ya & T.O. Shaposhnikova, American Mathematical Society, February 1998, rigid cover, 574 pages, ISBN 0821808419
- mathematical Genealogy of Jacques Hadamard (incomplete).
June 2nd 1932 -->
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