Origins and studiesIn 1943 on November 1st it is born with his/her brother Jumeau Bernard Attali with Algiers in Algérie parents Séfarade S. Simon Attali (his father) is a Autodidacte Francophile which succeeds in the Commerce of Parfumerie Bijouterie (sign “Bib and Bab”) with Algiers. In 1956 two years after the beginning of the War of Algeria (1954 to 1962), his/her father decides to come to settle street of the Pump in the 16th district of Paris with its family (Jacques is 14 years old). The two twin brothers Jacques and Bernard follow brilliant studies to the Lycée Janson-with-Sailly, in Paris XVI, where they have as friends Jean-Louis Bianco and Laurent Fabius. In 1966, it leaves major promotion of Polytechnique (X63). Doctor d' État in Economic scenes, Engineer of the School of the mines of Paris, graduate of the Institute of political studies of Paris and of the National school of administration of which it leaves third his promotion in 1970 (promotion Robespierre with Philippe Séguin and Louis Schweitzer…). In 1968, it carries out a énarque training course of in the Nievre, under the cane of the future prefect of police of Paris Pierre Verbrugghe. It meets on this occasion for the third time François Mitterrand.
Political careerIn 1970, old 27 years, it enters to the Council of State. In 1972, it publishes its first two books in: economic Analysis of the political life and Model policies for which it obtains a price of the Academy of Science. Professor of economy to the University Paris-Dauphine, the Polytechnic school and the School of the Highways Departments, it brings together around him some young researchers: Yves Stourdzé (inventive of the European program of research Eureka) or Érik Orsenna (Price Goncourt in 1988 and special adviser of Roland Dumas to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs). It develops a network of personalities in very diverse fields (Journalisme, Mathématiques, Show business, financial Analyze…). In 1979, it takes part in the foundation of the international ONG International action against the hunger, now known under the name of Action against the hunger (ACF). Its close cooperation with François Mitterrand begins in December 1973. In 1981, François Mitterrand, who has just been elected President of the Republic, appoints it “special adviser” at the time of his arrival to the Elys3ee palace, after only three interviews and installs it in the old office of the aide-de-camps which are next to the presidential office. Consequently, Jacques Attali writes, each evening, of the notes for submission to the president on the economy, the Culture, the Politique or the last book which it read or traversed. The president also entrusts to him the role of sherpa (staff representative of a Head of State) for the tops of the G7. Jacques Attali for a long time has a solid network of relations, among which Raymond Barre, Jacques Delors, Philippe Séguin, Jean-Luc Lagardere, Antoine Riboud, Michel Serres, Coluche. He advises with the president to make come to the Elysium Jean-Louis Bianco, Alain Boublil and some énarques young people promising, as the couple François Holland/Ségolène Royal. In 1982, it pleads for the “economic austerity”. It organizes the top of the G7 of Paris in 1982. In 1984, it sets up the European program Eureka of “development of new technologies”. It organizes the bicentenary of the French revolution of the July 14th 1789. In 1989, it founds an international programme of action against the catastrophic floods with the Bangladesh.
In 1990 at the time of the second septennate of François Mitterrand, Jacques Attali gives up the policy and leaves the Elysium. It creates the European Banque for the rebuilding and the development (BERD) with London and becomes the first president about it. It had launched the idea of this institution in 1989, little before the fall of the Berlin Wall, to support the rebuilding of the country of Eastern Europe. Jacques Attali thus founded the first institution dealing with Eastern Europe. Under the impulse of its president, the BERD initially launched investments intended for the protection of the Nuclear plants, the environmental protection and, more generally, the development of the infrastructures and Privatization.
In 1991, Jacques Attali invites Mikhail Gorbatchev with the head office of the BERD in London, against the opinion of British the Prime Minister John Major. He thus obliges the Heads of States of a G7 being held in the city at the same time, to receive the Head of Soviet State . The shortly after a surging phone interview between Jacques Attali and John Major, the British press multiplies criticisms against the president of the BERD, in particular diffusing suspicions on the management of the institution - suspicions which will be then relayed by certain journalists of the French press. Jacques Attali explains his position in the chapter “verbatim and the BERD” of the book It was François Mitterrand : " work in question had been completed under the responsibility of an international work group of which I did not make partie" . In fact, with his departure, volunteer, BERD, Jacques Attali received for his management the Quitus of the council of the governors.
In 1993, Jacques Attali gains a lawsuit in Diffamation whereas one shows it to have reproduced in his book “Verbatim”, without the authorization of François Mitterrand, the secret files and some sentences of the Head of French State intended for another book. The newspaper Herald Tribune even published, on four columns with the one, an article affirming wrongly that president Mitterrand had asked for the withdrawal of the book of the bookstores. François Mitterrand confirmed during a long interview to have asked Jacques Attali to write this book and admitted having read again it itself the feather with the hand.
In 1994, Jacques Attali creates Attali & Associés (A&A), international consultancy specialized in the strategic council, the financial Ingénierie and the fusion-acquisitions.
Then in 2001, the ramifications of the Angolagate reached Jacques Attali, who was put in examination for “Recel of Abuse of corporate asset and Trading of favors”. It should only with the payment of a guarantee of a million francs have escaped the imprisonment.
Bound to Angolagate and its Russian connections, an investigation for secret funding of the municipality of Saint-Petersbourg will also be worth in Jacques Attali of the vexations with Russian justice. According to the investigations carried out in 2003 and 2004, Jacques Attali would have perceived fees being equivalent to two million American dollars for services of consultant which were never concretized - it was then a question of giving again at the Russian city “an international prestige” whereas it was going to celebrate its bicentenary: the idea presented was to create a “Eurasian BERD” and a “League of peace” gathering certain port cities of the the Baltic. Finally, the money would have been left the public cases during the mandate of the mayor Saint-Petersbourg, Mr. Yakovlev, formerly near to Vladimir Poutine, to arrive in five consultants, of which Jacques Attali via his company ACA; but no concrete result was obtained by the city in exchange. Jacques Attali denied all the charges carried in his opposition in the business to Saint-Petersbourg who goes back to 1997 and to which it had been introduced by a former collaborator of the BERD from now on near to the one of the Russian consultants.
See also: Commission Attali
July 24th 2007, Jacques Attali is charged by Nicolas Sarkozy with chairing a charged commission to study “the brakes with the growth” after the renouncement of Philippe Seguin. It thus ties the wire policy and economic of its professional path. In a report/ratio made public the October 15th 2007, the commission which it chairs recommends, inter alia measurements, of:
to return on the Precaution principle, however recently integrated into the French Constitution, which the Secretary of State to ecology Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet qualifies “ vision reactionary, the idea to oppose the environment to the growth ”. The commission considers that if the precaution principle must remain in the right, it must be withdrawn of the constitution in order not to slow down the innovation. “ what we wish especially, it is to remove this principle of the Constitution: such as article 5 is written it leaves far too much place to legal uncertainties, because it depends on the interpretation of the judges ”, explains one of the members who is not opposed, on the other hand, “ so that the precaution principle is registered in the right, provided that it well is framed and established for some precise cases ”. Two Members of the Commission add: “ to grow, our economy cannot be satisfied any more to copy the American model, as during the Glorious Thirty, it must innovate (...) in the innovation there is inevitably a share of uncertainty, a risk to be assumed. (...) with the precaution principle we would not have had a Antibiotique S - too risky to create - not Internet - by fear of the images paedophiles - without speaking about the cars… ”
lifting of the prohibition of sales at a loss (and thus of the duration of the balances) and the liberalization of the establishment of commercial large surfaces, by abrogeant the laws them regulating, measurement allowing cause a drop in the prices from 2 to 4% and to create thousands of employment, in particular in the Hotel trade and the restoration.
the development of controls “Antitrust” and of the “actions of groups or Class actions”.
creation before 2012 of ten Ecopolis, towns of at least 50.000 inhabitants integrating environmental high-quality and new technologies of communication, integrating a social diversity.
the Right of pre-emption of the State against the communes not respecting article 55 to the law SRU and by transferring to the inter-commune groupings the policy from Town planning to mitigate the crisis of the Housing.
the limitation of the guarantees for the tenants 1 month from rent and to give the national priority to measurements allowing to facilitate the accession with housing and the property, such as for example the creation of a Stock Exchange Internet of supply and demand in the social housing.
The final report of the Attali Commission will be returned to the end of the year 2007.
Jacques Attali wrote many works of which Verbatim (3 volumes, 1986,1997 & 1998), the human Way: For a new social democracy (2004), a short history of the future (2006).
Summary of the human WayJacques Attali exposes a project of evolutions of Civil society aiming at giving to the greatest number a better control of the Temps. This project, which could be that of a news Social-démocratie, would allow " to preserve best Gone and Democracy while protecting from their drifts " .
The imbalance of the forces between Gone and Democracy, in favor of the market, would lead to an increasing precariousness of the things, ideas and people. This project proposes like means of action to fight against generalized precariousness:
exemption from payment of the essential goods: (Food, Housing, Knowledge, Health): " Is needed that things and service S escapes the Marché S, cease being exchanged against Monnaie, one needs that work is not sold any more, but becomes Libre and volunteer, creator at the same time of Richesse and Plaisir for that which achieves it as for that which profits " from it; .
- the responsibility: " To reinforce the Democracy vis-a-vis the Gone and to invite the Citizen S to exert their Right S, it would be necessary to be able to call into question the principle of the delegation of of being able, the representation, and to go towards a Direct democracy, permanent, to measure, in all places, in all the public or deprived organizations where group decisions must be caught; by associating with it all those which are concerned there, either because they live there, or because they work there, or because they are the users, are because they in a way or of another will be affected by their becoming. " * Knowledge: " Each one must have the means of the Apprentissage, curiosity, the To know in oneself "
CriticismsThe book Verbatim was very highly criticized by the historians Tilo Schabert and Frederic Bozo, by the politist Pierre Hassner, by the journalists Pierre Favier and Michel Martin-Roland, thus by that Francoise Carle, former collaborator of François Mitterrand, and Pierre Joxe, former minister. They reproach Mr. Attali the reproduction of matter apocryphal books, the use of “unverifiable” documents, a lack of serious, and even the use of notes taken by others.
Elie Wiesel and its editor Odile Jacob showed Mr. Attali used notes taken for the book of talks between Misters Wiesel and Mitterrand ( Mémoire with two votes ); on their side, Jack Lang, Robert Badinter, Pierre Mauroy and Laurent Fabius affirmed, as of the exit of the first volume, that Jacques Attali had deformed their remarks. François Mitterrand itself declared that its former adviser has “the easy quotation mark” and that “it perhaps became more concerned of the number of his readers than of historical truth”.
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